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MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW

338.24:622.276
E.O. Timashev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), O.V. Ugryumov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.M. Korkin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.V. Arzhilovsky (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Engineering and research competences specialization competitive advantage of Rosneft Oil Company

Keywords: specialized institutes, ompetence centers, technological leadership, effective design solutions, innovations, intellectualization of engineering and technology

The article considers a unique approach of Rosneft Oil Company to manage innovations. This approach is based on forming and functioning of a cluster of specialized institutes in the structure of the Company. The cluster unites 44 specialized institutes and more than 1500 employees. The authors describe the prerequisites for the creation of specialized institutes, the reason was organically emerged expert communities on the basis of specialized divisions of Corporate research and design institutes; the history of development and establishment of specialized institutes, the projects they are currently implementing, as well as prospect lines of development. Currently the focus areas of specialized institutes cover all the latest activity vectors of the Company starting from geological exploration, design development and field facilities, creation of new technologies for oil refining and petrochemicals to development of specialized software, development of computer assisted instruction and artificial brain. The cluster combines specialized institutes of basic and service segments that allows the Company to provide long-term sustainable growth basing on the development of new directions as well as to reduce subcontracted works, like to perform specialized design or expertise service according to competences profile. The important advantage of competences specialization is the synergy of healthy competition between institutions and their cooperation. These factors are reinforced by the process of competencies level equalization, for example, in terms of approaches to organizing their internal functioning. As a complex result this leads to supplementary economic benefit, accelerated development of new competencies and support of technological leadership of the Company.

References

1. Porter M.E., On competition, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998.

2. Timashev E.O., Pashali .., Pavlov V.A., Volkov M.G., Managing implementation of innovation results in oil and gas companies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 815.

3. Trompenaars F., Coebergh P. H., 100+ Management models: How to understand and apply the worlds most powerful business tools, Infinite Ideas, 2014, 594 p.

4. Andrusenko T., Knowledge centers (In Russ.), General'nyy direktor,  2006, no. 11.

5. Viljakainen P.A., Mueller-Eberstein M., No fear. Business leadership in the age of digital cowboys, Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2011, 303 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-8-12

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References

1. URL: https://www.rosneft.ru/docs/report/2017/ru/strategy.html

2. Korkin A.M., Pavlov V.A., Motus S.E. et al., Automated use of standard design documentation

in Rosneft Oil Company (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2018, no. 8, pp. 100101.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-13-15

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658.562:622.276
A.S. Isakov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), D.A. Lunin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.N. Khoroshev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Integral rating of subsidiaries of Rosneft Oil Company

Keywords: Companies of the Group, efficiency, rating, performance, system
Rosneft Oil Company employs large number of oil producing Entities of the Group (EG). Along with contractors the quality of work of EG directly affects the efficiency of their activities. In order to increase the motivation of their teams Integral rating System was developed. The problem of production assets effective performance benchmarking is relevant to all producing companies, especially to the big ones due to their activities in many regions. In particular, in order to improve the quality and motivational component of the teams, the specialists of the Production Potential and Efficiency Directorate of the Oil and Gas Production Department, together with representatives of other structural divisions of the Company, developed the EG Integral Rating System (hereinafter - the rating). The Company possesses the tool that allows to compare and comprehensively evaluate work efficiency of EG at its main production assets. System covers all main areas of activity of EG: HSE; operations; efficiency; operation support; staff; economics. The purpose of this system is to ensure transparency of rating process, develop integral mechanism to evaluate performance of EG. Integral rating is built based on the data received from the structural divisions of the Company. Rating process creates healthy internal competition among teams, promotes operation to be executed at the highest level. The analysis of the activities of EG since the introduction of this system proves its consistency.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-16-19

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

553.98
M.V. Skaryatin (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow; Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), V.N. Stavitskaya (Scientific Arctic Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), I.V. Mazaeva (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), S.A. Zaytseva (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Batalova (Scientific Arctic Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), R.Kh. Moiseeva (Scientific Arctic Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), E.V. Vinnikovskaya (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Bulgakova (RN-Exploration LLC, RF, Moscow), N.A. Malyshev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.E. Verzhbitskiy (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.V. Obmetko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.A. Borodulin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
Spatial offlap break trajectory analysis for stratigraphic framework building of the North Chukchi trough sedimentary cover

Keywords: Arctic, shelf, Chukchi Sea, clinoforms, sequence stratigraphy, oil and gas potential

A deep North Chukchi Trough is located in the Chukchi Sea to the north from Wrangel Island. It is filled by the Aptian-Cenozoic sedimentary cover represented by multistorey clinoform complexes. Postneocomian clinoforms of the Alaska North Slope are productive on several oil and gas fields onshore. These petroleum accumulations are associated mostly with stratigraphic traps, which makes sequence stratigraphic approach an effective tool for its prediction. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of Chukchi Sea clinoforms has been carried out by a few Russian and international specialists. This work is based on offlap break trajectory analysis allowing definition of the most valuable surfaces subdividing sedimentary successions. This resulted in identification and mapping of 18 clinothems, which were combined into 6 seismic complexes by the unity of sedimentary transport direction. Regressive stages of clinoforms progradation were interrupted by transgressions of various scales. The most extensive transgressions resulted in one seismic complex upbuilding another forming multistorey sedimentary cover of the North Chukchi Trough. The offlap break migration distance is the longest at clinothems formed after such transgressions, while it gradually decrease from the lower to upper parts of the seismic complexes. The clinothem heights are a proxy of palaeo-bathymetry of the sedimentary basin. Maximal clinothem heights correspond to the palaeo-continental shelf development in the later Cretaceous middle Paleocene and modern continental in the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Minimal clinothem heights represent Mid-Paleogene Mid-Neogene (?) subaqueous deltas development on the continental shelf. Clinothems oblique overlapping causes substantial spatial differences in clinothem heights. The clinothems characterise by different offlap break trajectories, which are mostly either progradation to aggradation or aggradation to progradation. This is one of the interpretation criteria to distinguish between low and high systems tracts correspondingly. Straight and jigsaw types of offlap break trajectories are a more detailed characteristic of the trajectories. The jigsaw trajectory testifies for the formation of the transgressive systems tracts within clinothems. Based on the analysed factors, the sedimentary cover is subdivided into low, high, and transgressive composite systems tracts.

References

1. Jakobsson M., Cherkis N.Z., Woodward J. et al., A new grid of Arctic bathynmetry: a significant resource for scientists and mapmakers, EOS Transactions AGU, 2000, pp. 89, URL: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/00EO00059

2. Freiman S.I., Nikishin A.M., Petrov E.I., Cenozoic clinoform complexes and the geological history of the North Chukchi Basin (Chuckchi Sea, Arctic), Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2019, V . 74, no. 5, pp. 441449.

3. Houseknecht D.W., Bird K.J., Schenk C.J., Seismic analysis of clinoform depositional sequences and shelf-margin trajectories in Lower Cretaceous (Albian) strata, Alaska North Slope, 2009, no. 21, pp. 644654.

4. Dixon J., Dietrich J.R., Lane L.S., McNeil D.H., Geology of the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin, Canada, Sedimentary Basins of the World, 2008, no. 5, pp. 551572.

5. Hegewald A., Wilfred J., Relative sea level variations in the Chukchi region Arctic Ocean since the late Eocene, Geophysical research letters, 2013, V.40, pp. 803807.

6. Agasheva M.A., Karpov Y.A., Stoupakova A.V., Suslova A.A., Cretaceous and Paleogene clinoform sequences of North Chukchi Basin, Proceedings of 79th EAGE Conference & Exhibition 2017, DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201701534, URL: https://www.earthdoc.org/content/papers/10.3997/2214-4609.201701534?crawler=true#html_fulltext

7. Skaryatin M., The Post-Neocomian fill history of the North Chukchi Basin, AAPG Datapages/Search and Discovery, 2019, Article no. 90332, URL: http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/abstracts/html/2018/ice2018/abstracts/3005498.html

8. Stavitskaya V.N., Makhova O.S., Popova A.B. et al., Mesozoic-Cenozoic deposits of the East Siberian and the Chukchi Seas and the prospects of their oil and gas potential based on sequence stratigraphic analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 4, pp. 17-23.

9. Helland-Hensen W, Hampson G.J., Trajectory analysis: concepts and applications, Basin Research, 2009, V. 21, pp. 454483.

10. Abreu V., Neal J.E., Bohacs K.M., Kalbas J.L., Sequence stratigraphy in siliciclastic systems the ExxonMobil methodology: Atlas and Exercises, SEPM concepts in sedimentology and palaeontology, Tulsa: SEPM, 2009, 226 p.

11. Patruno S., Hampson G.J., Jackson C.-A.-L., Quantitative characterization of deltaic subaqueous clinoforms, Earth‐Science Reviews, 2015, V. 142, pp. 79119.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-20-26

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622.276.031.011.43:53.09
V.V. Gaiduk (NK Rosneft-NTC, LLC, RF, Krasnodar), D.V. Grishchenko (NK Rosneft-NTC, LLC, RF, Krasnodar), S.V. Korpach (NK Rosneft-NTC, LLC, RF, Krasnodar), N.A. Malyshev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), E.I. Mikhajlov (NK Rosneft-NTC, LLC, RF, Krasnodar)
Tensile fracture prediction based on structural and kinematic data

Keywords: fractured reservoir, kinematic modelling, strain distribution, geomechanical restoration

The fractured reservoir provides high flow rates of oil and gas, but characterized by the locally distributed. Now there arent any effective technologies for predicting open fracturing before drilling in spite of their actuality relevance for a large number of exploration and production facilities. The innovation project is in progress in Rosneft Oil Company for the development of this technology on the basis on structural date.

The paper represents the results of the prediction for tensile fracturing calculated by a group of method such as the kinematic modeling, geomechanical restoration and angular dislocations method. The structural model including the structural frame of the surfaces of horizons and faults, the slip vector and the slip magnitude of the faults, the unfolded model, and the kinematic algorithms for the formation of the structure, was used as the initial data. Kinematic modeling and geomechanical restoration are used to calculate the plicative component. The deformation field is modeled by unfolding the modern fold structure to the undeformed condition. The angular dislocation method calculates the deformation field in affected areas of faults on the basis on spatial and kinematic fault characteristics. A number of provisions and assumptions representing in the paper that allow proceed from the deformation field to the tensile fracturing. The criteria of tensile fracturing are defined as follows by: 1) type of reservoir-scale fractures is defined (shear fracture or tensile fracture) by the relation between shear and longitudinal deformation, 2) orientation is defined by the direction of axis of tension, 3) intensity of tensile fracturing is defined by the value of the longitudinal deformation at surface vertical to top of bed and axis of tension. The control check proves a positive correlation with the data on well productivity, that gives hope to the expediency of deformation methods for predicting tectonic fracturing drawing on the structural data.

References

1. Gololobov Yu.N., Diagnostic value of pargenesis of disjunctive-plicative structures (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 1982, no. 12, pp. 4146.

2. Gayduk V.V., Kuksov S.V., Zemtsov P.A., Grishchenko D.V., Features of identification and preprocessing of exploration work objects for thrust-fold belts (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO "NK "Rosneft", 2014, V. 37, no. 4, pp.  49.

3. Treshchinovatost' gornykh porod. Osnovy teorii i metody izucheniya (Fracturing of rocks. Fundamentals of theory and methods of study): edited by Epifantsev O.G., Pletenchuk N.S., Novokuznetsk: Publ. of SibSIU, 2008, 41 p.

4. Rebetskiy Yu.L., Tektonicheskie napryazheniya i prochnost' gornykh massivov (Tectonic stresses and strength of mountain ranges), Moscow: Akademkniga Publ., 2007, 406 p.

5. Gayduk V.V., Prokop'ev A.V., Metody izucheniya skladchato-nadvigovykh poyasov (Methods for studying fold-thrust belts), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1999,  160 p.

6. Rebetskiy Yu.L., Sim L.A., Marinin A.V., Ot zerkal skol'zheniya k tektonicheskim napryazheniyam. Metody i algoritmy (From gliding plane to tectonic stresses. Methods and algorithms), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2017, 234 p.

7. Modelirovanie treshchinovatosti. Praktikum po DFN v Petrel 2016-2019 (Fracture modeling. DFN Workshop at Petrel 2016-2019): edited by Zakrevskiy K.E., Moscow: MAI, 2019, 96 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-27-31

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553:98
.V. Elisheva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), .L. Lazar (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), .. Lyzhin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.G. Safonov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), .V. Zhidkov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), D.N. Zhestkov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
The methodology of adaptation for searching new hydrocarbon reservoir in the Jurassicand Neokomian sediments of the Uvat project areas by the results of the exploration 20152019

Keywords: geological risks, trap, success of exploration, reservoir, filling, basin modeling

The article presents summary results of the analysis of the success of the exploration program over the past 5 years at the license areas of Rosneft Oil Company in the southern Tyumen region within the perimeter of RN-Uvatneftegas LLC. To improve the effectiveness of prospecting and exploration drilling and keep costs down at the prospecting stage of exploration oil companies try to reduce the main geological risks. For the last 10 years, Rosneft Oil Company has been using an approach based on the analysis of four geological factors: structural analysis, reservoir forecast, filling of reservoirs with hydrocarbons and reservoir safety. The priority of the particular geological risks was established based on the exploration results of each productive Jurassic and Cretaceous interval. The comprehensive analysis of the geological structure of these areas showed that the special conditions of oil deposit formations in Uvat region requires consideration of additional geological factors, such as the stages of entering the "oil window" in the Bazhenov formation located in this area and the tectonic reorganizations influence during the neotectonic stage in the vertical modern deposits. The validity of using the system for assessing the accounting of geological risks for the license areas of the Uvat project, developed by Rosneft Oil Company, was considered when analyzing the results of drilling. It is determined that to increase the efficiency of drilling new hydrocarbon deposits, it is necessary to adapt the risk system for the Uvat project territory. The proposed approach for geological risks account will allow Rosneft Oil Company to reduce drilling inefficient wells at the exploration and evaluation stage and save the company's investments.

References

1. Stovbun Yu.A., Dovgulya V.I., Khafizov S.F. et al., Analysis of the state and development prospects of the oil resource base in the south of the Tyumen region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 6, pp. 67.

2. Kontorovich A.E. et al., Zapadno-Sibirskaya neftegazonosnaya provintsiya: sostoyanie syr'evoy bazy, prognozy razvitiya nefte- i gazodobychi, aktual'nye problemy nedropol'zovaniya (West Siberian oil and gas province: the state of the resource base, forecasts of the development of oil and gas production, topical problems of subsoil use), Proceedings of the scientific-practical conference Aktual'nye problemy poiskov, razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Actual problems of prospecting, exploration and development of oil and gas fields), 2004, pp. 1117.

3. Bakuev O.V., Khafizov S.F., Stovbun Yu.A., Khasanov R.N., New data on the oil and gas content of the Bazhenov formation in the southern regions of the Tyumen region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 6, pp. 810.

4. Lyzhin E.A., Bulgakova E.A., Nassonova N.V., Lazar' E.L., Critical geological risks for the plays (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 6, pp. 1823.

5. Metody geologo-ekonomicheskogo modelirovaniya resursov i zapasov nefti i gaza s uchetom neopredelennostey i riska (Methods for geological and economic modeling of oil and gas resources and reserves, taking into account uncertainties and risk), Moscow: Geoinfortsentr Publ., 2002, 329 p.

6. Elisheva O.V., Shilova Yu.V., Vtorichnye izmeneniya porod-kollektorov tyumenskoy svity faktor oslozhnyayushchiy vydelenie zon glinizatsii i prognoz kollektorov po dannym seysmorazvedki 3D (Secondary changes in reservoir rocks of the Tyumen formation a factor complicating the identification of clay zones and reservoir prediction based on 3D seismic data), Proceedings of IX All-Russian meeting Litologiya osadochnykh kompleksov Evrazii i shel'fovykh oblastey (Lithology of sedimentary complexes of Eurasia and shelf areas), Kazan', 2019.

7. Elisheva O.V. et al., Ispol'zovanie paleotektonicheskikh rekonstruktsiy na litsenzionnykh uchastkakh Uvata dlya snyatiya geologicheskikh riskov po nezapolneniyu vyyavlennykh lovushek uglevodorodami (Use of paleotectonic reconstructions in the Uvat license areas to remove geological risks due to the failure to fill the identified traps with hydrocarbons), Proceedings of Trofimuk readings Novosibirsk, 2019.

8. Patent no. 2017614493. StatisticStructure, Inventors: Evlanova Yu.A., Semukhin M.V., Zimin P.V., Lyzhin E.A.

9. Polyakov A.A., Murzin Sh.M., International experience in geological risk analysis (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 4, http://www.ngtp.ru/rub/3/60_2012.pdf.

10. Elisheva O.V., Building of 2D lithofacies models of productive reservoirs as the basis for collectors prediction by 3D CDP seismic survey data (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 8 (332), pp. 2030.

11. Predchetenskaya E.A., Katageneticheskie izmeneniya nizhne-sredneyurskikh otlozheniy na territorii Tomskoy oblasti (Katageneticheskie izmeneniya nizhne-sredneyurskikh otlozheniy na territorii Tomskoy oblasti), Proceedings of regional conference of geologists of Siberia, the Far East and North-East of Russia, Part 1, Tomsk, 2000, pp. 192193.

12. Lopatin N.V. et al., Komp'yuternoe modelirovanie protsessov realizatsii neftematerinskogo potentsiala porod (na primere bazhenovskoy svity Zapadnoy Sibiri) (Computer modeling of the processes of realization of the oil source potential of rocks (on the example of the Bazhenov formation in Western Siberia)), Modelirovanie neftegazoobrazovaniya (Modeling of oil and gas generation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, pp. 2125.

13. Ryazanova T.A. et al., Epigenez i generatsionnyy potentsial terrigennykh yurskikh porod (shirotnoe techenie r. Dem'yanka) (Epigenesis and generation potential of terrigenous Jurassic rocks (latitudinal current of the Demyanka River)), Proceedings of TNNC, 2017, no. 3, pp. 100107.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-32-37

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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:550.8
K.E. Zakrevskiy (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.L. Popov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), A.E. Lepilin (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), E.A. Ryzhikov (RN-BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Geological and technological features of creating flexible typical templates for geological modeling

Keywords: geological model, modeling template, classification of models, optimization, technology

Development and improvement of geological modelling software packages of oil and gas fields is currently underway mainly in the direction of optimizing the model construction process. The article considered one of the optimization aspects of the geology modelling process. The optimization is achieved, among other things, by automatization. Geology modelling intelligent automatization reduces time consumption and minimizes the number of mistakes. Flexible standard modeling templates are created for the most common geology modelling schemes that are used in order to automate the geology modeling process. Modeling templates are applied to the task manager process (workflow). The use of the task manager in geology modeling becomes significantly more effective if the local and regional reservoir geological features are taken into account. A classification of geological models was developed in order to take into account the reservoirs geology features and geomodeling techniques. Then, based on this classification, standard task managers (modeling templates) were created for the most common geology modeling techniques and reservoir geology features for the corporate software package RN-Geosim. The templates development is based on the classification of geological models by creation method. Flexible creation of modeling templates in the corporate package RN-Geosim allows to take into account the reservoir geology features in different regions, creating new and modifying existing templates. Accumulating over time a variety of templates for different sedimentary types of reservoirs and formations in the template database allows to create a new intelligent competence in the modeling area. The creation of standard, geologically and technologically oriented modeling templates was performed as part of the development of the corporate line of software products of Rosneft Oil Company.

References

1. Saakyan M.I., Zakrevskiy K.E., Gazizov R.K. et al., The prospects of corporate geological modeling software creation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 5054.

2. URL: http://roxar.ru/about-us/history

3. URL: https://books.google.ru/books?id=GWN9DwAAQBAJ

4. Zakrevskiy K.E., Geologicheskoe 3D modelirovanie (3D geological modeling), Moscow: Publ of IPTs Maska, 2009, 376 p.

5. Zakrevskiy K.E., Kundin A.S., Osobennosti geologicheskogo 3D modelirovaniya karbonatnykh i treshchinnykh rezervuarov (Features of 3D geological modeling of carbonate and fractured reservoirs), Moscow: Belyy Veter Publ., 2016, 404 p. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-38-43

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681.518:550.832
M.A. Basyrov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.V. Akinshin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.R. Makhmutov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), Yu.D. Kantemirov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), I.O. Oshnyakov (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), M.B. Koshelev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Application of machine learning methods for automatic interpretation of open hole logging data

Keywords: machine learning, artificial neural network, big data

One of the priority tasks of the Tyumen Petroleum Research Center (a subsidiary of Rosneft Oil Company) is the development, testing, and introduction of new interpretation methods and technologies that will improve the efficiency of petrophysical support of the Company's projects on reservoir management, exploration, and reserves estimation. Modern petrophysics is steadily progressing towards digitalization, machine intelligence, and big data processing. At the same time, the developed digital assistants, of course, are not yet a replacement for a human interpreter. However, the role of such unmanned algorithms is becoming more and more significant, leading to a gradual replacement of unproductive manual labor in the field of routine preparatory design work. This should result in a dramatic reduction in the time spent on petrophysical projects. At the same time, the role of a human interpreter should increasingly be reduced to the programming of such digital assistants and mainly analytical activities, which leads to a qualitative shift in the field of depth and detail of petrophysical solutions. It is also obvious that the analysis of large amounts of data will allow finding new efficient tools for predicting petrophysical and geological properties, as well as a new level of performance estimation. At the same time, these new technological and information standards dictate new requirements for the competence profile of an interpreter engineer, in addition to the traditional baggage of petrophysical knowledge, developed IT competencies and, at least, basic programming will be a natural addition. Thus, digitalization, artificial intelligence and analysis of big data should clearly lead to a new round of development in petrophysics and a qualitative increase in the efficiency of petrophysical support for exploration and development of oil and gas fields.

References

1. Basyrov M.A., Khabarov A.V., Khanafin I.A. et al., Advanced technologies of well logging and data analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 1317.

2. Zichao Yang, Diyi Yang, Dyer C., Xiaodong He et al., Hierarchical attention networks for document classification, San Diego, California: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, pp. 14801489, URL: https://www.aclweb.org/anthology/N16-1174
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-44-47

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681.518:550.832
A.V. Galkina (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), M.Yu. Lisitsyna (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), T.R. Rakhimov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), D.A. Filatov (IGiRGI JSC, RF, Moscow), V.P. Filimonov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)
The algorithm and software module development for automatic analysis of convergence and quality of gamma-ray logging data during geosteering

Keywords: geosteering, horizontal wells, gamma-ray logging, automation

Today, production drilling is the main factor in maintaining oil production in the oil and gas industry. In the recent years, there has been a significant increase in the volume of drilling high-tech wells (horizontal, multilateral, extended reach), which is associated with the involvement in the development of new fields, areas with more complex geology in mature fields and fields with hard-to-recover reserves. The contribution to production from high-tech wells is also increasing. This article considers the results of creating an algorithm and a software module that allows determining the convergence and quality of logging curves in real-time. The reason for the shift between the main logging curve and its rewriting may be the wrong measure of the drilling tool when changing its part in the BHA or in the drill plug. Another reason might be the incorrect determination of the drilling tool collars position during round-trip operations. The software developed by Rosneft Oil Company, receiving as input gamma-ray logging data obtained during the drilling and real-time logging rewriting, subject to sufficient convergence of curves and high data quality, allows obtaining information about the presence of a shift within only several tens of meters of rewriting. This module is an assistant to a geosteering engineer and is aimed at increasing the efficiency of the geosteering process and reducing the cost of well construction.

References

1. Gromyko G.L. et al., Teoriya statistiki (Theory of statistics): edited by Gromyko G.L., Moscow: INFRA-M Publ., 2009, 474 p.

2. Ilyshev A.M., Shubat O.M., Obshchaya teoriya statistiki (General theory of statistics), Moscow: KnoRus Publ., 2013, 432 p.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-48-50

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OFFSHORE DEVELOPMENT

622.276.1.4:622.147
A.A. Pashali (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), K.A. Kornishin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), P.A. Tarasov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), Ya.O. Efimov (Arctic Research Centre LLC, RF, Moscow), A.T. Bekker (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), E.E. Pomnikov (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), T.E. Uvarova (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), A.A. Zverev (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), A.M. Polomoshnov (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok), S.M. Kovalev (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Special aspects of ice strength seasonal variability in Russian Arctic

Keywords: ice, strength, loads, offshore, structures

The article discusses results of ice properties tests carried out in winter season 2018-2019 from 4 research sites located in the Laptev and Okhotsk seas. Field works were performed by the Russian Far Eastern Federal University as part of Rosneft Oil Company innovative program. This research has significantly expanded understanding of the ice strength seasonal variation and ice load on offshore structures in ice seas, and also made it possible to determine the optimal calendar periods for field tests. One of the main conclusions that can be drawn from the ice strength experiments is a linear dependence of the strength characteristics of flat ice on its temperature, while the coefficients in the corresponding regression equations depend on the region and type of ice. Approximate relationships between ice loads during the ice season are determined, new method for design parameters refinement is also proposed. The following conclusions can be drawn on the seasonal variability of ice strength and its effect on the value of design load the ice thickness at which it has maximum strength is 70% of the maximum ice thickness for the season; the ice thickness at which the maximum ice load is 80% of the maximum ice thickness for the season. The obtained results can be used for design and manufacturing of offshore facilities for exploration, production and transportation of hydrocarbons in the high seas of the Russian continental shelf, as well as for planning of marine along the Northern Sea Route.

References

1. Johnston M., Seasonal changes in the properties of first-year, second-year and multi-year ice, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 2017, V. 141, pp. 3653.

2. Smirnov V.N., Shushlebin A.I., Kovalev S.M., Sheykin I.B., Metodicheskoe posobie po izucheniyu fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik ledyanykh obrazovaniy kak iskhodnykh dannykh dlya rascheta ledovykh nagruzok na berega, dno i morskie sooruzheniya (Toolkit for the study of physical and mechanical    properties of ice formations like the original data for the calculation of ice loads on the shore, bottom and marine structures), St. Peterburg: AANII, 2011, 178 p.

3. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Evaluation of local strength of ice using a borehole jack in the Kara and Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft, 2016, no. 1, pp. 4751.

4. Smirnov V.N., Kovalev S.M., Shushlebin A.I. et al., Monitoring of the physical and mechanical state of sea ice and short-term prediction of extreme ice phenomena (In Russ.), Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki = Arctic and Antarctic Research, 2020, V. 66, no. 2, pp. 162179, https://doi.org/10.30758/0555-2648-2020-66-2-162-179.

5. Bekker A.T., Uvarova T.E., Pomnikov E.E., Fatigue strength analysis of structural elements under ice condition, Proceedings 20th International Conference on Port and Ocean Engineering under Arctic Conditions, POAC, 9-12 June 2009, Lulea, 2009, V. 2, pp. 12031210.

6. Pavlov V.A., Kornishin K.A., Mironov E.U. et al., Peculiarities of consolidated layer growth of the Kara and Laptev Sea ice ridges (In Russ.),  Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 4954.

7. Kornishin K.A., Pavlov V.A., Smirnov V.N. et al., An experiment of large-scale tests of flexural strength of the ice fields in the Kara and the Laptev seas (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8589.

8. Mokievskiy V.O., Tsetlin A.B., Sergienko L.A. et al., Ekologicheskiy atlas. More Laptevykh (Environmental Atlas. Laptev sea), Seriya Atlasy morey Rossiyskoy Arktiki (Series Atlases of the Seas of the Russian Arctic), Moscow: Publ. of Arctic Science Center, 2017.

9. Pashali A.A., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Ice and hydrometeorological survey at Khatangskiy license block in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 3, pp. 2227.

10. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Studies of the ice regime in the waters of the Gulf of Khatanga in the Laptev Sea (In Russ.), Led i Sneg, 2018, V. 58, no. 3, pp. 396404, DOI: 10.15356/2076-6734-2018-3-396-404

11. Kovalev S.M., Smirnov V.N., Borodkin V.A. et al., Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Sea Ice in the Kara and Laptev Seas, International Journal of Offshore and Polar Engineering, 2019, V. 29, no. 4, pp. 369374.

12. Efimov Y., Zolotukhin A., Gudmestad O.T., Kornishin K.,  Cluster development of the barents and kara seas hc mega basins from the Novaya zemlya archipelago, Proceedings of  Arctic Technology Conference 2014, OTC-24650-MS,  2014, pp. 847856.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-51-55

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.1/.4
V.A. Grinchenko (Taas-Yuriakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Lensk), R.R. Valeev (Taas-Yuriakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Lensk), M.M. Abdullin (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), I.V. Schekotov (Taas-Yuriakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Lensk), A.V. Kopylov (Taas-Yuriakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Lensk), A.V. Sviaschenko (Taas-Yuriakh Neftegazodobycha LLC, RF, Lensk), S.A. Yaschenko (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Kobyashev (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.I. Komyagin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.V. Mandrugin (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen), V.F. Istisheva (Tyumen Petroleum Research Center LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Specific PLT features in complex conditions of East Siberia to assist reservoir management

Keywords: multilateral wells, field-geophysical survey, thin oil rims, under-gas-cap zones

The paper considers at the process of control and studies in the wells of the Srednebotuobinskoye field of Rosneft Oil Company, and describes the results of PLT performed in the course of pilot operations in multilateral wells with autonomous inflow control devices. Main pay interval Bt (75%) is in under-gas zone in a small oil rim of ten meters in thickness. A conventional approach to developing contact reserves is by horizontal wells with a drawdown applied to the reservoir. According to the strategy of Rosneft Oil Company, the share of highly productive horizontal wells shall be at least 40% of the well stock. Use of horizontal wells as the base case technology helped significantly increase the efficiency of developing the field. The initial productivity index of horizontal wells (design horizontal length of 1250 m) on the average came to 100 m3/(day⋅MPa). Going forward, the improvement in development technologies for gas/oil/water zone of the field is achieved through multilateral wells (the total length of the main borehole inside the pay interval is 1250m + seven lateral holes of 500m each). The initial productivity index increased on the average to 500 m3/(day⋅MPa). Complex design wells required high precision control systems. The wells were equipped with continuous pressure monitoring gauges, which helped quantify the productivity of multilateral wells and obtain monitoring data on reservoir energy. Production logging tests conveyed by downhole tractor and CT, as well as Y-tool-based clean-up, allowed testing the entire cased section of the main borehole, identifying the working intervals in horizontal sections, and obtaining a qualitative assessment of sidetrack and autonomous inflow control device (AICD) efficiency. Use of PLT for inflow control in a horizontal section helped prove the efficiency of multilateral wells. Dependency of productivity on the effective length of a horizontal section is obtained. The results provide grounds for scaling up the pilot studies.

References

1. Levanov A.N., Belyanskiy V.Yu., Anur'ev D.A. et al., Concept baseline for the development of a major complex field in Eastern Siberia using flow simulation (In Russ.), SPE-176636-RU, 2015.

2. Ivanov E.N., Akinin D.V., Valeev R.R. et al., Development of reservoir with gas cap and underlying water on Srednebotuobinskoye field  (In Russ.), SPE-182055-RU, 2016.

3. Levanov A., Kobyashev A., Chuprov A. et al., Evolution of approaches to oil rims development in terrigenous formations of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.),

SPE-187772-RU, 2017.

4. Kontorovich A.A., Podschet zapasov nefti, gaza i kondensata Srednebotuobinskogo neftegazokondensatnogo mestorozhdeniya v predelakh Tsentral'nogo bloka i Kurungskogo litsenzionnogo uchastka (Calculation of oil, gas and condensate reserves of the Srednebotuobinskoye oil and gas condensate field within the Central Block and the Kurungsky license area), Krasnoyarsk:  Publ. of OOO Geologiya Vostochnoy Sibiri, 2012.

5. Luk'yantseva E.A., Oparin I.A., Kobyashev A.V., Opredelenie metodov vyyavleniya sloya vysokovyazkikh neftey na primere Srednebotuobinskogo neftegazokondensatnogo mestorozhdeniya (Determination of methods for detection of a layer of high-viscosity oils on the example of the Srednebotuobinskoe oil and gas condensate field), Proceedings of conference GeoBaykal 2018, EAGE, 2018.

6. Prokop'eva E.G., Kobyashev A.V., Valeev R.R., Experience in production well logging and interpretation for horizontal wells of the Middle Botuobinskoe field (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2017, no. 8, pp. 1933.

7. Grinchenko V.A., Makhmutov D.Z., Bliznyukov V.Yu. et al., Efficiency of drilling and completion of directional oil-producing wells in the Eastern Siberia through a horizontal section evolution - From single wellbores to the "Birch-Leaf" design due to detailing of hydrocarbon deposits geological structure (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2020, no. 5 (329), pp. 815.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-56-61

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT

622.276.53.057-2
D.. Minchenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), S.B. Yakimov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.B. Noskov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), D.A. Kosilov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.V. Bylkov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), V.N. Ivanovsky (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.A. Sabirov (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow), A.V. Bulat (Gubkin University, RF, Moscow)
Project to improve wear resistance of gas separators of electric submersible pumps at Rosneft Oil Company

Keywords: improvement of electric submersible pumps (ESP) operating performance, ESP gas separators., wear of gas separators, degradation of gas separator properties

An increase in concentration of abrasive particles in produced fluids caused by more intensive operation of oil wells has resulted in toughening operating conditions for electric submersible pumps. The widespread use of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing technology with a large volume of injected proppant has also contributed to this. Despite the significantly increased intensity of equipment operation and the significantly increased number of factors that complicate operations, the strategy implemented by Rosneft to extend the mean time between failures enables achieving an improvement of this indicator year on year. In their search for ways to further enhance operating performance of electric submersible pumps used in the conditions of high content of gas and abrasive particles in produced fluid, Rosneft initiated bench tests of the operated gas separators. The tests resulted in the first-ever study of separation factor degradation at various models of gas separators caused by equipment wear. It was found that the largest degradation of the separation factor occurs in rotary gas separators. As for screw and vortex gas separators, the tests evidenced a relatively small change in their separation factor. Gas separators were also studied for the depth of hydroabrasive damages of the protective sleeve. The deepest damages were found on rotary gas separators and the smallest on screw gas separators. Following the testing results, manufacturers of gas separators were issued design debugging recommendations aimed to improve wear resistance qualities. The studies made it possible to identify best gas separator models for using in wells with high production of abrasive particles, and also to develop wear resistance criteria for inclusion in Rosneft specifications for such equipment. The use of gas separators found to have high wear resistance properties during the bench tests, will lead to lower oil production losses caused by an increase in gas content at pumps as a result of separation factor deterioration. Further, the switch to using gas separators with high wearing qualities will enable reducing operating costs for repairs and capital expenditures for purchase of such equipment. Another effect from this will be achieving a further extension of the mean time between failures.

References

1. Salikhova A.R., Loskutov K.Yu., Galkov I.T., Sabirov A.A., Well completion after hydraulic fracturing (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2020, no. 9, pp. 6470.

2. Yakimov S.B., Shportko A.A., Shalagin Yu.Yu., Ways of improving gas separators reliability used to protect electric centrifugal pumps (ESP) in the deposits of PJSC "NK "Rosneft" (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2017, no. 1, pp. 3339.

3. Minchenko D.A., Yakimov S.B., Noskov A.B. et al., Project of introduction of gas separators of electrical submersible pumps with lower power consumption: preparation and start of implementation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 11, pp. 64 67.

4. Gerasimov V.V., Highly reliable equipment for work in difficult conditions (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2012, no. 2 , pp. 1825.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-62-65

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622.276.53.057-2
E.O. Timashev (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), U.M. Abutalipov (RN-BashNIPIneft LCC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Kitabov (RN-BashNIPIneft LCC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Ivanov (RN-BashNIPIneft LCC, RF, Ufa), M.I. Khakimyanov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa)
Analysis of characteristics and construction solutions of linear submersible electric drives

Keywords: linear drive, tractive effort, engine power

The article deals with the principles of operation, key characteristics and design solutions of submersible electric drives for oil production in Rosneft Oil Company. An overview of the characteristics and design features of the manufacture of samples of linear drives existing on the market is presented, on the basis of which the limiting values of the operating parameters of the equipment under consideration are given. The typical composition and principle of operation of the main existing types of control stations for linear valve drives are described. The most significant differences in the specifics of the linear drive operation in comparison with a sucker rod pumping unit driven by a pumping unit are briefly described. The article also describes the process of calculating the required tractive effort of a linear drive depending on various technological conditions of well operation, including the assessment of the component of the tractive effort required to lift the liquid column, as well as all types of losses during equipment operation. The relationship between the traction force and the required power of the linear drive, depending on the speed of the moving element, is presented. The results of calculations of traction forces and powers for several types of wells with different operating parameters are presented. Also, the article presents the dependences of the change in the efficiency of a linear drive on the supply frequency and the degree of drive load. A list of the main design parameters that affect the traction force of the linear drive is presented. The analysis of the change in the values of the tractive effort for various design parameters and the change in the size of the equipment is carried out, as a result of which the maximum possible power for the standard sizes of equipment is determined, taking into account the existing restrictions on the change in design parameters.

References

1. Khakim'yanov M.I., Upravlenie elektroprivodami skvazhinnykh nasosnykh ustanovok (Control of electric drives of borehole pumping units), Moscow: Infra-Inzheneriya Publ., 2017, 138 p.

2. Galkin S.V., Koshkin K.A., Poplaukhina T.B., Analysis of structure of operational objects fund during operational estimation of residual oil stockpiles (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 10, pp. 3739.

3. Certificate of authorship no. 1080694 USSR, Lineynyy asinkhronnyy dvigatel' vozvratno-postupatel'nogo dvizheniya (Linear asynchronous reciprocating motor), Authors: Semenov V.V., Rezin M.G., Vasev Yu.A.

4. Semenov V.V., Theory of mutual arrangement of tooth-groove structures of a linear asynchronous motor of a plunger pump for directional and horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2007, V. 5, no. 1, pp. 8690.

5. Patent RU2549381C1, Borehole linear motor, Inventors: Kaliy V.A., Savchenko M.S., Reznichenko A.V., Skvarskiy P.A.

6. Klyuchnikov A.T., Korotaev A.D., Shutemov S.V., Modeling a cylindrical linear valve motor (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnika, 2013, no. 11, pp. 1416.

7. Klyuchnikov A.T., Korotaev A.D., Shulakov N.V., Shutemov S.V., Cylindrical linear ac electronic motor for operation pump (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya v elektroenergetike i elektrotekhnike, 2015, V. 1, pp. 158162.

8. Korotaev A.D., Klyuchnikov A.T., Shutemov S.V., Baybakov M.S., The control algorithm of cylindrical linear motor with permanent magnets (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya v elektroenergetike i elektrotekhnike, 2015, V. 1, pp. 184189.

9. Patent no. WO 2017/007656, Downhole linear motor and pump sensor data system, Inventors: Bell F., Cardamone D.P., Singh I., Santacesaria M., Halloran D.J., Roberts J.

10. Andriasov R.S., Mishchenko I.T., Petrov A.I. et al., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference Guide for reservoir engineering and oilfield development. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.

11. Lei D. et al., Optimization and application of reciprocating direct-drive electric submersible plunger pump lifting system in the Xinjiang oilfield, The Open Chemical Engineering Journal, 2019, V. 13, no. 1, pp. 6880.

12. Timashev E.O., Chirkov D.A., Korotaev A.D., Operating characteristics of a cylindrical linear induction motor (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnika = Russian Electrical Engineering, 2018, no. 11, pp. 2731.

13. Chirkov D.A., Klyuchnikov A.T., Korotaev A.D., Timashev E.O., Comparison of electromagnetic processes calculation methods on the example of a cylindrical linear electronic motor (In Russ.), Elektrotekhnika, informatsionnye tekhnologii, sistemy upravleniya, 2018, no. 28, pp. 7691.

14. Korotaev A.D., Shulakov N.V., Shutemov S.V., Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya tsilindricheskogo lineynogo ventil'nogo elektrodvigatelya (Experimental studies of a cylindrical linear valve motor), Colected papers Aktual'nye problemy energosberegayushchikh elektrotekhnologiy APEET-2014 (Actual problems of energy-saving electrical technologies APEET-2014), 2014, pp. 198200.

15. Chirkov D.A., Korotaev A.D., Klyuchnikov A.T., Raschet osnovnykh parametrov tsilindricheskogo lineynogo ventil'nogo dvigatelya po skheme zameshcheniya (Calculation of the main parameters of a cylindrical linear valve motor according to the equivalent circuit), Collected papers Avtomatizatsiya v elektroenergetike i elektrotekhnike (Automation in electric power and electrical engineering), Proceedings of international scientific and technical conference, Perm', 2122 April 2016, Perm': Publ. of PSTU, 2016, pp. 144149.

16. Klyuchnikov A.T., Korotaev A.D., Chirkov D.A., Calculation method of cylindrical linear ac electronic motor magneticcircuit by an equivalent circuit (In Russ.), Informatsionno-izmeritel'nye i upravlyayushchie sistemy, 2010, no. 9, pp. 6469. 

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-66-69

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

658.332.3:622.276
V.A. Pavlov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), .. Litvinenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), E.S. Golovina (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara), A.I. Korovin (Samaraneftekhimproekt JSC, RF, Samara)
Prospects for applying virtual simulators to hazardous production

Keywords: digitalization, hazardous production, occupational injuries, staff training, virtual reality, augmented reality, virtual simulators, emergency and non-routine situations, skill training, virtual plant model

The functioning of hazardous production facilities is inseparably connected with the necessity of special staff training including the training of personnel to operate effectively in critical situations/emergencies. Despite the large number of theoretical and practical courses, norms, regulations, etc., occupational injury rates are not going down. It is assumed that a lack of knowledge is not always the only problem for the modern employee. In a real emergency, it is also the lack of practice that makes the situation truly critical. The use of virtual simulators in the process of staff training is a promising area for development. Virtual reality or augmented reality methods allow employees to practice emergency actions in an almost real environment as many times as it takes to memorize the procedures that save lives and health of employees and their colleagues. Besides, these methods are instrumental in resolving serious operating problems, such as major leaks caused by pipe fracture or equipment failure, when several hazards have to be dealt with at the same time.

The article addresses the main aspects of using virtual simulators for the training of staff to work at hazardous production facilities. The main specific features of applying virtual simulators to production sites are described. The article reviews current developments that are meant to improve the quality of hardware systems of virtual simulators and make them more comfortable, as every technology has its shortcomings.

The authors give examples of virtual simulators they developed for oil refineries.

References

1. Dijksterhuis A., Think different: The merits of unconscious thought in preference development and decision making, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2004, no. 5 (87), pp. 586598.

2. Vol'fson Yu.R., Vol'china A.E., Visual perception in modern society, or whither the Gutenberg galaxy? (In Russ.), Russian Journal of Education and Psychology, 2015, no. 4 (48), pp. 177189.

3. URL: https://ot-online.ru/articles/statistika-proizvodstvennogo-travmatizma-po-rossii-za-2019-god.

4. Jang H.J. et al., Progress of display performances: AR, VR, QLED, and OLED, Journal of Information Display, 2020, V. 21, no 1, pp. 19.

5. Hillenbrand M. et al., See-through near to eye displays: Challenges and solution paths, Proceedings of  59th Ilmenau Scientific Colloquium, 1115 September, 2017.

6. Lipp N. et al., Evoking emotions in virtual reality: Schema activation via a freeze-frame stimulus, Virtual Reality, 2020, pp. 114, DOI: 10.1007/s10055-020-00454-6.

7. Waldern J.D., Grant A.J., Popovich M.M., DigiLens Switchable Bragg grating waveguide optics for augmented reality applications, Proc. SPIE-10676, 2018.

8. Lee G.-Y., Hong J.-Y., Hwang S. et al., Metasurface eyepiece for augmented reality, Nat. Commun. 9, 2018, no. 4562, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07011-5.

9. Moon S., Lee C.-K., Nam S.-W. et al., Augmented reality near-eye display using Pancharatnam-Berry phase lenses, Sci. Rep. 9, 2019, no. 6616, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-42979-0.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-70-72

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GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION

552.3:550.832
S.V. Dobryden (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, Surgutneftegas PJSC, RF, Tyumen)
Electric resistance and natural electrochemical activity of volcanogenous rocks

Keywords: volcanic rocks, determination of the oil saturation coefficient, electrical resistance, natural electrochemical activity

The article considers the factors influencing the electrical resistance and natural electrochemical activity of rocks of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence of the central zone of the north-eastern framing of the Krasnoleninsky arch. Differentiated petrophysical relationships are proposed to determine the oil saturation factor based on the data of standard well-logging. It was found that the electrical resistance is determined by the peculiarities of the structure of the void space and the nature of postmagmatic changes. In rocks with a low content of postmagmatic minerals, the presence of fractures contributes to the decrease in resistance, while cavities can increase the electrical resistivity of the rocks. Volcanic, volcanic-sedimentary, sedimentary rocks and deposits of the weathering crust containing increased amounts of clay minerals are characterized by low electrical resistance. The processes of albitization, carbonatization, silicification of volcanics contribute to an increase in electrical resistance.

The electrical indicators of volcanic-sedimentary and sedimentary rocks are reduced relative to most volcanic rocks, which is due to both the intergranular type of their void space and increased clay content. Among volcanic rocks with a low content of postmagmatic minerals, the average values electrical indicators are reduced in tuffs, which is due to the predominance of intergranular pores in their void space. For effusive rocks, clastolavas and lavoclastites in the void space of which caverns and cracks predominate, the average electrical indicators are increased. For each type of rocks within the group under consideration, several most probable values are noted, corresponding to a certain type of void space. The natural electrochemical activity of the rocks of the volcanic-sedimentary sequence is determined by diffusion-adsorption, filtration and redox processes. Clay volcanic, volcanic-sedimentary, sedimentary rocks, weathering crust deposits, basic volcanics are characterized by positive anomalies on the curve of spontaneous potentials, acidic volcanic rocks and volcanic-sedimentary rocks with a low content of adsorptive-active minerals are negative.

An example of determining the type of saturation and calculating the water saturation coefficient of rocks of a volcanic-sedimentary sequence according to the data of a standard complex of well-logging is given. The results obtained are confirmed by the data of core and well-log, the results of well tests.

References

1. Karlov A.M., Usmanov I.Sh., Trofimov E.N. et al., Makroizuchenie neftenasyshchennykh vulkanitov doyurskogo kompleksa Sidermskoy ploshchadi Rogozhnikovskogo mestorozhdeniya (Macro-study of oil-saturated volcanics of the pre-Jurassic complex of the Sidermskaya area of the Rogozhnikovskoye field) Proceedings of X scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2007, pp. 295307.

2. Kropotova E.P., Korovina T.A., Romanov E.A., Fedortsov I.V., Sostoyanie izuchennosti i sovremennye vzglyady na stroenie, sostav i perspektivy doyurskikh otlozheniy zapadnoy chasti Surgutskogo rayona (Rogozhnikovskiy litsenzionnyy uchastok) (The state of knowledge and modern views on the structure, composition and prospects of pre-Jurassic deposits of the western part of the Surgut region (Rogozhnikovsky license area)),Proceedings of IX scientific and practical conference Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAO (Ways of realization of oil and gas potential of KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2006, pp. 133146.

3. Shadrina S.V., Kritskiy I.L., The formation of volcanogenic reservoir by hydrothermal fluid  (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 8, pp. 1821.

4. Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Rezvanov R.A., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya parametrov neftegazovykh kollektorov (pri podschete zapasov i proektirovanii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy) (Geophysical methods of determining the parameters of oil and gas reservoirs (for calculation of reserves and reservoir engineering))., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 318 p.

5. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 368 p.

6. Gil'manova R.Kh., Egorov A.F., Krotov S.A., Ziyatdinov R.R., Influence of lithology on resistance of oil-saturated carbonate collectors in transit zone and their further development (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2012, no. 1, pp.  8489.

7. Dakhnov V.N., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov geofizicheskikh issledovaniy razrezov skvazhin (Interpretation of the results of geophysical investigations of well sections), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 448 p.

8. Zaripov O.G., Sonich V.P., Influence of lithology of reservoir rocks on the resistivity of reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2001, no. 9, pp. 1821.

9. Komova A.D., D'yakonova T.F., Isakova T.G. et al., Features of the structure and evaluation of oil saturation factor of low-resistivity Upperjurassic reservoirs on example of the Vategan field of Western Siberia (In Russ.),   Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2016, no. 7(53), pp. 1721.

10. Leont'ev E.I., Doroginitskaya L.M., Kuznetsov G.S., Malykhin A.Ya., Izuchenie kollektorov nefti i gaza mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri geofizicheskimi metodami (Study of oil and gas reservoirs of Western Siberia fields by geophysical methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 240 p.

11. Mel'nik I.A., Cause of low electrical resistance in the low-resistance reservoirs (In Russ.),  Geofizicheskie issledovaniya, 2014, V. 15, no. 4, pp. 4453.

12. Teploukhov V.M., Nakonechnyy A.V., Teploukhov A.V., Separation of a low-resistance facies and its impact on the geological model of the Yu11 layer of Shinginskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 8587.

13. Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Issledovanie razrezov neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin metodom sobstvennykh potentsialov (Research of sections of oil and gas wells by the method of intrinsic potentials), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1966, 206 p.

14. Limberger Yu.A., Fractured reservoirs: extraction and study in well sections (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2008, no. 4, pp. 1826.

15. Pirson S.J., Oil reservoir engineering, McGraw-Hill, New York City, 1958.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-76-81

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550.822.3:622.276.031.011.43
S.G. Mukhametdinova (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), A.I. Korshunov (Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of RAS, RF, Izhevsk), A.S. (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk)
Using wireless high-speed communication channels to solve automation problems at the fields of Udmurtneft JSC

Keywords: high-speed communication channels, wireless communication in oil and gas production, standardization of wireless data transmission, WiMAX

The paper summarizes the experience of using wireless high-speed communication channels at oil and gas fields. Due to the constant increase in the volume of transmitted information when monitoring oil and gas production processes, the existing communication channels created in the early 90s of the XX century became insufficient. There is an urgent need to replace the old fleet of VHF radio stations and create new high-speed communication channels. Currently, there are two ways to organize high-speed communication channels: fiber-optic lines and broadband access. The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. The wireless technologies WiMAX, WiFi are described. Their comparative characteristics are given.

Design and construction of high-speed communication channels in Udmurtneft JSC since 2010 is presented. This enterprise has developed standard schemes of communication systems, equipment placement in premises and subscriber stations; specifications of the necessary equipment for solving automation problems were drawn up. Data from sensors installed on production wells, information on the state of electric drives of borehole pumps, parameters of group metering units, pressure manifold blocks, and signals from the capacity of industrial effluents, all of this are transmitted via the broadband radio channel to the workstation of the oil field dispatcher. Calculations of radio channel profiles for base and subscriber stations have been performed. Since 2011, the broadband access system has been successfully operating at the Mishkinskoye oil field, since 2012 - at Gremikhinskoye, Listvenskoye and Kiengopskoye. The measures for the construction and modernization of the technological communication network are described. The article describes the technical maintenance of the broadband access system at Udmurtneft JSC, and the equipment providing hardware implementation of high-speed radio access. The system operates under the control of the WANFlex operating system and is currently being installed at the oil and gas fields of Udmurtneft JSC.

References

1. Arslanov V.F., Actuality of internet of things use to monitor oil and gas equipment (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2018, no. 12, pp. 811.

2. Mukhametdinova S.G., Khmelinin K.S., Trefilov A.S., Application of the technology of broadband high-speed radio access at the deposits of JSC "Udmurtneft" (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2019, no. 8, pp. 59.

3. McKinney T., Transition to wireless which standard is better? WIFI, BLUETOOTH or ZIGBEE (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2015, no. 9, pp. 8385, URL: https://www.e-asutp.ru/articles/new/1877-hms-besprovodnaja-svjaz-wifi-bluetooth-zigbee.html
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-82-87

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

622.276.43
I.V. Afanaskin (Federal State Institution Scientific Research Institute for System Analysis of the Russian Academy of Sciences, RF, Moscow)
Stream tubes model for analysis and prediction of oil field development

Keywords: flooding, streamlines, stream tube

The main method of oil field development in Russia is flooding. Most of the fields are at the III-IV stages of development. Production wells are mainly characterized by low oil flow rates and high water cut (90-98%). Under these conditions, development engineers are faced with the task of minimizing water production and injection while maintaining or even increasing the oil production rate. For this, measures are being taken to control and manage the oil field development. To implement such measures, a fairly simple model from a computational point of view is necessary, which at the same time takes into account all the main factors that affect the development process. The paper presents an improved mathematical model of V.S. Kovalev and M.L. Surguchev for the operational calculation of oil reservoir flooding indicators. It partially takes into account the non-piston nature of displacement (piston model of displacement is used, but the incompleteness of oil displacement by water is taken into account) and the real placement of wells, and also partially takes into account the heterogeneity of the reservoir in terms of filtration-capacitive properties. The heterogeneity of the reservoir over the area is taken into account indirectly when constructing streamlines. It is assumed to use one permeability distribution describing layer-by-layer flooding when calculating the movement of water for all stream tubes. If necessary, the calculations are possible with the adaptation of the permeability distribution for each well. An original method of constructing the distribution of streamlines is proposed for converting the flow in the well system to the flow in the curved gallery. The model is based on two methods: the stream tube method and the curved gallery method. Comparison of the results of calculations using the proposed model with the results of calculations on the commercial hydrodynamic simulator Rubis Kappa Engineering shows satisfactory accuracy from a practical point of view.

References

1. Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Proektirovanie razrabotki (Reference guide for the design, development and operation of oil fields. Development design): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 464 p.

2. Borisov Yu.P., Voinov V.V., Ryabinina Z.K., Vliyanie neodnorodnosti plastov na razrabotku neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Influence of reservoir heterogeneity on the development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 288 p.

3. Kovalev V.S., Zhitomirskiy V.M., Prognoz razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy i effektivnost' sistem zavodneniya (Oil field development forecast and waterflooding system efficiency), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 248 p.

4. Surguchev M.L., Metody kontrolya i regulirovaniya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methods for monitoring and managing of oil fields development), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1968, 371 p.

5. Kovalev V.S., Raschet protsessa zavodneniya neftyanoy zalezhi (Calculation of the process of waterflooding of an oil reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 137 p.

6. Akul'shin A.I., Prognozirovanie razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Forecasting the development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 240 p.

7. Ertekin T., Abou-Kassem J.H., King G.R., Basic applied reservoir simulation, SPE Textbook Series Vol. 7, 2001, 406 p.

8. Fanchi J.R., Principles of applied reservoir simulation, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2005, 532 p.

9.  Ruchkin A.A., Stepanov S.V., Knyazev A.V. et al., Applying CRM model to study well interference (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fiziko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie. Neft', gaz, energetika = Tyumen State University Herald. Physical and Mathematical Modeling. Oil, Gas, Energy, 2018, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 148168.

10. Sayarpour M., Zuluaga E., Kabir C.S., Lake L.W., The use of capacitanceresistance models for rapid estimation of waterflood performance and optimization, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2009, V. 69 (34), pp. 227238.

11. Houze O., Viturat D., Fjaere S.O., Dynamic data analysis, Paris: Kappa Engineering, 2020, 852 p.

12. CMG Users Guide 2018.10, Calgary: Computer Modelling Groupe LTD, 2018, 1136 p.

13. RD 39-100-91. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po gidrodinamicheskim, promyslovo-geofizicheskim i fiziko-khimicheskim metodam kontrolya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methodical guidance on hydrodynamic, field-geophysical and physicochemical methods of oil field development control), Moscow: Publ. of Minneftegazprom, 1991, 540 p.

14. RD 153-39.0-10-01. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po kompleksirovaniyu i etapnosti vypolneniya geofizicheskikh, gidrodinamicheskikh i geokhimicheskikh issledovaniy neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Guidelines for the integration and staging of geophysical, hydrodynamic and geochemical studies of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Publ. of Minenergo, 2002, 76 p.

15. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999, 164 p.

16. Korolev A.V., Kats R.M., Testirovanie matematicheskikh modeley, primenyaemykh pri proektirovanii razrabotki s primeneniem gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Testing of mathematical models used in the design of development with the use of horizontal wells), Publ. of VNIIneft, INPETRO, 1994, 26 p.

17. Odeh A.S., Comparison of solutions to a three-dimensional black-oil reservoir simulation problem, SPE-9723-PA, 1981.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-88-93

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622.276.432:622.245.544
A.S. Kazantsev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm; VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Volgograd, RF, Volgograd)
The laboratory studying self-diverting acid systems for acidic treatments of wells with stratified irregularity in carbonate reservoirs

Keywords: bottomhole formation zone, bottomhole treatment, acid treatments, stratified irregularity, self-diverting acid systems, flow-diverters, invert emulsions, viscoelastic surfactants

The huge part of remaining recoverable reserves of oil in Perm region is concentrated in complex structured stratified carbonate reservoirs. Thus, the task of improving the efficiency of oil field development and providing good control and adjustability of the field development process in the condition of intermittent  production is complicated with the increase of watercut while the recovery of reserves. That is why the approaches to bottomhole treatment and candidate wells selection are complicated. The importance of accurate fluid placement during acid treatment is increased. The bottomhole treatment often needs flow-diverters for successful acidizing.

The approaches and main results of laboratory testing of self-diverting acid systems and flow-diverters for complex acid treatments in stratified irregular reservoirs are given in the article. There is shown that self-diverting acid systems based on viscoelastic surfactants demonstrate an effect of flow diversion while the low value of permeability contrast. Decreasing of acid content in self-diverting acid system increases the effect of flow diversion due to increasing of viscosity of the acid while spending of acid. Flow-diverters based of invert emulsions have the high initial viscosity thats why such kind of systems demonstrate the strong effect of flow diversion in case of higher irregularity and permeability contrast. Recommendations of using different flow-diverting systems for objects with different properties of reservoir based on laboratory tests are formulated. Regarded technologies are widely used in Perm region.

References

1. RakhmanovR.M ., Ismagilov F.Z., Fakhrutdinov G.N. et al., Razvitie tekhnologicheskikh aspektov ispol'zovaniya kislotnykh stimuliruyushchikh kompozitsiy KSK-Tatneft' i pervye rezul'taty ikh promyshlennogo vnedreniya (Development of technological aspects of the use of acid stimulating compositions "KSK-Tatneft" and the first results of their industrial implementation), Collection of scientific papers TatNIPIneft, Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2011, pp. 221231.

2. Efimov O.D., Rakhmatullina Yu.Sh., Valiev M.F. et al., Application the self-diverting acid to increasing the production wells (on example Orenburg OGCF) (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2015, no. 7(46), pp. 4850.

3. Sagan D.P., Treatment of the bottomhole zone of wells using a selective diverter of acid composition - temporary selective bridging agent (In Russ.), Vestnik nauki, 2019, V. 3, no. 6(15), pp. 425427.

4. Tkachev D.V., Pecherskiy G.G., Kuskil'dina Yu.V. et al., Practical experience of controlled acid treatment of carbonate reservoirs using self-deviating acid system (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2016, no. 5, pp. 2126.

5. Glushchenko V.N., Obratnye emul'sii i suspenzii v neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Inverse emulsions and suspensions in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Interkontakt - Nauka Publ., 2008, 725 p.

6. Orlov G.A., Kendis M.Sh., Glushchenko V.N., Primenenie obratnykh emulsiy v neftedobyche (Application of inverse emulsions in oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 225 p.

7. Makeev G.A., Sannikov V.A., Study of water-insulating properties of materials for carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1987, no. 7, pp. 4649.

8. Orlov G.A., Musabirov M.Kh., Suleymanov Ya.I., Issledovanie reologicheskikh i fil'tratsionnykh svoystv obratnykh emul'siy dlya sovershenstvovaniya napravlennogo khimicheskogo vozdeystviya na sloisto-neodnorodnyy plast (Investigation of the rheological and filtration properties of inverse emulsions to improve the directed chemical action on a layered heterogeneous formation) Collection of scientific papers TatNIPIneft, Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 1989, pp. 5161.

9. Kotenev Yu.A., Khlebnikov V.N., Andreev V.E., Study of hydrophobic emulsions. Communication II. Hydrophobic water-oil emulsion based on natural emulsifier (In Russ.), Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, 2004, V. 11, no. 3, pp. 4247.

10. Glushchenko V.N., Ptashko O.A., Kharisov R.Ya., Denisova A.V., Kislotnye obrabotki. Sostavy, mekhanizmy reaktsii. Dizayn (Acid treatments. Compositions, reaction mechanisms. Design), Ufa: Gilem Publ., 2010, 392 p.

11. Andreev V.E., Kotenev Yu.A., Nugaybekov A.G. et al.,  Povyshenie effektivnosti vyrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti karbonatnykh kollektorov (Improving the efficiency of developing hard-to-recover oil reserves of carbonate reservoirs), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 1997, 137 p.

12. Nasr-El-Din H.A., Taylor K.C., Al-Hajji H.H., Propagation of cross-linkers used in in-situ gelled acids in carbonate reservoirs, SPE-75257-MS, 2002, https://doi.org/10.2118/75257-MS

13. Taylor K.C., Nasr-EI-Din H.A., Laboratory evaluation of in-situ gelled acids for carbonate reservoirs, SPE-71694-MS, 2003, https://doi.org/10.2118/71694-MS

14. Nasr-El-Din H.A., Chesson J.B., Cawiezel K.E. et al., Lessons learned and guidelines for matrix acidizing with viscoelastic surfactant diversion in carbonate formations, SPE-102468-MS, 2006, https://doi.org/10.2118/102468-MS

15. Shipilov A.I., Krutikhin E.V., Kudrevatykh N.V. et al., New acid compositions for selective treatment of carbonate reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 2, pp. 8083.

16. Pestrikov A.V., Politov M.E., A viscoelastic surfactant based in-situ self-diverting acid systems: experiment and model (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2013, no. 4, pp. 529562.

17. Cherepanov S.S., Baldina T.R., Raspopov A.V. et al., Results of industrial replication of acid treatment technologies by using deflection systems at the deposits of LLC "LUKOIL-PERM" (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2019, no. 6 (330), pp. 1928.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-94-97

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622.276.432:622.245.544
K.V. Andreev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm; VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Volgograd, RF, Volgograd)
Investigation of increasing of the injection wells injectivity with self-diverting acid compositions in a layered heterogeneous carbonate reservoir

Keywords: bottomhole formation zone, bottomhole treatment, acid treatments, self-diverting acid systems, injection well

Recently, a huge part of the remaining recoverable oil reserves is concentrated in layered-heterogeneous carbonate reservoirs. For carbonate, dissected reservoirs, the problem of increasing the oil recovery coefficient by organizing a system for maintaining reservoir pressure is still relevant. Oil fields at the last stage of operation have a number of factors that reduce the effectiveness of impact on the bottom-hole zone of the productive formation. These factors include: high water content of the extracted products, low reservoir pressure, the presence of backwater flows, and the multiplicity of acid treatments. The carbonate reservoir is also complicated by multidirectional fracturing and a lower oil recovery coefficient compared to the terrigenous one in addition to all these factors. The inflow in the carbonate reservoir mainly occurs through cracks, which is why there is often an advanced flooding both due to the advance of the water-oil contact and due to water breakouts from injection wells. In both cases, acid treatments can worsen the situation, since they increase the permeability of watered channels-cracks to a greater extent due to higher filterability. Thus, as a result of repeated acid treatments of reservoirs with significant layer-by-layer heterogeneity and fracturing, the reservoir becomes even more heterogeneous in permeability. In turn, the matrix of the carbonate reservoir containing the main residual reserves under standard acid treatments is exposed to a greater extent superficially, in the best case, cavities are formed. Therefore, one of the important tasks of acidic action on the carbonate reservoir is the most complete involvement of its matrix in the drainage process. When treated with self-deflecting acid, it is possible to form wormholes in the reservoir matrix not only due to inhomogeneities of the rock, but also due to redirection of the impact vector on the rock as a result of increasing the resistance of the formed gel.

The article presents results of analysis of the efficiency of processing the bottom-hole zone of the formation to increase the intake capacity of injection wells in relation to the deposits of the Volgian stage of the Korchagin field.

References

1. Napalkov V.N., Nurgalieva N.G., Plotnikova I.N., Efficiency of application of the hydrochlorid-acid formation treatment in the cavernous-fractured reservoirs of the extra-heavy crude oils and bitumen fields (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2009, no. 3 (31), pp. 4446.

2. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, Wiley, 3rd ed. Wiley, 2002.

3. Akhmerova E.E., Shafikova E.A., Apkarimova G.I. Et al., Selection of effective acid compound for carbonate collector treatment (In Russ.),  Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, 2018, V. 25, no. 3, pp. 8692.

4. Fedorenko V.Yu., Nig"matullin M.M., Petukhov A.S. et al., Acid composition for the treatment of bottomhole formation zone. Optimizing the content of iron stabilizer, for certain oils of the Volga region (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2011, no. 13, pp. 136140.

5. Kalfayan L., Production enhancement with acid stimulation, 2nd ed., PennWell corp., 2008.

6. Khisamutdinov N.I., Takhautdinov Sh.F., Telin A.G. et al., Problemy izvlecheniya ostatochnoy nefti fiziko-khimicheskimi metodami (Problems of residual oil recovery by physicochemical methods), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIONG, 2001, 184 p.

7. Tkachev D.V., Pecherskiy G.G., Kuskil'dina Yu.V. et al., Practical experience of controlled acid treatment of carbonate reservoirs using self-deviating acid system (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2016, no. 5, pp. 2126.

8. Sagan D.P., Treatment of the bottomhole zone of wells using a selective diverter of acid composition temporary selective bridging agent (In Russ.), Vestnik nauki, 2019, V. 3, no. 6 (15), pp. 425427.

9. VDA vyazkouprugaya samootklonyayushchayasya kislota. Dlya polnogo okhvata mnogozonnykh karbonatnykh kollektorov (VDA Viscoelastic self diverting acid for complete coverage of multi-zone carbonate reservoirs) Schlumberger, 2003, URL: http://www.slb.ru/upload/iblock/22f/vda-brochure-rus.pdf.

10. URL: http://www.synergytechnology.ru/strim-s.php.

11. Expert Technology v ritme innovatsiy nefteservisa. Geliruyushchie agenty DIVA dlya kislotnoy obrabotki plastov (Expert Technology in the rhythm of oilfield service innovations. DIVA gelling agents for acidizing formations), URL: http://www.expert-technology.ru/service/treatments/diva.

12. URL: http://www.polyex.perm.ru/rus/sufrogel.

13. Demakhin S.A., Shipilov A.I., Mokrushin A.A. et al., Effective acid. Variety of acid systems for stimulating production in difficult conditions (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2017, no. 78, pp. 5253.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-98-102

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FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT

622.276.012:69
V.A. Bondarenko (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.N. Ivanov (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), M.M. Veliev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), Bui Trong Han (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.S. Avdeev (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Evolution of the oilfield construction technologies at South-East offshore Vietnam

Keywords: field construction, permanent construction, offshore fixed platform, wellhead platform, standard design, performance, jacket, modular unit, topside, manifold unit, marginal field, renewable energy source

Offshore fixed platforms and wellhead platforms are the major elements of Vietsovpetro JV fields construction at offshore Vietnam. They provide gathering and treatment of oil, received from producing wells following transportation to FSO by means of subsea pipelines. Field construction with wellhead platforms and central processing platform allow avoiding significant capital investment for mounting the metal-consuming fixed platforms with multi-purpose topside and, consequently, reducing the operating costs. Vietsovpetro development trajectory in terms of capital construction aims on reducing the metal consumption and expenses. Optimization of construction solutions and shift to unmanned wellhead platforms technologies resulted in cost reduction more than twice comparing to 2014. Nowadays, the most prioritized Vietsovpetro offshore facilities are unmanned and satellite wellhead platforms. In order to minimize investment costs on wellhead platform construction while producing from marginal fields with low recoverable reserves it is required to construct and operate a fundamentally new type of the offshore facilities mini wellhead platforms. Such Mini-WP consists of uninhabitable platform with minimal set of processing equipment, required for operating 6-9 wells.

The article covers the main aspects of developing the wellhead platform designs and construction, potential participation in the new innovating projects for engineering and operating the marginal fields, as well as construction of renewable energy source objects.

References

1Vovk V.S, Osmanov V.G., Evdoshenko Yu.V., K bogatstvam Zheltogo Drakona: Ocherki po istorii rossiysko-v'etnamskogo sotrudnichestva v oblasti nefti i gaza (To the riches of the Yellow Dragon: Essays on the history of Russian-Vietnamese cooperation in the field of oil and gas), Moscow: Kuchkovo pole Publ., 2018, 356 p. 
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-104-108

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OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT



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622.244.4.06
I.A. Pakhlyan (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Armavir)
Problems and prospects of using hydro-ejector mixers in the preparation of drilling fluids and process liquids

Keywords: jet mixer, ejection coefficient, mixing chamber, hydraulic seal, homogenization, pneumatic transport

The quality of drilling muds and processing fluids directly affects the construction rate, lifespan and the workover operation efficiency of wells. Jet mixers (JM) are used for mixing and primary dispersion of components - they are simple, reliable and manufacturable. Long-term experience in drilling, development and workover operations has shown that JM designs are far from perfection. There is quite often the week ejection, the unstable transport of materials to the mixing chamber, the material wetting in the hopper, and the involvement of a large amount of air in fluids. So the task of improving the JM design and technology is relevant and economically sound. It is shown, that JM improvement is possible if the scale model experiment is completed correctly and by the creating an adequate equation for the JM characteristic as a water-air jet apparatus and taking into account the actual ejection in real conditions of pneumatic transport of powdery material at the JM inlet. When performing the work, we used an analysis of the open information flow based on the existing theory of jet devices, the results of our own experimental studies, the field experience in the operation of mud preparation units, the factory experience in the processing fluids equipment design.

References

1. Bridges S., Robinson L., A practical handbook for drilling fluids processing, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2020, 622 p.

2. Bulatov A.I., Makarenko P.P., Proselkov Yu.M., Burovye promyvochnye i tamponazhnye rastvory (Drill mud and cement slurry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1999, 424 p.

3. Sokolov E. Ya., Zinger N.M., Struynye apparaty (Inkjet devices), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p.

4. Pakhlyan I.A., Grounds of designing of jet devices to be used in oil and gas industry (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2012, no. 12, pp. 1517.

5. Pakhlyan I.A., Proselkov Yu.M., Selection of the main design parameters of jet devices for oil and gas industry technologies (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2013, no. 12, pp. 5356.

6. Pakhlyan I.A., Improvement of hydro-jet mixers for the preparation of drilling flushing and grouting solutions (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2015, no. 11, pp. 8891. 

7. Pakhlyan I.A., Issledovanie gidroezhektornykh smesiteley, modernizatsiya ikh konstruktsiy i sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii prigotovleniya burovykh promyvochnykh i tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Investigation of hydro-jet mixers, modernization of their designs and improvement of the technology for the preparation of drilling flushing and grouting solutions): thesis of candidate of technical science, Krasnodar, 2010.

8. Proselkov Yu.M., Pakhlyan I.A., On the modernization of hydro ejector mixers based on model studies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 4, pp. 115119. 

9. Proselkov Yu.M., Pakhlyan I.A., Mishchenko S.V., Progressive technological schemes of cement slurries preparation (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2013, no. 4, pp. 3746. 

10. Patent RU 2442686 C1, Jet blender, Inventors: Proselkov Yu.M., Pakhlyan I.A.

11. Mishchenko S.V., Pakhlyan I.A., Proselkov Yu.M., The research of vacuum pneumatic transport performance of portland cement (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 10, pp. 2831. 

12. Pakhlyan I.A., Proselkov Yu.M., Definition of the operating range of the main performances of vacuum pneumotransport of powdery materials (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2010, no. 6, pp. 4346. 

13. Patent RU 2499878 C1, Preparation method of drilling washing solutions and grouting mortars, and device for its implementation, Inventors: Mishchenko S.V. Pakhlyan I.A. Proselkov Yu.M.

14. Utility patent no. 123344 RF, Ustroystvo dlya  dozirovannogo smeshivaniya sypuchego materiala s zhidkost'yu (Device for dosed mixing of bulk material with liquid), Inventors:  Proselkov Yu.M., Pakhlyan I.A., Mishchenko S.V.

15. Baumgarten C., Mixture formation in internal combustion engines, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2006, 294 p.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-112-114

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622.24.05
P.N. Ignatenko (RN-Uvatneftegas LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Reducing cost of drillpipes repair using a mobile lathe unit in RN-Uvatneftegas

Keywords: drillpipe, mobile unit, non-destructive testing

At present, high-strength pipes with double-shoulder tool joints are used for well drilling, which can be operated for years. When drillpipes reach a designed working life they are either replaced or repaired. Cost of repair is made up of two main elements: the cost of repair itself and the cost of transporting pipes from the field to the repair facility and back. About 4,000 drillpipes a year need repairing in RN-Uvatneftegas. In order to minimize the cost of transporting pipes from remote fields a mobile lathe unit has been introduced in the company. The mobile unit includes a number of facilities which house a non-destructive testing laboratory for drillpipe inspection, a digital lathe, a spray-type device for covering treaded joints with phosphate, a unit for breaking-in lathed joints, a unit for applying surface hardening on joints' outer surface and other necessary equipment. The unit's installation and adjustment take 7-10 days, and then it allows to repair drillpipes on a round-the-clock basis in all weather conditions. The use of the mobile unit has enabled RN-Uvatneftegaz to reduce the cost of drillpipes repair by 30%. It has also enabled to minimize the risk of work disruption associated with the need to transport drillpipes outside of the fields.

References

1. Bulatov A.I., Proselkov Yu.M., Shamanov S.A., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya bureniya neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Technique and technology of oil and gas wells drilling), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2003, 1007 p.

2. Truby buril'nye. Rukovodstvo po ekspluatatsii (Drill pipes. Manual), Moscow: Publ. of NII Razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftepromyslovykh trub, 2019, 241 p.

3. URL: http://delta-energy.ru/services/mtk/
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-116-118

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INFORMATION



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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

681.518:622.276
S.G. Mukhametdinova (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk), A.I. Korshunov (Udmurt Federal Research Center of the Ural Branch of RAS, RF, Izhevsk), A.S. (Izhevsk Petroleum Research Center CJSC, RF, Izhevsk)
Using wireless high-speed communication channels to solve automation problems at the fields of Udmurtneft JSC

Keywords: high-speed communication channels, wireless communication in oil and gas production, standardization of wireless data transmission, WiMAX

The paper summarizes the experience of using wireless high-speed communication channels at oil and gas fields. Due to the constant increase in the volume of transmitted information when monitoring oil and gas production processes, the existing communication channels created in the early 90s of the XX century became insufficient. There is an urgent need to replace the old fleet of VHF radio stations and create new high-speed communication channels. Currently, there are two ways to organize high-speed communication channels: fiber-optic lines and broadband access. The article discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. The wireless technologies WiMAX, WiFi are described. Their comparative characteristics are given.

Design and construction of high-speed communication channels in Udmurtneft JSC since 2010 is presented. This enterprise has developed standard schemes of communication systems, equipment placement in premises and subscriber stations; specifications of the necessary equipment for solving automation problems were drawn up. Data from sensors installed on production wells, information on the state of electric drives of borehole pumps, parameters of group metering units, pressure manifold blocks, and signals from the capacity of industrial effluents, all of this are transmitted via the broadband radio channel to the workstation of the oil field dispatcher. Calculations of radio channel profiles for base and subscriber stations have been performed. Since 2011, the broadband access system has been successfully operating at the Mishkinskoye oil field, since 2012 - at Gremikhinskoye, Listvenskoye and Kiengopskoye. The measures for the construction and modernization of the technological communication network are described. The article describes the technical maintenance of the broadband access system at Udmurtneft JSC, and the equipment providing hardware implementation of high-speed radio access. The system operates under the control of the WANFlex operating system and is currently being installed at the oil and gas fields of Udmurtneft JSC.

References

1. Arslanov V.F., Actuality of internet of things use to monitor oil and gas equipment (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2018, no. 12, pp. 811.

2. Mukhametdinova S.G., Khmelinin K.S., Trefilov A.S., Application of the technology of broadband high-speed radio access at the deposits of JSC "Udmurtneft" (In Russ.), Avtomatizatsiya, telemekhanizatsiya i svyaz' v neftyanoy promyshlennosti, 2019, no. 8, pp. 59.

3. McKinney T., Transition to wireless which standard is better? WIFI, BLUETOOTH or ZIGBEE (In Russ.), Neftegazovye tekhnologii, 2015, no. 9, pp. 8385, URL: https://www.e-asutp.ru/articles/new/1877-hms-besprovodnaja-svjaz-wifi-bluetooth-zigbee.html
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-120-122

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OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION

658.5:622.692.4
R.Z. Sunagatullin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), R.M. Karimov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa), R.R. Tashbulatov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa), B.N. Mastobaev (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa)
The study of the kinetics of the process of oil wax deposition in main pipeline operating conditions

Keywords: intensity of wax deposition, oil, main pipeline, dynamic tests, kinetics of the process, thermohydraulic testing installation, wax inhibitor, flow mode

A comparative analysis of the instrumental base and test methods for qualitative and quantitative studies of waxing processes and the selection of wax inhibitors is presented. The drawbacks of the static test methods used are substantiated, which allow, at best, to estimate the intensity or indirect indicators characterizing the dynamics of the pipe waxing process in model laboratory conditions, the results of which are suitable only for solving a narrow range of problems comparing the tendency of different oil composition to form wax deposits and the effectiveness of wax inhibitors. The data obtained in this way, even in a wide temperature range, do not effectively predict the course and development of the process under conditions of various regimes of oil flow modes through non-isothermal pipelines. In particular, the ineffectiveness of the used depressor inhibitors on commercial oils under prolonged test conditions has been experimentally proved, where the latter can act as surfactants that, on the one hand, reduce the amount of deposits in the flow and at the same time prevent the washout of the already formed layer in the near-wall zone. It is noted that temperature conditions are only a factor in the formation of the deposits themselves, and do not determine the dynamics of their accumulation on the inner surface of the pipe wall. To assess the kinetics of the waxing process in time, only methods based on in-line tests are applicable. A thermohydraulic testing installation is proposed, developed for carrying out in-line experimental studies of the dynamics and kinetics of the wax deposition process of non-isothermal main oil pipelines, which reproduces conditions close to operating ones, not only taking into account unsteady heat-mass transfer and the level of shear stresses, but also flow regime modes, up to developed turbulent ones, at which they have the place where the surface layer of sediments was washed away due to pulsations in the wall zone for the possibility of applying the results of experimental studies from lab and testing installation data to the operating modes of oil pipelines, the boundary test conditions have been determined.

References

1. Armenskiy E.A., Novoselov V.F., Tugunov P.I., Study of thermal phenomena and dynamics of wax deposition in oil pipelines (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 1969, no. 10, pp. 7780.

2. Voznyak M.P., Khizgilov I.Kh., Voznyak L.V., Changes in the thickness of paraffin deposits along the length of the pipeline and in time  (In Russ.), Razvedka i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 1975, no. 12, pp. 113116.

3. Kolesnik I.S., Lukashevich I.P., Susanina O.G., Study of the adhesion of paraffin deposits to a steel surface (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 1972, no. 5, pp. 1720.

4. Kolesnik I.S., Lukashevich I.P., Susanina O.G., Influence of temperature on the waxing process (In Russ.), Neft' i gaz, 1971, no. 2, pp. 8588.

5. Tronov V.P., Teoreticheskaya otsenka vliyaniya fizicheskikh svoystv poverkhnostey kachestva obrabotki i drugikh faktorov na intensivnost' otlozheniy parafina (Theoretical assessment of the influence of the physical properties of surfaces, processing quality and other factors on the intensity of wax deposits), Proceedings of TatNIPI, 1962, V. 4, pp. 400412.

6. Tronov V.P., O mekhanizme vliyaniya prirody poverkhnostey na ikh zaparafinivanie (On the mechanism of the effect of the nature of surfaces on their waxing), Proceedings of TatNIPI, 1968, V. 11, pp. 191200. 

7.  Tronov V.P., Mekhanizm obrazovaniya smolo-parafinovykh otlozheniy i bor'ba s nimi (Mechanism of formation of resin-paraffin deposits and its control), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 192 p.

8. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Vliyanie temperaturnogo gradienta na granitse razdela "potok stenka" na intensivnost' parafinootlozheniy (Influence of the temperature gradient at the "flow - wall" interface on the intensity of paraffin deposition), Proceedings of  XIV International educational, scientific and practical conference "Truboprovodnyy transport 2019" (Pipeline Transport 2019), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2019, pp. 132133.

9. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Dmitriev M.E., Baykova M.I., Experimental studies of the operational properties of asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits formed in main oil pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2018, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 398406.

10. Sunagatullin R.Z., Karimov R.M., Tashbulatov R.R., Mastobaev B.N., Modeling the thermal-hydraulic effect of wax layer (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 2, pp. 158162.

11.  Revel'-Muroz P.A., Bakhtizin R.N., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Joint usage of thermal and chemical stimulation technique for transportation of high viscosity and congealing oils (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy NIPI Neftegaz GNKAR = SOCAR Proceedings, 2017, no. 2, pp. 4955.

12. Revel'-Muroz P.A., Bakhtizin R.N., Karimov R.M., Mastobaev B.N., Joint transportation of heavy and wax oil blended (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy NIPI Neftegaz GNKAR = SOCAR Proceedings, 2018, no. 2, pp. 6570.

13. Patent RU2650727S1, Stand for research of transportation processes of black and bituminous oil, Inventors: Chuzhinov S.N., Sunagatullin R.Z., Zverev F.S., Nesyn G.V., Avdej A.V.
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-124-127

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621.643
M.Z. Yamilev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), E.A. Tigulev (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Yushin (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Raspopov (The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC, RF, Moscow), I.F. Kantemirov (Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, RF, Ufa)
Evaluating mechanical heterogeneity of pipelines welded joints

Keywords: welded joint, strength, mechanical characteristics, pipeline, strength calculation

The existing methods for strength calculating that underpin pipeline design are based on indicators of the strength characteristics of the pipe metal. The presence of a welded joint is taken into account using coefficients characterizing its shape and characteristics of the weld metal. In this case, the weld and the zone of the original metal subjected to the influence of the thermal cycle are assumed to be homogeneous in mechanical properties. However, a change in properties of welded joint affects the overall bearing capacity and is defined by both mechanical and geometric parameters.

In the article, the authors propose to consider an approach to assessing the contact hardening of a welded joint of pipe steels that arise at a certain range of geometric parameters, taking into account the real topographic structure of a circumferential pipeline weld. Based on the results of experimental studies, an assessment of the mechanical characteristics of welded joints of pipe steels is presented, and the geometric features of the formation of the topographic structure are shown. The weld structure was evaluated by measuring the microhardness values. Based on the results of the analysis of the topography of mechanical inhomogeneity, an integral estimate of the dependence is proposed to determine the values of the contact hardening coefficient for curvilinear forms of inhomogeneity fields. Further development of studies of the welded joints structure in pipelines will allow to improve approaches to the calculation of their strength parameters, to develop recommendations for regulating the thermal deformation cycle, taking into account the optimal location of the fields of mechanical heterogeneity; to prepare a scientific justification for assessing the strength characteristics of a weld in the presence of a surface defect, taking into account the relative position of "soft" and "hard" interlayers.

References

1. Bakshi O.A., Mekhanicheskaya neodnorodnost' svarnykh soedineniy (Mechanical heterogeneity of welded joints), Part 1, Chelyabinsk: Publ. of ChPI, 1981, 57 p.

 2. Bakshi O.A., Kul'nevich T.V., Influence of the degree of mechanical inhomogeneity on the ductile strength of welded joints under tension (In Russ.), Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov, 1973, no. 1, pp. 2327

3. Bakshi O.A., Shron R.Z., On the calculated assessment of the strength of welded joints with a soft interlayer (In Russ.), Svarochnoe proizvodstvo, 1971, no. 3, pp. 35.

4. Vinokurov V.A., Kurkin S.A., Nikolaev G.A., Svarnye konstruktsii. Mekhanika razrusheniya i kriterii rabotosposobnosti (Welded structures. Fracture mechanics and performance criteria), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1996, 576 p.

5.  Neganov D.A., Makhutov N.A., Lisin Yu.V., Varshitskiy V.M., Comprehensive analysis of the pipelines safety and basic mechanical properties of the pipe steels  (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 1 (28), pp. 338

6. Shakhmatov M.V., Issledovanie vliyaniya konstruktivnykh i geometricheskikh parametrov stykovykh bimetallicheskikh shvov na rabotosposobnost' svarnykh soedineniy (Investigation of the influence of design and geometric parameters of bimetallic butt welds on the performance of welded joints): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1979.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-128-131

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ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

628.4.002.8:662.7
Yu.V. Mozzhegorova (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), G.V. Ilinykh (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), N.N. Sliusar (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), V.N. Korotaev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), I.A. Bagautdinova (Gaspromneft-GEO LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Selection of technologies for drilling waste management

Keywords: drilling waste, drilling cuttings, waste drilling mud, drilling wastewater, waste utilization, waste solidification, methodology for technology selection, technology selection criteria, technology assessment

The article deals with the issue of selecting treatment technologies at different stages of the drilling waste life cycle: from waste generation to environmental assimilation or use in economic activity as waste-produced materials. The existence of alternative technological solutions for drilling waste recycling or landfilling and a wide variety of waste generation conditions highlights the relevance of adequate comparative assessment of technologies and selection of the best option for a particular oil field. Choice of waste management technologies should be based on reliable data; therefore, it has to include information and analysis of drilling waste treatment technologies, legal restrictions, climatic and geological conditions of the territory, as well as information on field development program, existing and planned technologies and infrastructure. The proposed approach to the choice of technologies includes a feasibility analysis of specific techniques for certain fields, and a comparative technological and economic assessment for implementing appropriate technologies. The analysis puts forward a list of technologies that comply with legislation, meet the limitations of application, and other mandatory criteria. At the same time, technologies are excluded from further consideration that, despite possible advantages over other options (for example, low costs, high productivity, etc.), cannot be implemented in this field in principle (for example, they have a temperature limitation, at the field no peat available, etc.). The economical assessment stage compares technical and economic indicators of different waste management options and selects the best technology. Thus, the proposed systematic approach to the integrated assessment of technologies by technological, environmental, economic, and other criteria generates a list of technologies, recommended for use at a specific facility, and ranks them.

References

1. Ismail A.R., Alias A.H., Sulaiman W.R.W. et al., Drilling fluid waste management in drilling for oil and gas wells, Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2017, V. 56, pp. 13511356.

2. Onwukwe S.I., Nwakaudu M.S., Drilling wastes generation and management approach, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 2012, V. 3, no. 3, pp. 252257.

3. MohamedZine M-B, Ali L, Hamouche A., Comparison of treatment methods for the assessment of environmental impacts of drilling muds by the LCA approach, Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 2016, no. 3 (1), pp. 108115.

4. Aiping Zhang, Min Li, Pei Lv et al., Disposal and reuse of drilling solid waste from a massive gas field, Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2016, V. 31, pp. 577581.

5. Osuman L.O, Kinigoma B.S, Odagme B.S., Economic analysis of oilfield waste management systems in the Niger delta (A case study), Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, 2016, no. 3 (4), pp. 367374.

6. Geehan T., Gilmour A., Guo Q., The cutting edge in drilling-waste management, Oilfield Review, 2006/2007, no. 18 (4), pp. 5467.

7. Korol' V.V., Pozdnyshev G.N., Manyrin V.N., Recycling of well-boring waste products (In Russ.),  Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2005, no. 1, pp. 4042.

DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-11-132-136

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