|News of the companies|
|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The article is devoted to comparative description of geology for North America oil-and-gas-bearing basins – Appalachians and Rocky Mountains (within the USA) according to American geologists D. Hall, M. Kay, F.B. King and Russian scientists I.V. Vysotskiy, M.S. Burshtar, M.S. Lvov. In these regions (and in other oil-and-gas-bearing areas of the globe) industrial oil content belongs to submontane troughs and has been identified in intermountain depressions within folded areas. The main characteristic features of Bashkir Southern Urals intermountain depressions geology has been considered according to M.A. Kamaletdinov and V.N. Puchkov. It has been shown that Bashneftegeofizika JSC and Bashneft Company had carried out in the territory of Southern Urals gravity exploration, seismic survey and deep wells drilling in order to study gas prospects of this region. Obtained geological and geophysical data point to tectonic similarity of North American oil-and-gas-bearing basins and Bashkir Southern Urals intermountain depressions. But there are data showing lack of the latter oil and gas bearing, including undetermined development of covers in regional or semi-regional extent; far less share of pore type reservoirs than that of shale reservoirs of depression type having low filtration properties; discovered local bodies of anticlinal type are separated by disjunctives series which are unfavorable for appearance and conservation of traps, and this explains their hydrogeological opening. Moreover, geochemical research has showed that the main phase of oil formation occurred before basic folding phase, and this calls into question maintenance of potential hydrocarbon accumulations. Latest seismic surveys on a section of Zilair synclinorium, where one of wells had identified non-industrial hydrocarbon gas inflow, have detailed earlier identified local bodies. Nazar gravity anomaly, now being interpreted as a favorable object for industrial gas accumulation at a depth of 6.0-7.0 km, has been confirmed by structural construction. The need of further phased (territorially) geological survey for intermountain depressions of Southern Urals Bashkir part for obtaining reliable data on their oil and gas prospects has been demonstrated.
1. Kamaletdinov M.A., Kazantsev Yu.V., Kazantseva T.T. et al., Geologiya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti Urala (Geology and oil and gas potential of the Urals), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988, 240 p.
2. Burshtar M.S., L'vov M.S., Geografiya i geologiya nefti i gaza SSSR i zarubezhnykh stran (Geography and geology of oil and gas of the USSR and foreign countries), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 365 p.
3. Geologiya nefti (Petroleum geology): edited by Vysotskiy I.V., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1968, pp. 492–527.
4. Puchkov V.N., Paleogeodinamika Yuzhnogo i Srednego Urala (Paleogeodynamics of the Southern and Middle Urals), Ufa: Dauriya Publ., 2000, 146 p.
5. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil content of Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.
More or to buy article
Regional geological researches of the Rosneft Oil Company were focused on the study of various petroleum plays in the offshore of the Pechora oil and gas basin, including one of the most perspective of them: Middle Carboniferous - Lower Permian carbonate play. This play is of especial interest because of several confined discoveries of oil and gas fields. Middle Carboniferous - Lower Permian carbonate play can provide increasing the hydrocarbon resources of Rosneft Company at the areas of current exploration. Basing on seismic identification and sedimentological studies of well data distribution pattern of build-ups in the Pechora sea area has been profoundly analyzed.
Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Carboniferous-Lower Permian carbonate interval in the offshore Pechora oil and gas basin was based on well and seismic data. Well data included stratigraphic and lithological information from core, cuts and logs. Additional macro- and microscopic study focused on sedimentological aspect has been carried out. Characteristic lithological features of different facies including carbonate build-ups have been recognized and facies analysis was performed. As a result of a comprehensive interpretation of all available well and seismic data, including previous works and publications, facies zones of Middle Carboniferous - Lower Permian carbonate rocks were defined. They comprise zones of deep shelf, open shallow shelf, depressions on the shallow shelf, tidal plain and shoals on the shallow shelf was identified. Basing on seismic data "reef"-type anomalies were recognized and their origin was interpreted. As a whole carbonate build-ups were subdivided into 4 morphological types, and their areal distribution provides prediction of most perspective zones.
This article was prepared for publication as part of the exploration and research work process in Rosneft Oil Company within Pechora sea area.
1. Chuvashov B.I., Rifogennye formatsii i rify v ehvolyutsii biosfery (Reef formations and reefs in the evolution of the biosphere), In: Geo-biologicheskie sistemy v proshlom (Geo-biological systems in the past), Moscow: Publ. of, 2011, pp. 71–115.
2. Margulis E.A., Margulis E.A., Oil-gas complexes of the Pechora shelf (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2009, no. 4, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/5/35_2009.pdf.
3. Viskunova K.G., Suprunenko O.I., Preobrazhenskaya E.N., Prognoz litologo-fatsialʹnoy zonalʹnosti asselʹ-sakmarskikh otlozheniy Pechorskogo morya v svyazi s ikh neftegazonosnostʹyu (The prognosis of litofacial zonality of asselian-sakmarian deposits within Pechora sea for their petroleum prospects), Collected papers “Geologo-geofizicheskie kharakteristiki litosfery Arkticheskogo regiona” (Geological and geophysical characteristics of the lithosphere of the Arctic region), 2002, no. 4, pp. 147–156.
4. Suvorova E.B., Lithology and sedimentary environments of the Upper Visean – Lower Permian strata of the Pechora offshore (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 2,
5. Zhemchugova V.A., Verkhniy paleozoy Pechorskogo neftegazonostnogo basseyna (stroenie, usloviya obrazovaniya, neftegazonosnostʹ) (Upper Paleozoic of the Pechora oil and gas basin (structure, formation conditions, oil and gas content)), Syktykvar: Publ. of Komi Scientific Center of the UB of the RAS, 1998, 160 p.
6. Bogatskiy V.I., Larionova Z.V., Dovzhikova E.G. et al., Timano-Pechorskiy sedimentatsionnyy basseyn. Atlas geologicheskikh kart (Timano-Pechora sedimentary basin. Atlas of geological maps (lithologic-facies, structural and paleontological)), Ukhta: Publ. of TP NITS, 2002, 122 p.
7. Yudin V.V., Orogenez severa Urala i Pay-Khoya (Orogenesis of the north of the Urals and Pai-Khoi), Ekaterinburg: Nauka Publ., 1994, 286 p.
8. Malyshev N.A., Tektonika, ehvolyutsiya i neftegazonosnostʹ osadochnykh basseynov evropeyskogo severa Rossii (Tectonics, evolution and petroleum potential of sedimentary basins of the European north of Russia), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of the UB of the RAS, 2002, 271 p.
9. Wilson J.L., Carbonate facies in geologic history, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975, 463 p.
10. Flügel E., Microfacies of carbonate rocks: analysis, interpretation and application, Berlin: Springer, 2004, 265 p.
11. Antoshkina A.I., Rifoobrazovanie v paleozoe (na primere severa Urala i sopredel'nykh territoriy) (Reef formation in the Paleozoic (on the example of the north of the Urals and adjacent territories)), Ekaterburg: Publ. of UB RAS, 2003, 304 p.
12. Bogdanov B.P., Kuzʹmenko YU.S., Pankratova E.I., Terentʹev S.E., Northern Timan-Pechora province - Carboniferous-Permian carbonate build-ups and their properties (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2014, V. 9, no. 3, URL: http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/11/38_2014.pdf.
13. Viskova L.A., Forms of colonial manifestation in fossil and recent marine bryozoans (In Russ.), Paleontologicheskiy zhurnal: 1998, no. 1, pp. 32–39.
More or to buy article
The Terek-Caspian foredeep is located between the epi-Hercynian Scythian Plate and the Alpine folding of the Greater Caucasus (the south-east periclinal of deflection). The deflection has an asymmetric structure. The offshore part of the Terek-Caspian trough occupies the western part of the Middle Caspian Sea and consists of two basins: the Terek-Sulak in the north and North-Apsheron in the south-east. These depressions are separated by Yalama-Samur horseback of the Turanian Plate. The average thickness of the sedimentary cover of Terek-Caspian foredeep is about 12 km. At Yalama-Samur horseback (offshore) organic matter of the Jurassic interval of the section is classified as early mature medium.
Methodology of the conducted analysis is based on the patterns of change of the current temperature and paleo-temperature (vitrinite reflectance) through the section, and direct assessment of the maturity of organic matter (pyrolysis) and hydrocarbon (biomarkers). According to the actual data on the Yalama-Samur zone the process of petroleum formation begins approximately with a depth of 3 km. Thus, based on these temperatures, the values of paleo-temperature target and the spore coloration index (SCI), we can conclude that the upper threshold of oil generation in the pre-Caspian-Quba region (land) is located in the depth interval of 2.5-3.0 km. These conclusions well correspond to the character changes in gas composition (the sum Ñ2Í6+) in case of deposits of Siyazan monocline.
Within the Apsheron archipelago, the zone covering the Neft Dashlary and Palchig Pilpilas areas is of interest for performing exploration work on the underlying productive strata (main oil and gas object of the South Caspian basin) Miocene sediments (oil reservoir).
1. Yakovlev V., Senin B., Some questions of the geological structure and assessment of the prospects of the oil and gas potential of the Central Caspian (In Russ.), Tekhnologii T·EK, 2003, August, pp. 1–17
2. Rachinsky M.Z., Kerimov V.Y., Fluid dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs, New Jersey- Massachusetts: Wiley- Scrivener Publishing, 2015, 607 p.
3. Miles J.A., Illustrated glossary of petroleum geochemistry, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989, 137 p.
4. Tissot B.P., Welte D.H., Petroleum formation and occurrence, Springer-Verlag Telos, 1984, 699 p.
5. Peters K.E., Moldowan J.M., The biomarker guide: Interpreting molecular fossils in petroleum and ancient sediments, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993, 363 p.
6. Bao J.P., Wang T.G., Zhou Y.Q. et al., The relationship between methyl phenanthrene ratios and the evolution of organic matter, J. Jh. Petrol. Ins., 1992, no. 14, pp. 8–13.
7. Faber E.Z., Isotopengeochemie gasformiger Kohlenwasserstoffe (In German), Erdole, Erdgas and Kohle, 1987, V. 103, pp. 210-218.
8. Abasov M.T., Aliyarov R.YU., Kondrushkin YU.M. et al., Thermobaric regime of the section of the deposits of the South Caspian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Proceedings of Institute of Geology of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, 2003, V. 31, pp. 5–20.
9. Aliyev S.A., Geotermal’nyye polya depressionnykh zon v YUzhno-Kaspiyskom basseyne i ikh svyaz’ neftegaznosnost’yu (Geothermal fields of depression zones in the South Caspian basin and its relation with oil and gas bearing): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Baku, 1988.
10. Mekhtiyev SH.F., Aliyev S.A., On factors impacting the geothermal stage of the oil fields of Azerbaijan (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1960, no. 3, pp. 25–27.
11. Mukhtarov A.SH., Struktura teplovogo polya osadochnogo kompleksa YUzhno-Kaspiyskogo basseyna (Structure of the thermal field of the sedimentary complex of the South Caspian basin): thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical science, Baku, 2011.
12. Feyzullayev A.A., Guseynov D.A., Aliyeva E.G. et al. Uglevodorodnyy potentsial i usloviya ego realizatsii v YUV chasti Tersko-Kaspiyskogo progiba (Hydrocarbon potential and conditions for its realization in the South of the part of the Terek-Caspian trough), Baku: Publ. of Institute of Geology and Geophysics of ANAS, 2016, 67 p.
13. Mekhtiyev SH.F., Mirzadzhanzade A.KH., Aliyev S.A., Teplovoy rezhim neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Thermal regime of oil and gas fields), Baku, Azerneshr Publ., 1960, 384 p.
14. Wavrek D.A. ,Central Caspian petroleum systems synthesis - 2005 Work Programs and Review (Yalama Emphasis), PSI Technical Report no. 05-2-04 for LukOil Overseas Holding LTD Moscow, 2005, 40 p.15. Katoshin A.F., Matyashov S.V., Belyayeva N.V. et al., Osobennosti formirovaniya YAlama-Samurskogo podnyatiya akvatorii Srednego Kaspiya (Features of the formation of the Yalama-Samurian uplift of the water area of the Middle Caspian), Proceedings of International conference “Stroyeniye i neftegazonosnost’ Kaspiyskogo regiona” (The structure and oil and gas potential of the Caspian region), Volgograd: Publ. of LUKOYL Oversiz Servis Ltd., 2006, pp. 45–51.
More or to buy article
Due to the increase of the volume of hard-to-recover oil reserves in the fields with a complex structure of reservoir rocks, a high degree of their heterogeneity and low filtration capacitive properties, the authors studied lithological and facies researches and correlation analysis of the reservoir properties of the Bashkir sediments of the Gagarin field as a bright representative of the described type of fields. The rates of open porosity and absolute permeability on gas were studied and analyzed, and facies in the rocks of this deposit were characterized. As a result of the description, coastal marine shallow-water facies and marine shallow-water facies of the open sea were identified. Among the last, the facies of shoals and some facies of settlements of various organisms were identified, including algae settlements, foraminifer settlements, and facies relatively flat seabed with a mobile and calm hydrodynamic regime. The data, including the rates of porosity, permeability and residual water saturation, was analyzed separately for each facies. The correlation dependences of the permeability coefficient on porosity and residual water saturation on porosity were constructed for the established facies, and the nature of their relationship was identified and regression equations were derived. The research revealed a strong and significant relationship of the studied parameters for both selected facies of the settlements of different organisms, as well as for the facies of the areas of the flat seabed with a calm hydrodynamic regime, weak and insignificant - for the facies of the areas of the flat seabed with a mobile hydrodynamic regime. The absence of correlation between the parameters was found for the sediments of shoal facies and coastal marine shallow-water closed ones, and for the last the correlation of porosity and residual water saturation was not established due to the lack of data.
Based on the research several conclusions were made. The development of pore and cavernous reservoirs is controlled by the predominant types of rocks – algae limestones. In the Bashkir sediments, among others, the predominant importance belongs to the facies of settlements of various organisms. The correlation analysis for the Bashkir sediments revealed the strongest and most significant relationship of porosity and permeability for the facies of the areas of the flat seabed with a calm hydrodynamic regime, algae settlements and foraminifera settlements, and the relationship between porosity and residual water saturation for the facies of the algae settlements and the areas of the flat seabed with a calm hydrodynamic regime.
1. Efimov A.A., Kochneva O.E., Evaluation of the influence of facies affiliation on carbonate deposits’ injectivity of Bashkirskiy layer of Siberian field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 15–19.
2. Mirolyubova E.S., Viskunova K.G., Effect of sedimentation conditions on the formation of reservoir strata in carbonate sediments of the aquatorial part of the Timan-Pechora province (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2008, V. 176, pp. 31–35.
3. Nalivkin D.V., Uchenie o fatsiyakh (The doctrine of facies), Moscow: Publ. of USSR AS, 1956.
4. Rukhin L.B., Osnovy obshchey paleogeografii (Fundamentals of general paleogeography), V. 557, Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1959, 196 p.
5. Krasheninnikov G.F., Uchenie o fatsiyakh (The doctrine of facies), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1971, 388 p.
6. Shcherbakov O.A., Zakonomernosti prostranstvennogo raspredeleniya osadkov v kamennougol'nykh moryakh Zapadnogo Urala (Regularities of spatial distribution of precipitation in the Carboniferous seas of the Western Urals), The collection: Geologiya i geofizika neftegazonosnykh oblastey (Geology and geophysics of oil and gas areas), Ufa, 1982, pp. 83–92.
7. Krinari A.I., About the unification scheme for classification of oil and gas reservoirs (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1959, no. 7, p. 8.
8. Efimov A.A., Kochneva O.E., Development of predictive models to estimate the oil mobility coefficient with account of facies conditions (on the example of Bsh formation of Batyrbaisky field) (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 1, pp. 20–24.
9. Kochneva O.E., Efimov A.A., Influence of facial features on reservoir properties of the bashkirian carbonate deposits of the Lake field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Geologiya = Bulletin of Perm University. Geology, 2017, V. 16, no. 1, pp. 96–98.
10. Galkin V.I., Efimov A.A., Kochneva O.E., Ya.V. Savitsky. Study of the mobility coefficient dependence on petrophysical characteristics by the example of Bsh layer of Sibirskoye deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 13–15.11. Efimov A.A., Kochneva O.E., Application of facies peculiarities of carbonate deposits of Sibirsky field to study correlations between porosity and permeability coefficients (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 12, pp. 15.
More or to buy article
Electrical and electromagnetic logging is the main methods for estimating hydrocarbon saturation index, as well as for geo-steering horizontal and directional wells. Determination of the specific electrical resistance in horizontal wells sets new tasks for the development of the theory of mathematical and software, interpretation techniques and equipment creation. When drilling wells in a given reservoir, it is necessary to control the trajectory of the wellbore and obtain information on the lithological features of the opened interval. This allows you to promptly adjust the direction of drilling a well.
Electrical logging was carried out in directional and horizontal wells using the AMK Horizont, Horizontal, Rigid Cable technologies. The log data analysis showed that the influence of the limited thickness of the reservoir and the position of the trajectory of the borehole axis relative to the underlying and covering rocks can lead to errors in determining specific electrical resistance. In vertical wells the model of resistivity section is practically known, horizontal well profile relative to the boundaries of the horizontal formation is not well known.
The article considers the features of determining the specific electrical resistance in conditions of horizontal wells. A brief analysis of the current state of the issue is given. Mathematical modeling of electrical logging has been carried out. We showed that it is necessary to take into account the influence of underlying and covering rocks in the interpretation of horizontal well logging data. An algorithm and software for determining the specific electrical resistance and results of interpretation are presented.
1. Antonov Yu.N., Epov M.I., Kayurov K.N., Practice of high-frequency induction log isoparametric sounding in horizontal wells with salt biopolymer solutions (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2006, no. 9(150), pp. 3–21.
2. Dvorkin V.I., Metelkin V.I., Tsaregorodtsev A.A. et al., Borehole investigations while drilling by induction logging technique (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2005,no. 10-11, pp. 95–105.
3. Kayurov K.N., Eremin V.N., Epov M.I. et al., Electromagnetic-logging-while-drilling equipment and numerical inversion software (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 112–115.
4. Legotin L.G., Effective application of multiple sonde electrical logging for horizontal well and side-track wireline survey (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 12, pp. 29–33.
5. Potapov A.P., Sudnichnikov V.G., Sudnichnikov A.V., Chuprov V.P., Capabilities of induction logging by transition processes method for borehole drilling control (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 5(203), pp. 33–44.
6. Rudyak B.V., Snezhko O.M., Shein Yu.L., Testing a self-contained dual laterolog tool BK-35A in horizontal boreholes (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2009, no. 10(187), pp. 12–25.
7. Epov M.I., Nikitenko M.N., Sukhorukova K.V., Studies on capabilities of electric and electromagnetic logs in electrically macroanisotropic formations exposed by inclined horizontal boreholes (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2016, no. 2(260), pp. 64–79.
8. Epov M.I., Nikitenko M.N., Glinskikh V.N., Sukhorukova K.V., Numerical simulation and analysis of electromagnetic log responses while drilling (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2014, no. 11(245), pp. 29–42.
9. Cheryahe A.B., Zhdanov M., Fast modeling of a tensor induction toll response in horizontal well in homogeneous anisotropic formations, Petrophysics, 2001, V. 42, no. 2, p. 158.
10. Mach S.G., Wisler M., Wu J.Q., The design response and field results of a new slim hole LWD multiple frequency resistivity propagation tool, SPE 77483, 2002.
11. Sukhorukova K.V., Arzhantsev V.S., Surodina I.V., Nechaev O.V., The results of numerical simulation of lateral logging sounding responses from a self-contained SKL tool (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. 1 (247), pp. 58–72.
12. Mikhaylov N.N., Informatsionno-tekhnologicheskaya geodinamika okoloskvazhinnykh zon (Information technology geodynamics of boreholes zones), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 349 p.
13. Verzhbitskiy V.V., Ruchkin A.V., Chaadaev E.V., Influence of azimuthal inhomogeneity of the penetration zone on the results of electrical and induction logging (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 1989, no. 2, pp. 87–93.
14. Potapov A.P., Opredelenie udel'nogo elektricheskogo soprotivleniya v GS na osnove komp'yuternogo modelirovaniya (Determination of electrical resistivity in horizontal wells based on computer simulation), Proceedings of EAGE International Conference and Exhibition, Tyumen, 2-5 March 2009.
15. Kneller L.E., Potapov A.P., Reservoir rock resistivity studies while lateral and vertical heterogeneity (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2010, no. 1, pp. 52–65.
More or to buy article
Traditional inhibiting drilling fluids show high efficiency in laboratory tests; however they are low effective in field trials. At the present time the choosing of inhibiting fluids is carried out by a multilateral engineering approach. There is a range of parameters that are used to evaluate inhibiting properties viz. swelling, clay capacity, moisture and dispersive capacity, deformation and its residual strength of the core sample, etc. These parameters and all existing methods used for evaluating inhibiting properties are incorrect, that leads to significant differences between laboratory and field test results, revealing theory and practice contradiction. It is believed that the inhibiting properties of drilling fluids help to prevent hydration and swelling of clays and ensure borehole stability. But borehole stability depends on strengthening (casing) properties, not inhibiting.
According to this situation it is recommended to specify inhibiting and strengthening properties, separating their functions. Inhibiting properties are aimed to exclude excess volume of drilling fluid and to maintain its parameters stable by reducing hydrophilicity, hydration, swelling and ability to disperse clay cuttings. Strengthening (casing) properties are aimed to maintain stability of clays and argillites on the walls of the borehole. To define inhibiting properties the authors propose to use the following indicators: concentration of colloidal fraction while drilling in clays; the drilling fluid resistance to various external aggressive factors; the drilling fluid excess volume prepared while drilling in clays. To define strengthening (casing) properties the authors of the article propose to use indicator of moisture capacity of pressed clay samples (applicable to clay rocks with coagulation structural bonds) and indicator of rock destruction (applicable to argillites and clays with phase and transitional structural bonds).
This method was applied to the drilling fluids used on the Astrakhanskoye gas-condensate field: laboratory tests gave close results to the field tests, what confirm the correctness of the method.
1. Kister E.G., Khimicheskaya obrabotka burovykh rastvorov (Chemical treatment of drilling fluids), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1972, 392 p.
2. Gruntovedenie (Soil science): edited by Trofimov V.T., Korolev V.A., Voznesenskiy E.A. et al., 2005, 1024 p.
3. Gamzatov S.M., The effect of osmotic phenomena on cavern formation (In Russ.), Burenie, 1974, no. 8, pp. 16–18.
4. Angelopulo O.K., Podgornov V.M., Avakov V.E., Burovye rastvory dlya oslozhnennykh usloviy (Drilling fluids for complicated conditions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 135 p.
5. Gaydarov M.M.-R., Belʹskiy D.G., Izyumchenko D.V. et al., Ustoychivostʹ glinistykh porod pri stroitelʹstve skvazhin (Resistance of clay rocks during well construction), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom VNIIGAZ, 2014, 100 p.
6. Vasilʹchenko S.V., Potapov A.G., Gnoevykh A.N., Sovremennye metody issledovaniya problemy neustoychivosti glinistykh porod pri stroitelʹstve skvazhin (Modern methods of studying the problem of instability of clay rocks in the construction of wells), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 1998, 83 p.
7. Gaydarov A.M., Khubbatov A.A., Norov A.D. et al., Polycationic drilling fluids with shale control properties (In Russ.), Vestnik Assotsiatsii burovykh podryadchikov, 2016, no. 1, pp. 36–41
8. Gorodnov V.D., Fiziko-khimicheskie metody preduprezhdeniya oslozhneniy v burenii (Physical and chemical methods for preventing drilling complications), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 229 p.
More or to buy article
|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article deals with the method of determining current oil saturation based on the displacement characteristics, which can be used to describe the process of developing reserves at a qualitative and quantitative level (as a first approximation) that precedes geological and hydrodynamic modeling.
The preconditions for the practical application of the method are revealed. The method, based on solving the Buckley – Leverett differential equation, makes it possible to determine the current production of the objects of analysis with a sufficiently high accuracy and to identify areas of localization of residual reserves. At the same time, a relatively small amount of source data significantly reduces the calculation results errors.
The development of modern software tools of allows to achieve a satisfactory history matching of almost any model. At the same time, the fact that the model is only a three-dimensional reflection of the idea of the geologist and engineer, its quantitative description is completely overlooked. The formation of the concept itself is impossible without a detailed study of the process, an analysis of the entire set of field data and research. In such a situation, minimizing the amount of heterogeneous initial information will help reduce uncertainties and errors in the results obtained.
The method, based on solving the Buckley – Leverett differential equation, makes it possible to estimate with sufficiently high accuracy in combination with other methods of geological and production analysis to establish not only the basic characteristics, but also to estimate the distribution of current oil saturation over the area and section of the reservoir predict the technological efficiency of drilling operations, identify the most promising areas.
The described method was successfully tested on a number of fields in Western Siberia. The article presents the experience of using the technique on the example of the BS112b stratum of the Kogalymskoye oil field, represented by Cretaceous sediments typical of most of the fields in West Siberia. The proposed method, taking into account the predicted performance of the work, allow to identify the most promising areas in terms of increasing oil production and increasing the current recovery efficiency.
1. Revenko V.M., Primenenie metoda filʹtratsionnykh parametrov i soprotivleniy pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Application of the method of filtration parameters and resistances in the development of oil fields in Western Siberia): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumenʹ, 1974.
2. Brilliant L.S., Povyshenie ehffektivnosti geologo-tekhnicheskikh meropriyatiy po optimizatsii plotnosti setki skvazhin i intensifikatsii sistemy zavodneniya na Samotlorskom mestorozhdenii (Improving the efficiency of geological and technical measures to optimize the density of the grid of wells and the intensification of the waterflooding system in the Samotlor field): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumenʹ, 1990.
3. Dontsov K.M., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oilfield development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977.
4. Ivanov M.M., Dementʹev L.F., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i geologicheskie osnovy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Oil and gas field geology and geological basis for the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992.
5. Maksimov M.I., Geologicheskie osnovy razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Geological basis of oil field development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1957.6. Khamidullina A.N., Geologo-promyslovoe obosnovanie dorazrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy bureniem bokovykh gorizontalʹnykh stvolov (Field-geological substantiation of oilfield redevelopment by drilling lateral horizontal shafts): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Bugulʹma, 1999.
More or to buy article
The displacement of oil by water from a layered reservoir can be thought of as a frontal drive. In this case, all the interlayers are ordered in such a way that their absolute permeability changes sequentially from lowest to highest. At the bottom of this layered reservoir is the most permeable interbed, at the top - the least permeable. According to the probabilistic-statistical model of a layered heterogeneous reservoir, in accordance with the law of permeability distribution, it is possible to determine the total thickness of the layers, the permeability of the most permeable of which is not lower than some permeability k. To describe the process of displacement from a layered heterogeneous reservoir, we can use the two-phase frontal drive model. In the case of a two-phase non- frontal drive, the Buckley-Leverett function and the generalized Darcy law are used, including relative permeabilities that depend on water saturation and viscosity of water and oil, without taking into account capillary effects.
Frontal water drive implies a clear interface, in contrast to non-frontal displacement. When describing a non-frontal drive, the water saturation distribution according to the Buckley – Leverett model contains a derivative of the Buckley – Leverett function, whose form is similar to a pseudo-gamma distribution.
The article gives an example of using the pseudo-gamma distribution in approximating the derivative of the Buckley – Leverett function. It is noted that the extrapolation of production data by different models is very sensitive to small errors contained in the initial information. In this regard, it is of great importance to make an informed choice of the type of equations that approximate the dynamics of cumulative oil production. It is shown that the proposed approximation in the form of a pseudo-gamma distribution allows to describe the processes in which the growth and decrease in characteristic indicators occur.
1. Zheltov Yu.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The oil fields development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1986, 332 p.
2. Khayrullin Am.At., Khayrullin Az.Am., Plotnostʹ raspredeleniya neodnorodnostey kollektorskikh svoystv porod (Distribution density of heterogeneity of reservoir properties of rocks), Proceedings of International Scientific-practical seminar "Rassokhin reading", Ukhta: Publ. of Ukhta State Technical University, 2015, 212 ð.3. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Modelirovanie protsessov neftegazodobychi. Nelineynost’, neravnovesnost’, neopredelennost’ (Modelling of oil and gas production processes. Nonlinearity, disequilibrium, uncertainty), Moscow-Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2004, 368 p.
More or to buy article
This article is devoted to the formation of a conceptual approach to the development of oil fringe of the Valanginian deposits of the Pestsovoye field through the usage of horizontal, multilateral wells and horizontal wells with multistage fracturing. A feature of the geological structure of the main productive layer of the Pestsovoe field, BU92, is a cyclical reservoir formation without hydrodynamic connection between geological cycles. Existing of incise shaled stream channels further complicates geology, which splits productive volume of reservoir into several zones and leads to different height of water-oil-contact and gas-oil-contact.
The adopted design solution for the development of this oil fringe is the drilling of horizontal wells according to the lined system. Development of the reservoir is planned with depletion mode with a fountain method of wells operation.
PVT study made at the stage of pilot works led to decrease in hydrocarbon reserves, therefore resulted in correction of drilling and development strategy. Oil saturated reservoir interval of the oil rim divided into five hydrodynamically isolated geological cycles. For the purpose of maximization of oil recovery factor it is proposed to use multi-hole wells and multistage fracturing in horizontal wells. Both technologies would increase the oil production and reduce the working depression on the reservoir comparing to basic horizontal wells. Which technology is optimal will be determined based on geological conditions in the area of drilling.Development of the reservoir on depletion mode leads to huge decrease in reservoir pressure which leads to additional analysis of reservoir development with water flooding and gas cycling methods.
More or to buy article
In the article problem of wellbore & near wellbore zone acid-oil emulsion during well treatment are reviewed. Content of the heavy components of oil from various Bashkortostan’s reservoirs are analyzed. The advantage of the technology of acid treatment with the use of a complex modifying additive (CMA) in the composition of hydrochloric acid is justified in comparison with the basic acid treatment for the geological and physical conditions of the studied reservoirs. CMA composed of mixture two-component mutual solvent, complex cationic surfactant & organic acid. Researches by definition of surface tension at the new acid system-oil interface, new acid system and oil compatibility, dissolution velocity of reservoir carbonates by new acid system with different CMA concentration at reservoir conditions were conducted. The dependence of interfacial tension as a function of the CMA concentration in the new acid system was shown. The results of determination of the compatibility of “basic acid system” and oil shows derived necessity of using “new acid system” as most compatible & less problematic for well treatment oil emulsion issue. Derived dependency of the reaction rate of the new acid system with carbonates on the CMA concentration that is parabolic. Kinetics parameters of “new acid mix” reaction with reservoir carbonates are calculated. By core tests at reservoir conditions demonstrated issue severity of acid-oil emulsion & efficiency of “new acid system” in prevention of the issue.
1. Folomeev A.E., Sharifullin A.R., Vakhrushev S.A. et al., Theory and practice of acidizing high temperature carbonate reservoirs of R. Trebs oil field, Timan-Pechora Basin, SPE 171242-MS, 2014.
2. Gil'mutdinova L.I., Voloshin A.I., Shadrina P.N. et al., Issledovanie sovmestimosti plastovykh flyuidov i rabochikh agentov dlya predotvrashcheniya oslozhneniy pri kislotnykh obrabotkakh v usloviyakh Mogdinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Compatibility study of reservoir fluids and working agents to prevent complications of acid treatments in the conditions of the Mogdinskoe field), Collected papers “Innovatsii i naukoemkie tekhnologii v obrazovanii i ekonomike” (Innovations and high technologies in education and economics), Proceedings of VI International Scientific and Practical Conference, 2017, pp. 118-126.
3. Shaydullin V.A., Technologies of squeeze cementing to eliminate the cross flows behind the casing in the fields of JSOC Bashneft (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2011, no. 7, pp. 34–37.
4. Verderevskiy Yu.L., Aref'ev Yu.N., Chaganov M.S. et al., Well productivity increase in carbonate reservoirs by application of sulfuric acid based compositions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 1, pp. 39–40.
5. Glushchenko V.N., Obratnye emul'sii i suspenzii v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Inverse emulsions and suspensions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Interkontakt Nauka Publ., 2008, 725 p.
6. Juprasert M.S., Bullhead acidizing succeeds offshore California, OGJ, 1994, V. 92, no. 15, pp. 47–52.
7. Moore E.W., Crowe C.W., Hendrickson A.K., Formation effect and prevention of asphaltene sludges during stimulation treatments, JPT, 1965, September, pp. 1023–1028.
8. Sergeev B.Z., Kalashnev V.V., Zhurik I.V., Solvent use before borehole acidic treatment (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1978, no. 8, pp. 12–13.
9. Sergienko S.R., Taimova B.A., Talalaev E.I., Vysokomolekulyarnye neuglevodorodnye soedineniya nefti. Smoly i asfal'teny (High-molecular non-hydrocarbon compounds of oil. Resins and asphaltenes), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 269 p.
10. Mukhin M.M., Magadova L.A., Pakhomov M.D., Synergistic effect in the acid generating systems, based on the acetic acid esters solutions with a surfactants mixture (In Russ.), Territoriya “NEFTEGAZ”, 2013, no. 5, pp. 76–79.
11. Kharisov R.Ya., Folomeev A.E., Koptyaeva E.I., Telin A.G., Manometricheskaya ustanovka kak instrument vybora kislotnykh sostavov dlya stimulyatsii skvazhin v karbonatnykh kollektorakh (Manometrical unit as a tool for selecting acid compositions for stimulating wells in carbonate reservoirs), Proceedings of V All-Russian Scientific Conference “Neftepromyslovaya khimiya” (Oilfield chemistry), 24-25 June 2010, Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2010, pp. 91-92.
12. Enikeev T.I., Dolomatov M.Yu., Telin A.G. et al., Study of filtration processes of acidic compositions in carbonate-bearing formations (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1999, no. 2, pp. 5–9.
13. Kotenev M.Yu., Andreev V.E., Fedorov K.M., Khlebnikov V.N., Research and optimization of emulsion effects for selective gas and water insulation in fractured reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2010, 21.14. Nebogina N.A., Vliyanie sostava nefti i stepeni ee obvodnennosti na strukturno-mekhanicheskie svoystva emul'siy (Influence of the composition of oil and its watering on the structural and mechanical properties of emulsions): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Tomsk, 2009.
More or to buy article
|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
The authors consider the work of the well producing viscoplastic oil in case of a sand plug at the bottomhole. In a drainage zone of the well there is a radial two-dimensional flow which takes place in many operational wells which have opened all power formation thickness. In a sand plug upward parallel flow occurs. Filtration of viscoplastic oil in a drainage zone and in a plug follow the generalized Darcy’s law which is two-parameter model: the first parameter is the plastic viscosity, and the second one is the initial pressure gradient that typifies the movement of viscoplastic oil in the porous medium. The porous medium is uniform formation; lateral and vertical reservoir permeability doesn't change and remains constant. The current surface of filtration in a drainage zone is cylindrical and the less is radius-vector the less is area of the current cylindrical surface. The current surface of filtration in a sand plug is a circle which remains constant. For definition of key parameters of the oil well operation were used a formulas for oil production rate in a drainage zone and in a sand plug. From the equality of these oil production rates, a formula was derived for the pressure at the bottomhole, i.e. under the sand plug. Using formulas of the areas of filtration surfaces in drainage zone and in sand plug, formulas were derived for the filtration rates in the layer and in the sand plug. Formulas are also derived for the law of pressure distribution in the drainage zone of the layer. The relationship between the average true speed of oil movement in the porous channels of the reservoir rocks and the speed of filtration is used. The depth of the oil level above the sandy cork was determined with the help of an echometer of the Kvantor-4mikro hardware and software complex.
1. Aleskerov S.S., Alibekov B.I. et al., Vliyanie vyazko-plastichnykh svoystv zhidkosti na debit skvazhiny pri rabote ee cherez filʹtr chastichno perekrytyy peschanoy probkoy (In Russ.), Ehkspluatatsiya skvazhin v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh, 1971, pp. 18–20.
2. Əliyev İ.İ., Ştanqlı dərinlik nasos quyularında qum tıxacının hündürlüyünün təyin edilməsi üsulu (Method for determining the thickness of a sand plug formed in a well with a sucker-rod pump), ANT, 2004, no. 11, pp. 16–20.3. Samedov T.A., Mustafaev S.D., Guliev R.A., Some method applied to determine frequency of sand plugs washing in oil wells (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, 7 p.
More or to buy article
The development of White Tiger field, which is specified by complicated physical-chemical properties of oil and low reservoir properties of the oil-bearing rocks, presents major challenges when requires a changeover from the natural flow technique to the artificial lift. The White Tiger basement development characterized by declining production, increased water-cut, natural flow stop. The wells, which stopped flowing naturally, had to be changed over to a gaslift operation in order to stabilize the declining production. The design of existed associated gas field-gathering system mostly ensured the oil production, while gas utilization was mostly performed by gas flaring. For the purposes of transporting the gas onshore and switching to gaslift operation, it was required to implement the associated gas gathering system. Increasing the pressure on the first step of oil separation at the fixed offshore platform, while ensuring the gas gathering and transportation to the compressor station inlet, was possible only simultaneously with the implementation of the gaslift. Vietsovpetro experience shows the necessity of including the gaslift wells into well construction designs, fitting them with the downhole gaslift equipment during drilling and workover operations. Such a strategy allows switching the well to gaslift operation by cable units avoiding well killing, i.e. without lowering the productivity index (PI). The wells that stopped flowing naturally, and those that have natural flow with high water-cut, are recommended for gaslift changeover. Such wells are expected to show the increment of oil production and this fact makes their changeover to gaslift more reasonable before they stop flowing naturally. From this perspective, therefore, the historical studies of techniques and technologies development for gaslift production are currently important and may contribute to the development of gaslift production techniques at offshore fields throughout the world.
1. Tu Thanh Nghia, M.M. Veliev, V.A. Bondarenko et al., Historical aspects of straight gaslift implementation in Vietsovpetro JV (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 127–131.
2. Chubanov O.V., Gorshenev B.C., Kanarskiy V.V. et al., Higher efficiency of White Tiger field development through application of compression gaslift (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 5, pp. 88–89.
3. Tu Thanh Nghia, Veliev M.M., Gazliftnaya ekspluatatsiya skvazhin (Gaslift operation of wells), St.Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2016, 384 p.
More or to buy article
|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
One of the key strategic objectives of Rosneft Oil Company is the creation of tools to increase the company's efficiency at all stages of the production chain, including oil and gas production at the lowest cost. A significant factor affecting cost reduction is improving the efficiency of well production. The main focus of work to improve the efficiency of well operation is the search for the most efficient ways to operate low-yield wells (flow rate less than 20 m3/day), the number of which in Bashneft Company is more than 70% and is characterized by the highest unit costs.
In order to achieve the strategic goal, the following task was formulated - the abandonment of drives like sucker-rod pumps. To solve this task, significant work was carried out with the constant interaction of Bashneft and Rosneft services, which made it possible to implement and test a number of technical and technological solutions based on the use of plunger pump installations with a linear drive. The resulting solution characterized itself, during the pilot field tests, as a technology with high rates of service life and increased energy efficiency in relation to the known analogues. A number of technical and technological problems related to the introduction of plunger pump installations with a linear drive and its modifications were solved, and proven basic principles for ensuring trouble-free operation for this type of facilities were formed. This solution made it possible to use the advantages of the rodless method of operation using the volumetric type of pump, which has the greatest efficiency and high resource.
1. Mishchenko I.T., Bravicheva T.B., Ermolaev A.I., Vybor sposoba ekspluatatsii skvazhin neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (The choice of the method of oil fields with hard-to-recover reserves operation), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2005, 448 p.
2. Yakimov S.B., The state and prospects of using production technologies for marginal wells in Rosneft Oil Company (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 11, pp. 4–12.
More or to buy article
The paper presents the results of an exceptional workover operation never known before in the world oil industry practice – pulling back of an expandable solid casing, known as an expandable profile liner, after eleven years of operation. To pull back the expandable profile liner, the latest in-house development was employed – a cutter-catcher that can be used in 168-mm or 146-mm casing strings. The tubing-conveyed cutting tool cuts the 5-mm thick expandable profile liner from bottom upwards, which is then pulled out of hole. The pulling-back operation is done in one trip. The cutter-catcher can also be used to retrieve a 3-mm thick steel casing patch (VNIIKRneft development) and other types of steel casing patches. The paper discusses the procedure in detail. The purposes of the work were to get insight into the expandable profile liner performance after a continuous operation in hole, to assess potential damages that might have been caused by installation operations, to analyze the effect of harsh downhole conditions on reliability and mechanical integrity of the profile liner, and to evaluate the probability of the expandable profile liner retrieval in case of necessity.
It was found that the welded connections of the expandable profile liner had successfully borne all hydraulic and mechanical loads associated with its installation and expanding and had not corroded during the 11-years period of operation. The material used for manufacturing of expandable profile liners confirmed, thus, its high reliability and stability to corrosion, the same as all sealing elements, packers with the welded rubber installed on the upper and bottom ends of the expandable profile liner, and bituminous mastic applied on the surface of profiled pipes.
1. Abdrakhmanov G.S., Kreplenie skvazhin ekspandiruemymi trubami (Well casing by expandable pipes), Moscow: Publ. ofVNIIOENG, 2014, 267 p.
2. AS no.1616216 USSR, Sposob remonta obsadnoy kolonny (Casing repair method), Inventors: Abdrakhmanov G.S., Meling K.V., Mukhametshin A.A., Il'yasov M.S., Zaynullin A.G.
3. Meling K.V., Mukhametshin A.A., Nasyrov A.L., KhabibullinR.Ya., Restoration of flow string tightness by profile covers (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 3, pp. 72–75.
4. Patent no. 2172387 RF, MPK E 21 V 29/10, Shoe for installation of shaped shutoff devices in wells, Inventors: Yusupov I.G., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Farkhutdinov R.G., Khamit'yanov N.Kh., Meling K.V., Kashapov I.K., Mukhametshin A.A., Vil'danov N.N., Nasyrov A.L.
5. Patent no. 2117747 RF, MPK E 21 V 7/28, Bore-hole reamer, Meling K.V., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Khamit'yanov N.Kh., Arzamastsev F.G., Mukhametshin A.A.
6. Patent no. 2056201 RF, MPK B 21 D 39/10, E 21 V 29/10, Tube rolling out apparatus, Inventors: Meling K.V., Mukhametshin A.A., Abdrakhmanov G.S., Arzamastsev F.G.
7. Patent no. 2387801 RF, MPK E 21 V 29/10, Pipe flaring device, Inventors: Meling K.V., Nasyrov A.L., Ismagilov M.A., Bagnyuk S.L., MelingV.K.
8. Patent no. 2418149 RF, MPK E 21 B 29/00, Cutting device of repair connection pipe in well, Inventors: Garifov K.M., Kadyrov A.Kh., Rakhmanov I.N., Glukhoded A.V., Balboshin V.A., VoroninN.A.9. Rakhmanov I.N., Technical means and technologies for production columns sealing (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2016, no. 8, pp. 34–44.
More or to buy article
|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
Today in the Russian Federation there is active search and implementation to construction and operation of facilities of oil and gas complex of the advanced foreign techniques of increase of operational reliability and management of integrity of such facilities. This tendency is especially important for unique and technically difficult facilities which projects are implemented in the Russian Federation in recent years. One of bright representatives of such objects are vertical steel tanks of large volume (more than 50000 m3) constructed for operation within terminals of transfer of oil in sea tankers. For management of data security of tanks actively takes root and the risk-focused methodology which is presented by the whole range as domestic documents, generally of techniques of Rostekhnadzor, and foreign, presented by the authoritative international organizations is widely applied.
The practice of implementing projects for the construction of large-capacity reservoirs in the Russian Federation primarily relies on regulatory methods developed over the past thirty years. These techniques are strength calculations for the criterion of failure with verification by the criterion of buckling. However, the practice of operating such structures shows that emergency and emergency situations are extremely rarely happen under these scenarios. The world practice of implementing a risk-oriented methodology for managing the technical condition of hazardous production facilities requires a comprehensive analysis of their operating conditions, the likelihood of implementing all possible emergency scenarios and the scale of their consequences.
In this article the analysis of factors and mechanisms which have the most important character for introduction risk-focused methodology in management of technical condition of tanks of large volume is carried out. The analysis of the limitations and advantages of this methodology, compared with the widely used methodologies, analyzes the prospect of its implementation in the production process.
1. Safety Guide “Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po provedeniyu kolichestvennogo analiza riska avariy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh magistral'nykh nefteprovodov i nefteproduktoprovodov” (Guidelines for conducting a quantitative analysis of the risk of accidents at hazardous production facilities of main oil pipelines and oil product pipelines), approved Order Rostekhnadzor from 17.06.2016 no. 228.
2. Safety Guide “Metodicheskie osnovy po provedeniyu analiza opasnostey i otsenki riska avariy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh” (Methodological framework for conducting hazard analysis and risk assessment of accidents at hazardous production facilities), approved by order of Rostekhnadzor from 11.04.2016 no. 144.
3. Order of Rostekhnadzor no. 349 “Ob utverzhdenii Rukovodstva po bezopasnosti “Metodika ustanovleniya dopustimogo riska avarii pri obosnovanii bezopasnosti opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektov neftegazovogo kompleksa” (On approval of the Safety Guide “Methodology for determining the permissible risk of an accident while justifying the safety of hazardous production facilities of the oil and gas complex”, August 23, 2016.
4. Jian Shuai, Kejiang Han, Xuerui Xu, Risk-based inspection for large-scale crude oil tanks, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2012, V. 25, pp. 166-175, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/ S0950423011001434?via%3Dihub
5. Santanu Saha, Risk based assessment of above ground storage tank bottoms – Role of magnetic flux leakage technique, URL: https://www.ndt.net/ article/nde-india2016/papers/A205.pdf
More or to buy article
Today, the existing pipeline system for gathering oil and associated gas, transportation of gaslift gas and injection water in Vietsovpetro is not optimal due to insufficient loading of one areas and over-loading of others as the result of changes in production volumes in existing facilities and tie-in of new ones, performance of planned work-overs, failures and shut-down of pipelines, and etc. Construction of new pipelines may be economically inefficient or impossible due to technical limitations of the offshore oil production. At the end of the day, the oil and gas gathering system experiences an increase of pressure drop during transportation, resulting in negative wellhead pressures and leading to production decrease. Therefore, the adaptation of the existing pipeline system to the current demands is highly important in order to optimize oil and gas transportation so to ensure its safety, maintain planned production level or to increase it by lowering wellhead pressure.
Vietsovpetro JV has developed and implemented the methods to adopt the existing pipeline systems to the current requirements, including options of changing the pipeline purpose, type of dispensed hydrocarbon medium, directions of oil and gas flows, application of dual-purpose pipelines. The examples, contained in this article, prove that implementation of methods for adopting the existing oil and gas gathering pipelines under offshore production conditions allow optimizing oil transportation, decrease pressure losses and obtain production grow with minimal costs.
1. Akhmadeev A.G., Tong Canh Son, Ivanov S.A., Comprehensive approach to provide high-paraffin oil transportation from the offshore fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 6, pp. 100-103.
2. Nguyen Thuc Khang, Tong Canh Son, Akhmadeev A.G., Le Dinh Hoe, Bezopasnyy transport vysokoparafinistykh neftey morskikh mestorozhdeniy v usloviyakh nizkoy proizvoditel'nosti (Secure transport of high-paraffin oil of offshore fields in conditions of low productivity), Proceedings of XX Petersburg International Energy Forum, St. Petersburg, 2010, pp. 154–157.
3. Tu Thanh Nghia, Krupenko E.V., Ivanov A.N. et al., Optimizatsiya dobychi i sbora mul'tifaznoy produktsii neftyanykh skvazhin na shel'fovykh mestorozhdeniyakh (na primere mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Optimization of production and collection of multiphase production of oil wells in offshore fields (On an example of Vietsovpetro JV’ fields)), Proceedings of scientific conference on the 35th anniversary of the creation of the Vietsovpetro JV, Vung Tau, 2016, p. 25.
4. Akhmadeev A.G., Pham Thanh Vinh, Le Huu Toan et al., Optimization of well product pumpless transportation under offshore oil production conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11., pp. 140–142.
More or to buy article
The article considers the possibility of applying a high-frequency frequency electromagnetic field for heating heavy oil in pipelines. A laboratory test bench for studying the heating of heavy oils and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits by a high frequency electromagnetic field is described. It includes three versions of a high frequency resonator with different ratios of the diameters of the outer and inner tubes. The degree of influence of the electromagnetic field on oil dispersed media is determined mainly by their dielectric parameters. Therefore, dielectric properties of oil were studied in a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. The results of experimental studies on the heating of high-viscosity oil and asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits by a high frequency electromagnetic field in static and dynamic regimes are presented. It is shown that the most intensive heating of oil is achieved when a ratio of the diameters of the outer and inner pipes is 1.7. The temperature dynamics of the oil samples under study and the heating rates of different oil samples were determined. It is shown that the higher the values of the dielectric parameters for oil at the working frequency of the generator, the higher the heating intensity. It is found that with increasing temperature for some samples of oil, the heating intensity decreases, which is explained by the decrease in the dielectric parameters of these oils with increasing temperature. Studies of oil heating with a similar resistive heating method have been carried out. The results showing the effectiveness of the radio frequency electromagnetic method of heating oil in a pipeline are compared with the resistive method in a dynamic mode. Based on the studies, a commercial radio frequency electromagnetic method for heating highly viscous oils in pipelines has been developed. The calculations of the power of an industrial generator based on the results of laboratory studies are given.
1. Ivanova L.V., Burov E.A., Koshelev V.N., Asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits in the processes of oil production, transportation and storage (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business , 2011, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/IvanovaLV/IvanovaLV_1.pdf
2. Evdokimov I.N., Problemy nesovmestimosti neftey pri ikh smeshenii (Oil incompatibility problems during oil mixing), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian University of Oil and Gas, 2008, 93 p.
3. Vaynshteyn L.A., Elektromagnitnye volny (Electromagnetic waves), Moscow: AST Publ., 1988, 440 p.
4. Balakirev V.A., Sotnikov G.V., Tkach Yu.V., Yatsenko T.Yu., HF method of eliminating paraffin plugs in the equipment of oil wells and oil pipelines (In Russ.), Elektromagnitnye yavleniya, 1998, V. 1, no. 4, pp. 552-560.
5. Balakirev V.A. et al., Elimination of paraffin plugs in the equipment of oil wells and oil pipelines with high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (In Russ.), Elektromagnitnye yavleniya, 2001, V. 2, no. 3, pp. 380-399.
6. Dunia R., Edgar T.F., Study of heavy crude oil flows in pipelines with electromagnetic heaters, Energy & Fuels, 2012, V. 26, no. 7, pp. 4426–4437.
7. Domnin I.F., Rezinkina M.M., Design study of thermal processes in the high-frequency heating of petroleum products (In Russ.), V³snik Nats³onal'nogo tekhn³chnogo un³versitetu KhP². Ser.: Rad³of³zika ta ³onosfera, 2013, V. 33, pp. 51–55.
8. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Mullayanov A.I., Shrubkovskiy I.I., Experimental studies of heating rheologically complex fluids with electromagnetic field (In Russ.), Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur = High Temperature, 2016, V. 54, no. 4, pp. 645-647.
9. Puschner H., Heating with microwaves. Fundamentals, components and circuittechnique, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1966.
10. Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., The determination of temperature-frequency and dielectric characteristics of oils (In Russ.), Teplofizika vysokikh temperatur = High Temperature, 2006, V. 44, no. 6, pp. 954-956.
11. Sheu E.Y., De Tar M.M., Storm D.A., Dielectric properties of asphaltene solutions, Fuel, 1994, V. 73, no. 1, pp. 45–50.
12. Evdokimov I.N., Losev A.P., Electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of solid asphaltenes, Energy & Fuels, 2010, V. 24, no. 7, pp. 3959–3969.
13. Brandt A.A., Issledovanie dielektrikov na sverkhvysokikh chastotakh (Investigation of dielectrics at microwave frequencies), Moscow: Fizmatgiz Publ., 1963, 404 p.
14. Shirman Ya.D., Radiovolny i ob"emnye rezonatory (Radio waves and cavity resonators), Moscow: Svyaz'izdat Publ., 1957, 379 p.15. Patent no. 2589741 RF, Method and device for high-viscosity oil heating in pipelines of high-frequency electromagnetic fields, Inventors: Kovaleva L.A., Zinnatullin R.R., Blagochinnov V.N., Mullayanov A.I., Shrubkovskiy I.I.
More or to buy article
Designing pipeline systems that experience dynamic effects during cork transfer of a product is a complex engineering task. Impacts adversely affect the fatigue strength of the pipeline and also can lead to the considerable shifts of the pipeline and its falling from supporting frameworks. Assessment of behavior of pipelines and safety of their operation at plug flows requires modeling and the analysis of influence of a plug flow on a mechanical response of the pipeline system.
The work describes the construction of a finite element model of the pipeline expansion loop. The solution of this task in non-linearly statement taking into account contact interaction of pipeline support with building constructions is received. The article presents possible solutions for securing the pipeline in order to exclude the possibility of its withdrawal descent from the supports.
It is shown the necessity of further study of a problem of influence of a plug flow for mechanical behavior of pipelines, study and detailed modeling of hydrodynamic effects. Experimental and operational confirmation of the simulation results will be required, as well as an assessment of the effectiveness of the developed compensator designs in terms of vibrations and displacements of supports arising in actual practice operation of the pipeline system will be required.
1. Khabibullin R.A., Devyatʹyarov S.S., Zhigalev E.V. et al., Flow induced vibration analysis of multiphase pipeline of Novoportovskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 56–59.
2. Gavrilin A.V., Perov S.N., Skvortsov Yu.V., Otsenka vliyaniya dvukhfaznogo potoka na parametry nagruzheniya truboprovodnoy sistemy (Assessment of two-phase flow effect on the loading, strength and safety of a pipeline system), Collected papers “Ehnergoehffektivnostʹ. Problemy i resheniya” (Energy efficiency. Problems and Solutions), Proceedings of IX All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, October 21, 2009, Ufa, 2009, pp. 91–93.
3. Skvortsov Yu.V. et al., Modelirovanie truboprovodnykh sistem s pomoshchʹyu MKEH–paketa ANSYS (Simulation of pipeline systems using the ANSYS), Samara: Publ. of Giprovostokneftʹ, 2000, 84 p.
More or to buy article
The outcome of building an underwater crossing using horizontal directional drilling method is a pipeline run through a horizontal hole. For successful pulling of a pipeline a hole should be prepared with design parameters suitable for smooth pulling of the pipeline on inclined and horizontal sections of the hole.
The review of pipeline pulling jobs on different underwater crossings involving pipes with the outside diameter of 530 mm to 1220 mm has shown that problems are most likely to be encountered in the following curved sections of the HDD hole: shoulders in the intervals of interface between the soils having different strength; intervals of unconsolidated soils and loose clay-bearing soils caving; intervals in which high plasticity clays are squeezed into the hole; intervals in which large rock inclusions are accumulated on the lower wall of the hole. Voids on the lower wall of the hole or partial filling of the hole with soil causes additional bending moments in the pipeline. Local dogleg sections occur in the hole as a result of a failure to observe good drilling practices or the use of technologies which are incompatible with the existing geotechnical conditions of drilling.
For the avoidance of drilling problems and prevention of a loss of the crossing hole and the pipeline as a consequence of local dogleg sections made during the drilling, the condition of underwater pipeline crossing hole should be subject to stringent requirements, and its geometry and profile should be closely monitored before the pipeline pulling is attempted. To this end we have reviewed the available data related to the pulling of pipelines through underwater crossings build by HDD method, possible changes of the hole path, and effects of the hole geometry on the possibility of pulling the pipeline from the standpoint of the drilling rig pull capacity, and stress-related properties and strength of the pipeline. As a result of this study, prerequisite conditions for safe pulling of the pipeline through a HDD hole of an underwater crossing in case of a change in its path due to contamination with cuttings, or on the interface of soils with different strength properties were determined.
1. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Parizher V.I., Sorokin D.N. et al., Stroitel'stvo perekhodov magistral'nykh truboprovodov cherez estestvennye i iskusstvennye prepyatstviya (Construction of crossings of trunk pipelines through natural and artificial obstacles), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2013, 339 p.
2. Vafin D.R., Sapsay A.N., Shatalov D.A., Technical and economic limits to the application of the horizontal direction drilling method in the construction of underwater transitions of main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 66–73.
3. Vafin D.R., Komarov A.I., Shatalov D.A., Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Geomechanical modeling of building conditions for main pipeline submerged crossings (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 4(24), pp. 54–64.
More or to buy article
621.311 : 622.276.012
The paper describes the approaches to ensuring the supply reliability of power supply from the power system, presents approaches to the normalization of reliability indicators. The approach to continuous planning and correction of the developing solutions is outlined. The decision maker should be able quickly evaluate the optimality of decisions on changes in the structure of traffic flows in the system, the operational characteristics of facilities, the use of reserves, and the effectiveness of management under various hypotheses regarding the dynamics of supply and demand. In modern conditions, the time reserves for making decisions are limited, and the amount of available information and requirements for detailing decisions have increased significantly, which tightens the requirements for automation and computerization of planning and operational management. One of the approaches to the development of a control system for power system is the use of logical simulation of a power system implemented on the principles of hierarchical modelling.
The main advantage of logical simulation is the ability to solve complex problems of energy system management, which are often impossible to solve within the framework of other approaches: ensuring reliable power supply of consumers; optimal use of all available system reserves; minimizing the consequences of the implementation of abnormal and emergency situations caused by natural, man-made, social and political risks; compensation for seasonal irregular power consumption; ensuring the stability of the power system during periods of cold snaps and abnormally cold winters.
Improvement of existing and development of new models for managing the reliability of power systems will allow creating effective tools of intellectual and data computing support for decision making in managing the development and operation of power systems.
1. Nogin V.D., Suzhenie mnozhestva Pareto. Aksiomaticheskiy podkhod (The narrowing of the Pareto set. Axiomatic approach), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2016, 272 p.
2. Yazenin A.V., Osnovnye ponyatiya teorii vozmozhnostey. Matematicheskiy apparat dlya prinyatiya resheniy v usloviyakh gibridnoy neopredelennosti (Basic concepts of the theory of possibilities. Mathematical decision-making apparatus in a hybrid uncertainty), Moscow: Fizmatlit Publ., 2016, 144 p.
3. Kuznetsov V.A., Cherepakhin A.A., Sistemnyy analiz, optimizatsiya i prinyatie resheniy (System analysis, optimization and decision making), Moscow: Infra-M Publ., 2017, 256 p.
4. Rodionova S.G., Revel'-Muroz P.A., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 20–31.
5. Radionova C.G., Lisin Yu.V., Polovkov S.A. et al., Methodical basis of ensuring of the fuel and energy complex’s industrial safety on the example of the oil and petroleum products pipeline transportation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 72–77.
6. Boev V.D., Imitatsionnoe modelirovanie sistem (Simulation modeling systems), Moscow: Yurayt Publ., 2017, 253 p.
7. Strogalev V.P., Tolkacheva I.O., Imitatsionnoe modelirovanie (Simulation), Moscow: Publ. of BMSTU, 2018, 296 p.
8. Reshmin B.I., Imitatsionnoe modelirovanie i sistemy upravleniya (Simulation and control systems), Moscow: Infra-Inzheneriya Publ., 2016, 74 p.
9. Novitskiy N.N., Sukharev M.G., Sardanashvili S.A. et al., Truboprovodnye sistemy ehnergetiki: matematicheskoe i kompʹyuternoe modelirovanie (Energy pipeline systems: mathematical and computer modeling), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2014, 274 p.
10. Novitskiy N.N., Sukharev M.G., Tevyashev A.D. et al., Truboprovodnye sistemy ehnergetiki: metodicheskie i prikladnye problemy matematicheskogo modelirovaniya (Energy pipeline systems: methodological and applied problems of mathematical modeling), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2015, 476 p.
11. Atavin A.A., Novitskiy N.N., Shalaginova Z.I. et al., Truboprovodnye sistemy ehnergetiki: matematicheskie i kompʹyuternye tekhnologii intellektualizatsii (Energy Pipeline systems: Mathematical and computerized intellectualization technologies), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2017, 384 p.
12. Slepnev V.N., Maksimenko A.F., The basic principles of building a quality management system for prevention, localization and liquidation of effects of accidents at pipeline transport facilities (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 456–468, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-4-456-467.
13. Stepin Yu.P., Kompʹyuternaya podderzhka formirovaniya, mnogokriterialʹnogo ranzhirovaniya i optimizatsii upravlencheskikh resheniy v neftegazovoy otrasli (Computer support for the formation of multi-criteria ranking and optimization of management decisions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2016, 421 p.
14. Gvozdeva T.V., Belov A.A., Informatsionnaya tekhnologiya organizatsionnogo razvitiya predpriyatiya (Information technology of organizational development of the enterprise), Ivanovo: Publ. of ISPU, 2013, 192 p.15. Volovich K.I., Denisov S.A., Methodology of creating web-service interactions in the system of distributed situational centers (In Russ.), Sistemy i sredstva informatiki, 2016, V. 26, no. 4, pp. 51–59.
More or to buy article
|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
For the long years the territories of business activity of Surgutneftegaz PJSC was located in Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district. In the early XXI century the Tyumen region became the third region where Company started gas-oil extraction at the industrial rates. At Uvat territory of Tyumen region there are about 40 discovered oilfields, 3 of them are owned by Surgutneftegas PJSC. The question of the environmental protection stands one of the most important for the Company. Especially it is significant during the first stages of exploration when the territory is still clear from the human activities. This question is a topical issue not only because of the human influence on the geo-chemical condition, but because of the natural changes. The results can exceed the state normative.
Surgutneftegas PJSC conducts exploration at several license areas at the Uvat territory. It’s the common fact that even the first stages of gas-oil extraction influence on all the natural components, including the landscapes and soils. Some of natural components influence one another. Surgutneftegas PJSC always performs the ecological monitoring. Its results can show the modern and future conditions of the environment.
1. Atlas Tyumenskoy oblasti (Atlas of the Tyumen region), Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography, 1971.2. Il'ina I.S., Makhno V.D., Geobotanicheskoe kartografirovanie (Geobotanical mapping), In: Rastitel'nost' Zapadno-Sibirskoy ravniny (Vegetation of the West Siberian Plain), Moscow: Publ. of Main Department of Geodesy and Cartography, 1976.
More or to buy article
The article addresses the issues of improving the industrial safety of hazardous production facilities of an organization providing services for pipeline transportation of oil and oil products through the introduction of processes for preventing, localizing and eliminating the consequences of accidents into the organization’s quality management system. According to the results of research, the authors have proposed process models of the first and second level, built on the basic principles of the ISO 9000 series standards. This article complements the previous issue, which described in detail the processes of the first level, and disclosed the processes of preventing the consequences of accidents. The article focuses on describing the model for accident consequences localization and elimination processes, bringing to light main inputs and outputs of these processes, and their interconnection with other processes. Within this article, the authors also emphasize some of the most important tasks and issues that need to be worked out in detail and which can be regarded as a roadmap for implementing the principles of a quality management system when planning and implementing the processes for preventing, localizing and eliminating the consequences of accidents. Using the proposed models will help an organization increase the efficiency of planning, resource allocation and the implementation of the processes in question as part of operating a hazardous production facility, a main pipeline. Ultimately, the foregoing will help strengthen the corporate image as a responsible organization operating a hazardous production facility. The approach outlined in the articles can also be applied to main gas pipelines subject to the specifics of the process of their operation.
1. Slepnev V.N., Maksimenko A.F., The basic principles of building a quality management system for prevention, localization and liquidation of effects of accidents at pipeline transport facilities (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 456–468, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-4-456-467.
2. Kamerzan D.N., Simonov D.A., Kriulin V.V., Automated control system for industrial safety. Safety of hazardous industrial facilities (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2011, no. 4, pp. 28–32.
3. Maksimenko A.F., Models and methods for forecasting emergencies (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2007, no. 1–2, pp. 113–116.
4. Maksimenko A.F., General principles for predicting emergencies and the main areas of preparation of a set of measures to increase the sustainability of an oil producing enterprise (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2008, no. 1, pp. 24–31.
5. Maksimenko A.F., The general principles of classification and modelling of consequences of technogenic failures and emergency situations (In Russ.), Neft', gaz i biznes, 2011, no. 6, pp. 36–38.
6. Polovkov S.A. et al., The assessment of the risk of damage to pipelines located in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation. Modelling of the spill and identify the volume of oil subject to the terrain (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2016, no. 12, pp. 88–93.
7. Polovkov S.A., Shestakov R.Yu., Aysmatullin I.R., Slepnev V.N., System conception in the development of measures on prevention and localization of accident consequences on oil pipelines in the arctic zone of Russian Federation (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 20–29.
8. Polovkov S.A. et al., Development of additional protecting constructions from oil spills based on three-dimensional digital modeling (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 197–205, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2018-8-2-197-205.
9. Aysmatullin I.R. et al., A systematic approach to protecting the Arctic from the effects of accidents on trunk pipelines (In Russ.), Neftegaz.Ru, 2018, no. 5, pp. 66–72.
10. Frolov S.V. et al., Quality management systems: from concept to certification (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 3(23), pp. 65–71.
11. Radionova S.G., Polovkov S.A., Slepnev V.N., Assessment of the possibility of applying modern methods for early detection and monitoring of oil and petroleum product spills in water bodies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 6, pp. 124–128, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2017-6-124-128.
12. Radionova S.G. et al., Methods of early detection and monitoring of oil and oil products spills on water bodies and evaluation of their efficiency (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 5, pp. 56–67.
13. Maksimenko A.F., Stativko V.L., Klimenko E.T., Staticheskiy analiz razmerov kotlovana i ochaga termicheskogo porazheniya pri avariynykh razryvakh gazoprovodov (Static analysis of the size of the pit and the center of thermal damage in case of emergency ruptures of gas pipelines), In: Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy sbornik no. 2. Magistral'nye i promyslovye truboprovody: proektirovanie, stroitel'stvo, ekspluatatsiya, remont (Scientific and technical collection no. 2. Main and field pipelines: design, construction, operation, repair), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 1998, pp. 18–22.
14. Maksimenko A.F., Stativko V.L., Klimenko E.T., Pervichnyy statisticheskiy analiz ekologicheskikh posledstviy razryvov gazoprovodov (Primary statistical analysis of the environmental consequences of gas pipeline breaks), In: Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy sbornik no. 3. Magistral'nye i promyslovye truboprovody: proektirovanie, stroitel'stvo, ekspluatatsiya, remont (Scientific and technical collection no. 3. Main and field pipelines: design, construction, operation, repair), Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 1998, pp. 45–51.15. Maksimenko A.F. et al., Static model of the distribution of the lengths of pipeline breaks (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2002, July, pp. 61–64.
More or to buy article