The problems associated with requirement to intensify the energy transition to renewable energy, the ‘end of the oil and gas era’, are largely politicized and directed against countries with largest reserves of hydrocarbons. The categorical statements of a number of scientists and experts about the causes of climate change, the accusations of Russia's significant contribution to this process contradict many scientific studies. The article shows that despite a slight decrease, the share of organic fuels in the global energy balance in 2021 amounted to 82.3%, which indicates that fossil fuel dominate and, apparently, will dominate the global energy sector for a long time. The analysis of energy consumption in the world and the G20 countries, which account for about 79% of global energy consumption, as well as the analysis of the share of high-carbon, low-carbon and carbon-free energy in the energy balance of the G20 countries, the carbon intensity of the world economy, showed that the share of low-carbon Russia's energy sector exceeds 67% and it is the highest among the G20 countries. As a result it can be argued that Russia's energy sector is one of the most environmentally friendly. The analysis of the dependence of specific carbon dioxide emissions on the share of carbon-free energy in the energy consumption balance and on the share of natural gas in the consumed fossil fuel amount is carried out. It has been shown that the value of this indicator is the lowest in the countries with the largest share of both carbon-free energy and natural gas in the consumed fossil fuel. The index of specific carbon dioxide emissions in Russia is significantly lower than in the world and one of the lowest among the G20 countries. Moreover, enormous absorbing abilities of the biological ecosystems in Russia, such as forests and internal and external reservoirs, allow to speak about its relative carbon neutrality.
1. Martynov V.G., Bessel’ V.V., Lopatin A.S., Mingaleeva R.D., Global energy consumption forecasting for the medium and long term perspective (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 8, pp. 30-34, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2022-8-30-34
2. Martynov V.G., Bessel’ V.V., Kucherov V.G. et al., Prirodnyy gaz – osnova ustoychivogo razvitiya mirovoy energetiki (Natural gas is the basis for sustainable development of the world energy), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin University, 2021, 173 p.
3. Martynov V.G., Bessel’ V.V., Lopatin A.S., About Russia’s carbon neutrality (In Russ.), Trudy Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2022, no. 1(306), pp. 5–20, DOI: 10.33285/2073-9028-2022-1(306)-5-20
4. Litvinenko V., Uglerodnaya neytral’nost’ - ne panatseya, a stimul k razvitiyu ekonomiki (Carbon neutrality is not a panacea, but an incentive for economic development), URL: https://rg.ru/2022/02/15/uglerodnaia-nejtralnost-ne-panaceia-a-stimul-k-razvitiiu-ekonomiki.html
5. Martynov V.G., Bessel’ V.V., Kucherov V.G., Lopatin A.S., On the issue of sustainable development of the global energy (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2022, no. 1(167), pp. 20–29, DOI: 10.46920/2409-5516-2022-1167-20-29
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Yachmeneva A.I., Mekhanizmy realizatsii kontseptsii nizkouglerodnogo razvitiya
(Mechanisms for implementing the concept of low-carbon development), Ufa: Omega
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Based on geological data accumulated during geological exploration activities (GEA) for oil and gas, we can see the following trend. The share of non-productive small fields (sites) of a complicated structure is gradually increasing in the discoveries, up to the complete replacement in this process of large- and medium-sized fields (not to mention giant ones) with high-quality reservoirs. This trend has common features with the process of involving oil and gas fields in the development, where two varieties of this trend can be noted. On the one hand, there is a decrease in the share of giant, large and medium hydrocarbon fields. Accordingly, there is an increase in the share of developing small fields, the oil-bearing capacity of which is concentrated in layers of a complex structure, which are often disjunctively disturbed and have low filtration properties. On the other hand, when developing mature fields, the role of poorly developed reservoirs with low filtration properties is growing. In oilfield practice and science, such fields and reservoirs with degraded geological and physical parameters are called sites with hard-to-recover reserves. New sites with hard-to-recover reserves found out at the late GEA period are discovered with increasing methodological difficulties, with a high degree of risk and, for this reason, they should be described as hard-to-
discover reserves. Their geological criteria are consistent with those of hard-to-recover reserves sites; however, in the GEA practice, for the sake of convenience, it is reasonable to classify them as hard-to-discover. Upon introducing this concept, the classification of oil and gas fields according to the reserve quality criterion will have a complete structure.
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5. Mirchink M.F., Mkrtchyan O.M., Khat’yanov F.I. et al., Rify Uralo-Povolzh’ya, ikh rol’ v razmeshchenii zalezhey nefti i gaza i metodika poiska (Reefs of the Ural-Volga region, its role in the location of oil and gas deposits and search methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 152 p.
6. Egorova N.P., Khalimov E.M., Ozolin B.V. et al., Zakonomernosti razmeshcheniya i usloviya formirovaniya zalezhey nefti i gaza Volgo-Ural’skoy oblasti (Regularities of location and conditions for the formation of oil and gas deposits in the Volga-Urals region), Part 4. Bashkirskaya ASSR (The Bashkir ASSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 233 p.
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The task of picking the reflectors is one of the most time-consuming tasks in interpreting seismic data. The known analytical algorithms for arranging this task are characterized by an extremely unstable solution in areas with unclear wave field behavior, interference, etc. The article describes the existing experience with machine learning for picking the reflectors. An approach for automatic picking of reflectors using neural networks is proposed, which is based on providing a solution for the segmentation task. To expand the receptive field of the neural network, it is suggested to adopt the Feature Pyramid Network architecture and replace regular convolutions in the encoder with the extended ones. It is also suggested that additional layers with linear interpolation and convolutional layers have been added to the decoder to obtain masks with a resolution greater than that of the image applied to the neural network's input. The authors consider the methodology for preparing seismic data for training the neural network and post processing the resulting predictions. The results of testing the proposed approach are presented. The proposed approach was tested on a number of 2D and 3D seismic data of various quality, geographically located within the Volga-Ural, Timan-Pechera oil and gas provinces, Western and Eastern Siberia. Based on the results of testing, an acceptable ratio of training time to the quality of the resulting surface of the reflector, satisfying the requirements of production units, was obtained. The method proposed in the article allows to reduce the amount of time spent by specialists to pick the reflectors.
1. Khayrullin T.A., Avtomaticheskaya pikirovka pervykh vstupleniy otrazhennykh voln (Automatic picking of the first arrivals of reflected waves), Collected papers “Tsifrovye tekhnologii v dobyche uglevodorodov: ot modeley k praktike” (Digital technologies in hydrocarbon production: from models to practice), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference, Ufa: Publ. of RN-BashNIPIneft’, 2021, pp. 79–81.
2. Stark T.J., Relative geologic time (age) volumes – Relating every seismic sample to a geologically reasonable horizon, The Leading Edge, 2004, V. 23, pp. 928-932, DOI:10.1190/1.1803505
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4. Stark T.J., Unwrapping instantaneous phase to generate a relative geologic time volume, Proceedings of 73rd Annual International Meeting, SEG – 2003, pp. 1707–1710, DOI:10.1190/1.1844072
5. Luo S., Hale D., Unfaulting and unfolding 3D seismic images, Geophysics, 2012, V. 78(4), pp. O45– O56, DOI:10.1190/segam2012-1356.1
6. Ronneberger O., Fischer P., Brox T., U-Net: Convolutional Networks for Biomedical Image Segmentation, URL: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.04597.pdf
7. Koryagin A., Mylzenova D., Khudorozhkov R., Tsimfer S., Seismic horizon detection with neural networks, URL: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.03390.pdf.
8. Tschannen V., Delescluse M., Ettrich N., Keuper J., Extracting horizon surfaces from 3D seismic data using deep learning, Geophysics, 2020, V. 85(3), pp. 1MJ– Z13, DOI: 10.1190/geo2019-0569.1
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Zarubezhneft Group of Companies actively and continuously implements advanced solutions and approaches in the area of well drilling: constant benchmarking is carried out, best practices are studied both in Russia and abroad, and the most modern equipment and technologies are used. The main goal of this activity is to increase the efficiency of processes in order to optimize costs. This effect is especially significant during offshore well construction, the amount of which in Zarubezhneft Group reaches 50 wells per year. In this article the authors consider the experience of using one of these solutions – employment of a semi-submersible mobile offshore drilling unit with a dual derrick on one of the shallow water projects of Zarubezhneft in South-East Asia. Brief information on this issue and an overview of existing projects and concepts of derricks are also submitted. Evaluation of the efficiency of employment of a semi-submersible rig with a dual derrick is confirmed by the actual results given in the article, both in time and financial terms. In conclusion, the authors give conclusions and suggestions on the possibility of further use of this type of derrick when drilling wells at shallow water depths. The information provided in the article reflects only the actual experience of Zarubezhneft Group of Companies and may differ from the experience of using similar equipment by other companies. This is related to the fact that the key success factors in the application of this solution is a qualified offshore drilling unit crew with relevant experience in working with these systems as well as skilled engineering personnel capable of efficient dual derrick operations planning.
1. Vadetskiy Yu.V., Burenie neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Drilling of oil and gas wells), Moscow: Akademiya Publ., 2003, 352 p.
2. Ovchinnikova V.P., Gracheva S.I., Frolova A.A., Spravochnik burovogo mastera (Drillmaster's Handbook), Part II, Moscow: Infra-Inzheneriya Publ., 2006, 608 p.
5. Tekhnicheskie sredstva dlya osvoeniya shel'fa Arktiki i zamerzayushchikh morey. Proekty AO “TsKB “Korall” (Technical means for the development of the Arctic shelf and freezing seas. Projects of JSC “CKB “Korall”), Proceedings of V International Arctic Forum “Arktika – territoriya dialoga” (The Arctic is the territory of dialogue), 9–10 April 2019, St. Petersburg, 2019.
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The problem of the correct use of data on the compressibility of rocks in hydrodynamic modeling of the processes of the development of oil and gas deposits is investigated. The article presents the results of laboratory experiments focused on information necessary to clarify the relationship between intra-pore pressure, compressibility of rock and porosity. In this paper, a certain form of deformations leading to the destruction of the rock during compression was considered. Such deformation associated with the collapse (collapse) of pores is sometimes called shear compaction or tent deformation associated with depletion of layers. The study of this issue is an integral part of the development of hydrocarbon deposits to predict the irreversible loss of porosity at the source and the possibility of the formation of tectonic disturbances in the deposits caused by the development. The results of the presented studies indicate the need to use a set of compressibility values when the reservoir (internal pressure) changes in the hydrodynamic modeling of the processes of oil and gas deposits development. Such a set of values can be obtained using laboratory experiments performed for various types of rocks. The experiments were carried out under conditions close to reservoir conditions, the increase in effective stress in the reservoir with a decrease in reservoir pressure was modeled by reducing the intra-pore pressure at a constant pressure of all-round compression, this type of research describes the natural process of depletion of the deposit during gas extraction (a drop in reservoir pressure). The set of values of the experimental results can be presented in the form of tabular data for various types of rocks or in the form of dependencies similar to those obtained in this article. The obtained dependences can be used to increase the validity of the results of hydrodynamic modeling of the processes of oil and gas deposits development.
1. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Stanford University, California, 2007, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511586477
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4. Efimov S.I., Sovershenstvovanie metodov obosnovaniya i rascheta predel'no dopustimykh depressiy i debitov pri ekspluatatsii gazovykh skvazhin (Improving the methods of substantiation and calculation of maximum allowable drawdowns and flow rates during the operation of gas wells): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2021
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Enhancing oil recovery of carbonate deposits with active oil-water zones is an urgent task for the oil industry. The main problems in the development of objects with oil-water contact zones are associated with premature wells watering and, as a result, a reduction in the period of profitable operation of wells, as well as a decrease in the oil recovery factor. To reduce wells watering rate, increase the time of dry operation of wells and the oil recovery factor, a large number of works are being carried out. The use of various well designs (horizontal and vertical), opening and water shut-off technologies, physicochemical and hydrodynamic methods for enhanced oil recovery leads to a short-term decrease in water content in the produced product, a slight increase in the time of waterless operation and oil recovery. However, the analysis of these solutions shows the fundamental possibility of increasing the oil recovery from carbonate reservoirs by successfully blocking the ways of water inflow into the well. The article considers the results of the search for new approaches and methods for the development of carbonate deposits with oil-water contact zones. Fluid filtration studies were carried out using sectoral geological and hydrodynamic models. Several technologies of water shut-off works in horizontal wells were modeling. To isolate zones of fractures crossing a horizontal wellbore, injection of viscoelastic compositions, mechanical isolation with packers, as well as combinations of these methods were analyzed. It is shown that the complex use of injection of viscoelastic compositions and separation of the wellbore into sections by packers will increase the oil recovery of carbonate reservoirs with a water-oil contact zone.
1. Bakirov I.I., Bakirov A.I., Bakirov I.M., Experience in the development of carbonate deposits with active water-oil zone (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya. – 2019, no. 4 (20), pp. 129–139, DOI: 10.25689/NP.2019.4.129-139.
2. Evdokimov A.M., Sovershenstvovanie metodov regulirovaniya razrabotki zalezhey nefti v treshchinno-porovykh karbonatnykh kollektorakh s vodoneftyanymi zonami (Improving methods for regulating the development of oil deposits in fractured-porous carbonate reservoirs with oil-water zones): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2011, 25 ð.
3. Bakirov I.I., Bakirov A.I., Bakirov I.M., Studying the efficiency of waterflood development of carbonate deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanaya provintsiya, 2019, no. 4 (20), pp. 172–183, DOI: 10.25689/NP.2019.4.172-183
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The article proposes possible options for the development of technologies of geological study and extraction of hard-to-recover reserves of the A. Usotsev oil field. Possible versions of models and systems for the development of complex structures of hard-to-recover reserves of the Achimov formation and the Neocomian complex are considered. The approaches of petrophysical substantiation for determining the absolute permeability of reservoirs are described. Nonlinear correlation relations between low and ultra-low permeability and porosity coefficients are obtained. The results of a detailed correlation of the well sections of the A. Usoltsev field by sequential paleoprofiling revealed the prerequisites for the beginning of a gradual immersion of individual tectonic blocks. Differentiation of deposits into large tectonic blocks, which, in turn, are subdivided into a series of small ones, as evidenced by the block change in the thicknesses of the Vasyugan formation deposits within the adjacent structures within the A. Usotsev field. Analyzing the change in the thicknesses of the Achimov formation throughout the field, we can say that there was a compensation of the total thicknesses of the Bazhenov formation and its anomalous section at the expense of increasing the thickness of the Achimov deposits. The presence of intense tectonic movements during the formation of deposits of the anomalous section of the Bazhenov formation and the Achimov strata indicates the need for a detailed analysis of the territory. A brief description of technologies for developing hart-to-recover reseves of the Achimov formation is given. The parameters of the main object of development are given and the approaches used in its operation are described. At the present stage of the object study, horizontal wells with multi-zone hydraulic fracturing show a higher efficiency. The results of research based on the supercritical state of fluids and gas micro nuclei are considered as a promising direction in the creation of innovative technologies.
1. Aref'ev S.V., Razrabotka modeli geologicheskogo stroeniya achimovskoy tolshchi v severo-zapadnoy chasti Nizhnevartovskogo svoda (Development of a model of the geological structure of the Achimov stratum in the northwestern part of the Nizhnevartovsk arch): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Tomsk, 2008.
2. Gutman I.S., Aref'ev S.V. et al., Zapadno-Sibirskaya neftegazonosnaya provintsiya (West Siberian oil and gas province), In: Korrelyatsiya razrezov skvazhin slozhnopostroennykh ob"ektov i geologicheskaya interpretatsiya ee rezul'tatov (Correlation of well sections of complex objects and geological interpretation of its results), Moscow: Publ. of ESOEN, 2022, pp. 146–172.
3. Aref'ev S.V., Sokolov I.S., Pavlov M.S. et al., Implementation of horizontal wells with multistage hydraulic fracturing for low-permeability oil reservoir development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 9, pp. 90–95, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-90-95
4. Shpurov I.V., Syr'evaya baza i trudnoizvlekaemye zapasy Rossii i Zapadnoy Sibiri (Raw material base and hard-to-recover reserves of Russia and Western Siberia), Proceedings of VI International Innovation Forum and Exhibition “NEFT''GAZTEK”, Tyumen, 16-17 September 2015.
5. Gutman I.S., Aref'ev S.V., Obgol'ts A.A., Fedoseeva E.N., Features of the block structure of the Bazhenov-Achimov complex rocks on the example of the Nong-Eganskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 7, pp. 70-75, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-7-136-139
6. Gutman I.S., Aref'ev S.V., Mitina A.I., Methods of detailed correlation of well sections in the study of the geological structure of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous rock complexes on the example of the Tevlinsko-Russkinskoye oil fields of the Surgut arch. Part 2. Substantiating the formation features of the Lower Cretaceous Sortym formation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 10, pp. 25–29, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-10-25-29
7. Ob utverzhdenii Poryadka opredeleniya pokazateley pronitsaemosti i effektivnoy neftenasyshchennoy tolshchiny plasta po zalezhi uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (On approval of the procedure for determining the indicators of permeability and effective oil-saturated thickness of the reservoir for hydrocarbon deposits), URL: https://normativ.kontur.ru/document?moduleId=1&documentId=240130&ysclid=lbkoapehlf639798602
8. Aref'ev S.V., Sokolov I.S., Fufaev S.A., Rozbaev D.A., Evaluation of the efficiency of the implemented development system at the facilities with oil rim of the oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2022, no. 7, pp. 42–48.
9. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Aref'ev S.V., Davydov A.V., Problems of transformation of hydrocarbon reserves into an unprofitable technogenic hard-to-recover reserves category (In Russ), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 4, pp. 38–43, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-4-38-43
10. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Mandrik I.E., Influence of technological features of hardly recoverable hydrocarbons reserves output on an oil-recovery ratio (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 5, pp. 76–79.
11. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panakhov G.M., Abbasov E.M. et al., High efficiency EOR and IOR technology on in-situ CO2 generation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 90–95.
12. Bakhtiyarov S.I., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdlyev A.Kh., Abbasov E.M., Polymer/surfactant effects on generated volume and pressure of CO2 in EOR technology, Proceedings of the 5th Joint ASME/JSME Fluids Engineering Summer Conference, FEDSM 2007, DOI:10.1115/FEDSM2007-37100
13. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Panahov G.M., Renqi Jiang, Abbasov E.M., High efficiency in-situ CO2 generation technology: the method for improving oil recovery factor, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2022, DOI: 10.1080/10916466.2022.2157010
14. Bakhtiyarov S.I., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Abbasov E.M., Oil recovery by in-situ gas generation: Volume and pressure measurements, Proceedings of ASME fluids engineering division summer meeting 2006, FEDSM2006, 2006, 1, Symposia, pp. 1487-1492, DOI: 10.1115/FEDSM2006-98359.
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622.276.1/.4.001.57 + 622.276.432:661.185
The paper describes an approach to production optimization, including production of heavy oil, using chemical stimulation methods. Two mechanisms of surfactant flooding were considered: (1) reduction of residual oil saturation due to decrease of interfacial tension as a function of surfactant concentration, (2) forming of stable oil-water-surfactant emulsion with lower viscosity and residual saturation as compared to ‘pure’ oil phase. The authors discuss modeling methods, main aspects of the automatic production history matching method realized in the reservoir model, ways to optimize oil production through two surfactant flooding mechanisms. A reservoir model based on the automatic production history matching was used to solve the optimization problem. The objective function included main reservoir performance indicators (a desired or maximum production level, minimization of the injected volume and chemical agents) and regularizing components. For each additive component, a weighting factor was applied to realize optimization under different development strategies. To minimize corresponding functional in both problems, the Gauss – Newton method was used. A reservoir simulator was used to solve both automatic history matching and optimization problems. In the former case it was used to calculate oil production data for the reservoir model approximation and the production data sensitivity to the model parameters, in the latter case – to calculate reservoir performance under development strategies and sensitivity of reservoir performance indicators to parameters describing well operation conditions. The approach to production optimization based on reservoir modeling allows optimization of reservoir performance through two mechanisms of chemical stimulation. However, considering difference in the surfactant flooding mechanisms, concrete recommendations shall be based on results of laboratory tests involving different surfactant concentrations and injection rates considering specific reservoir conditions.
1. Skripkin A.G., Kol'tsov I.N., Mil'chakov S.V., Experimental studies of the capillary desaturation curve in polymer/surfactant flooding (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2021, V. 6, no. 1, pp. 40-46, DOI: https://doi.org/10.51890/2587-7399-2021-6-1-40-46
2. Yefei Wang, Zongyang Li, Mingchen Ding et al., Performance of a good-emulsification-oriented surfactant-polymer system in emulsifying and recovering heavy oil, Energy Science & Engineering, 2020, V. 8, no. 2, pp. 353-365, DOI: 10.1002/ese3.499
3. Xiaolong Chen, Yiqiang Li, Wenbin Gao, Cheng Chen, Experimental investigation on transport property and emulsification mechanism of polymeric surfactants in porous media, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2020, V. 186, March, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2019.106687.
4. Ming Chen Ding, Yefei Wang, Fuqing Yuan et al., A comparative study of the mechanism and performance of surfactant- and alkali-polymer flooding in heavy-oil recovery, Chemical Engineering Science, 2020, V. 219, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ces.2020.115603
5. Yefei Wang, Fulin Zhao, Baojun Bai et al., Optimized surfactant IFT and polymer viscosity for surfactant–polymer flooding in heterogeneous formations, SPE-127391-MS, 2010, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/127391-MS.
6. Liu Jian-xin, Guo Yong-jun, Hu Jun et al., Displacement characters of combination flooding systems consisting of gemini-nonionic mixed surfactant and hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide for Bohai offshore oilfield, Energy Fuels, 2012, V. 26, no. 5, pp. 2858-2864, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ef3002185.
7. Nasybullin A.V., Persova M.G., Orekhov E.V. et al., Modeling of surfactant-polymer flooding on Bureikinskoye field block (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 7, pp. 38–42, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-7-38-42
8. Soloveichik Y.G., Persova M.G., Grif A.M. et al., A method of FE modeling multiphase compressible flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 2022, V. 390, 49 p., DOI: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.114468
9. Persova M.G., Soloveichik Y.G., Vagin D.V. et al., The design of high-viscosity oil reservoir model based on the inverse problem solution, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2021, V. 199, DOI: 10.1016/j.petrol.2020.108245.
10. Persova M.G., Soloveychik Yu.G., Grif A.M., Flow balancing in modeling of multi-phase flow using non-conformal finite element meshes (In Russ.), Programmnaya inzheneriya, 2021, V. 12, no. 9, pp. 450–458, DOI: 10.17587/prin.12.450-458
11. Persova M.G., Soloveychik Yu.G., Patrushev I.I., Ovchinnikova A.S., Application of the finite element grouping procedure to improve the efficiency of unsteady multiphase flow simulation in high-heterogeneous 3D porous media (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Upravlenie, vychislitel'naya tekhnika i informatika, 2021, V. 57, pp. 34-44, DOI: 10.17223/19988605/57/4.
12. Persova M.G., Soloveychik Yu.G., Patrushev I.I., Ovchinnikova A.S., Numerical simulation of oil production using surfactant-polymer flooding (In Russ.), Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya: Matematika. Mekhanika. Informatika, 2021, V. 21, no. 4, pp. 544–558, DOI: 10.18500/1816-9791-2021-21-4-544-558
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In the practical implementation of fracturing technologies, many unaccounted factors and phenomena arise that affect the effectiveness of their application. The formation of sludge emulsions is one of the main problems that arise as a result of acid fracturing. Viscous emulsions and sludge can clog the formation and cause further deterioration of the permeability of the bottomhole zone, as well as create problems in the oil treatment. The problem of forecasting the formation of oil-acid emulsions and the corresponding technological risks is topical, taking into account the prospects of acid fracturing to improve the efficiency of oil production. There is a need to develop informative methods to predict and analyze the formation of oil-acid emulsions promptly and with great accuracy. As such a method, the article proposes a combination of the methods of IR-Fourier spectroscopy and rheological studies, which make it possible to evaluate the change in the properties of oil and oil-acid emulsions. The objects of the study were samples of field samples of oil from the Aksubayevo-Mokshinskoye, Vishnevo-Polyanskoye and Yamashinskoye fields of the Republic of Tatarstan and acid-oil emulsions prepared under laboratory conditions. As demulsifiers, we used an aqueous solution of a mixture of anionic, nonionic surfactants and ethylene glycol, as well as a mixture of block copolymers of ethylene and propylene oxides in an organic solvent. Based on the results of the studies, it was noted that the most durable structure of the oil-acid emulsion is characteristic of oil with a higher value of the aromaticity coefficient and a minimum value of the aliphatic coefficient. The influence of the demulsifier on the viscosity of the oil-acid emulsion is most significant in the range of shear rates up to the creep zone; in the zone of structure destruction, the demulsifier practically does not affect the viscosity. Continued research on emulsion systems based on the integration of IR-Fourier spectroscopy and rheological studies is promising and relevant, as it is aimed at reducing technological risks and improving the environmental friendliness of acid fracturing.
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5. Glumov I.F., Slesareva V.V., Petrova N.M., Vliyanie solyanoy kisloty na ustoychivost' vodoneftyanykh emul'siy (Effect of hydrochloric acid on the stability of oil-water emulsions), Collected papers “Nauchnyy potentsial neftyanoy otrasli Tatarstana na poroge XXI veka” (The scientific potential of Tatarstan's oil industry on the threshold of XXI century), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2000, pp. 114-117.
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7. Tsyganov D.G. Bashkirtseva N.Yu., Sladovskaya O.Yu., Formation of stable oil-water emulsions in case of chemical reagents use to enhance oil recovery of oil formations of Kamenny and Em-Egansky oil deposits in the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Territory (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2015, no. 5, pp. 38–43.
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9. Silin M.A. et al., Kislotnye obrabotki plastov i metodiki ispytaniya kislotnykh sostavov (Acid formation treatment and methods for acid compositions testing), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russin State University of Oil and Gas, 2011, 142 p.
10. STO TN 168-2020. Instruktsiya po obespecheniyu i kontrolyu kachestva pri provedenii gidrorazryva plasta (GRP), kislotnogo gidrorazryva plasta (KGRP) i solyaeokislotnoy obrabotki (SKO) v PAO “Tatneft'” (Instructions for quality assurance and control during hydraulic fracturing (HF), acid hydraulic fracturing (ACF) and hydrochloric acid treatment (HAT) in Tatneft PJSC).
11. Yuan Si Tian, Zi Qiang Yang, Thoroddsen S.T., Elsaadawy E., A new image-based microfluidic method to test demulsifier enhancement of coalescence-rate, for water droplets in crude oil, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2021, V. 208, no. 2, DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2021.109720
12. Gubaydulin F.R., Tat'yanina O.S., Kosmacheva T.F. et al., Effect of the chemical reagents, used at an oil recovery, on stability of oil-in-water emulsions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 8, pp. 6–70.
13. Kosmacheva T.F., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Research of demulsifiers ability to formation of anomalously stable structures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 1, pp. 90–92.
14. Kosmacheva T.F., Gubaydullin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Novye podkhody k otsenke effektivnosti deemul'gatorov (New approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of demulsifiers), Proceedings of scientific and technical conference “Novye metody dobychi, podgotovki i transportirovki nefti” (New methods of extraction, preparation and transportation of oil), Oktyabr'skiy, 2004, pp. 56–64.
15. Diyarov I.N., Bashkirtseva N.Yu., Kuryashov D.A., Kislotnyy sostav dlya napravlennoy obrabotki prizaboynoy zony plasta (Acid composition for directional treatment of the bottomhole formation zone), Proceedings of IV All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Neftepromyslovaya khimiya” (Oilfield chemistry), Moscow, 2008, p. 92.
16. Akhmerova E.E., Shafikova E.A., Apkarimova G.I. Et al., Selection of effective acid compound for carbonate collector treatment (In Russ.), Bashkirskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal, 2018, V. 25, no. 3, pp. 86– 92.
17. Karpunin N.A., Ryazanov A.A., Khromykh L.N. et al., Selection the basis of acid composition with prolonged action for terrigenous reservoirs with an increased content of carbonate minerals under conditions of high reservoir temperatures (In Russ.), Vestnik Evraziyskoy nauki, 2018, no. 5, pp. 1–11.
18. Lukin A.A., Kislotnye sostavy dlya obrabotki prizaboynoy zony plasta na Kuyumbinskom mestorozhdenii (Acid compositions for treatment of the bottomhole formation zone at the Kuyumbinskoye field), Collected papers “Molodaya neft'” (Young oil), 2018, pp. 119–120.
19. Shirazi M.M., Ayatollahi Sh., Ghotbi C., Damage evaluation of acid-oil emulsion and asphaltic sludge formation caused by acidizing of asphaltenic oil reservoir, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2019, V. 174, pp. 880–890, DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2018.11.051
20. Magadova L.A., Silin M.A., Davletshina L.F. et al., Colloid-chemical studies in the development of acid compositions (In Russ.), Neftegaz.RU, 2022, no. 7, pp. 54-59.
21. Abdrafikova I.M., Ramazanova A.I., Kayukova G.P. et al., Colloid-chemical studies in the development of acid compositions (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 7, pp. 237–242.
22. Ivanova L.V., Koshelev V.N., Vasechkin A.A., IR-spectrometry in oil analysis (Volgograd oils were taken as example) (In Russ.), Butlerovskie soobshcheniya, 2012, V. 29, no. 3, pp. 120-124.
23. Muslimov R.Kh., Abdulmazitov R.G., Khisamov R.B. et al., Neftegazonosnost' Respubliki Tatarstan. Geologiya i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil and gas bearing of the Republic of Tatarstan. Geology and development of oil fields), Part 2, Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 524 p.
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The article proposes new methods for studying the curves of the dynamic level of high-viscosity Newtonian and viscoplastic oil without stopping the operation of wells equipped with a sucker-rod pump. It is known that when such curves are taken in wells producing Newtonian oil with low dynamic viscosities, their final stabilized sections are combined in a short time and give an accurate value of the static oil level. Therefore, in such cases, it is sufficient to record one curve. In wells producing high-viscosity Newtonian or viscous-plastic oil, it is necessary to record both curves. However, recording of such curves needs a long time.
The proposed method makes it possible to exclude long shutdowns of the well. The initial parts of the curves (level restoration and level drop) are recorded within 5-6 hours. Empirical equations are selected to describe these sections. Using the obtained empirical equations, further changes in dynamic levels and bottomhole pressure is predicted. Level measurements are carried out using the Quantor-4 Micro hardware and software complex, which includes an echometer, dynamometer, current clamps and a radio extender. During research, the following operations are performed. With the help of a hose, all well production is directed to the annulus. The oil level is monitored until it is completely stabilized. Some oil ends up in the reservoir. A drop in the level of oil in the well is recorded. As an example of the application of the proposed method, the results of constructing level curves, as well as bottomhole pressure calculations for two wells operating in the Kalmas and Kushkhana areas of the Oil and Gas Production Department named after. A.J. Amirov.
1. Mustafaev S.D., New method for determining reservoir pressure in downhole pumping wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1968, no. 8, pp. 39-42.
2. Mustafaev S.D., Guliev R.A., Khanaliev V.B., New method for determining reservoir pressure in sucker-rod pump well (In Russ.), Mezhdunarodnyy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy zhurnal, 2020, no. 2 (92), pp. 98–104, DOI: https://doi.org/10.23670/IRJ.2020.92.2.019
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5. Mustafayev S.D., Quliyev R.A., Xanəliyev V.B., Ştanqlı dərinliknasos istismar quyularının iş rejimlərinin dəyişdirilməsi üsulu, ANT, 2017, no. 12, pp. 21–25.
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The poor quality of reservoir fluid samples is a recognized industry problem. The paper presents new experimental data indicating that a significant contribution to this is made by the imperfection of the designs of the used downhole samplers. In 2019-2020, the authors developed a dowhhole sampler with the function of measuring pressure and temperature inside and outside the sample chamber and forcibly closing the sample chamber to cut it off from the borehole space. During the 3 years of operation of the sampler, unique information has been accumulated that significantly changes the understanding of the operation of deep samplers and the requirements imposed on them. The sample chambers of most modern samplers are sealed by a check valve pressed against the landing seat by a spring and, when the sample is raised to the surface, by the overpressure of the sample itself; wherein the well fluid is in direct contact with the valve. Since the 1940s, it has been believed that in the process of lifting a sample, the pressure in the chamber will always be higher than the pressure in the well. The authors experimentally obtained dozens of pressure curves inside and outside the receiving chamber for various which show that the cooling of the chamber during its rise often leads to such a temperature decompression of the fluid that the pressure from the well becomes greater than the pressure in the chamber (the maximum pressure drop was obtained during water sampling and was in some cases 9 MPa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the force of the valve springs of any known samplers). This means that most modern samplers allow fluid to flow from the well into the sample chamber after its nominal closure. The obtained experimental results are confirmed by modeling the behavior of various fluids using cubic equations of state. The authors describe the phenomenon of self-depressurization of the chambers of downhole samplers, conducted a thermodynamic analysis of this phenomenon, collected actual experimental data confirming its presence in practice. Potential effect of equipment modernization: reduction of the number of rejected downhole samples by 47%. The assessment is based on the results of the analysis of historical data on 289 downhole samples.
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2. Lobanov A.A., Development of a complex quantitative quality control system for samples of reservoir oils. Part 1. Issues of terminology and classification (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2020, no. 12, pp. 54–71.
3. Lobanov A.A., Development of a system for a complex quantative assesment of reservoir oils samples quality. Part II. The system description (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2021, no. 5 (125), pp. 34–53.
4. Lobanov A.A. et al., End-to-end quality control of downhole samples from the sampling point to the laboratory unit: This is possible and necessary, SPE-206487-MS, 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/206487-MS
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In modern conditions, the assessment of the efficiency of an oil producing company is shifting from the criterion of oil recovery growth towards a reduction in operating costs in particular by implementing the necessary geological and technical measures. Economic accounting of all costs is a way to reduce operational costs in an engineering way. One of the important ways to reduce operating costs by workovers program is to reduce the unproductive water phase used in oil production. ChemServiceEngineering has developed a whole range of innovative technologies to reduce operating costs of oil-producing companies.
The authors consider as an example water shutoff technology based on reagent AC-CSE-1313 brand A developed by Multifunctional Company ChemServiceEngineering. This technology has passed laboratory testing and has been recommended for industrial use. Since 2015, well operations have been performed for one of the oil and gas companies. On average, the reduction in the volume of produced associated water amounted to 43 % with an increase in oil production more than 7%. Calculations have shown that for a producing well (water production - 300 m3/day, water content - 98%, production cost – 6-16 USD/barrel), the use of the water shutoff technology will give an annual income of 3.5 million rubles for spending 1.5 million rubles on technology, including VAT. When water shutoff is implemented in 35 wells, the annual revenue will amount to more than 107 million rubles, which means a corresponding reduction in the operating costs of the oil company (up to 20%).
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The article deals with the problem of non-uniform optimal well placement automation in a field 3D hydrodynamic model. A brief overview is given to describe existing methods of well placement with multivariate resource-intensive calculations for finding optimal options. The task is to develop a new tool that is able to offer a non-uniform well placement for small and medium-sized fields in an acceptable time. Based on neural network algorithms and machine learning methods, smart assistant is developed in the form of a calculation tool for selecting optimal development option based on maximizing NPV. The tool accepts hydrodynamic model, conditions of development, economic parameters of the oil field as an input, and generates a schedule file (schedule section) of hydrodynamic model as an output according to the specified conditions: placement of a given number of wells, determination of well commissioning order, specifying or determination of well completion and hydraulic fracture parameters, selection of candidate wells for infill drilling, horizontal drilling, drilling of targeted injection wells, transfer to injection. The optimal NPV variant of the well placement is generated in a time comparable to hydrodynamic modeling without the participation of specialists. The methodology and results of the developed tool testing are presented. Comparison of the calculations results with the options recommended by the design and technical documentation for 12 fields in terms of cumulative oil production and NPV was performed. Possible directions of development of the considered tool are shown.
1. Mayorov K.N., Chebkasov D.S., Antipin D.V. et al., On the application of the Alpha Zero algorithm to optimize the placement of an irregular grid of production wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 3, pp. 76-78, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-3-76-78.
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5. Maiorov K., Vachrusheva N., Lozhkin A., Solving problems of the oil and gas sector using machine learning algorithms, Acta Montanistica Slovaca, 2021, V. 26, no. 2, pp. 327-337.
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The paper describes computer-assisted injection well placement technique. The study focuses on the fields of Tatneft PJSC. The technique is based on the proxy models of production targets and has been implemented in Epsilon software package. Epsilon software package is designed to automate long-term planning of production enhancement operations on a variety of oil fields through generation of multiple development scenarios in proxy-models, estimation of production and economic performance and optimization of investment portfolio using high-performance computing and machine learning.
Epsilon includes a software module which uses a proxy model of the field for step-wise introduction of proposed production locations for drilling based on irregular well pattern having the highest possible well spacing density and complying with technological and economic constraints (generation of drilling schedule). The algorithms designed by the authors are used to select proposed injection well locations from a set of drilling sites "rejected" due to geological or economic criteria at the stage of drilling schedule generation. The first algorithm solves the problem of selecting the limited optimal number of proposed injection wells from a set of "rejected" locations, considering the certain constraints (minimum and maximum spacing to drilled or proposed production wells, presence of responding wells, effects on a limited (maximum allowable) number of responding wells. The algorithm is implemented. It was developed via the Python 3.6 programming language. Optimization problem is solved using lpSolveAPI R-interface. The second algorithm provides iterative division of the entire target region into squares of a given area and determination of candidates for conversion to injection from "rejected" locations within each square. For regions that contain no drilled injection wells or "rejected" locations in the vicinity of proposed production wells, proposed injection wells are selected from proposed production wells. The algorithm was developed using C++ programming language.
1. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2020661783 RF. Estimating Performance of System Investment in Long-term Oil production using Neuronet (Epsilon), Authors: Nasybullin A.V., Girfanov R.G., Denisov O.V., Lazareva R.G., Latifullin F.M., Sattarov R.Z., Khafizov R.R., Chirikin A.V., Sharifullina M.A.
2. Khisamov R.S., GanievB.G., Galimov I.F. et al., Computer-aided generation of development scenarios for mature oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 7, pp. 22–25, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2020-7-22-25.
3. Zvezdin E.Ju., Mannapov M.I., Nasybullin A.V. et al., Stage-wise optimization of project well pattern using oil reserves evaluation program module (In Russ.), Neftjanoe hozjajstvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 7, pp. 28–31, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-7-28-31
4. Certificate of state registration of a computer program no. 2021680284 RF. Epsilon 1.1, Authors: Latifullin F.M., Sattarov Ram. Z., Khafizov R.R., Sharifullina M.A.
5. Taha H.A., Operations research: An introduction, Prentice Hall, 2006, 838 p.
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The article substantiates the relevance of the study of automated methods for determining the taxational signs of forest plantations based on remote sensing data in the interests of Rosneft. In this work the study of the possibilities of using materials obtained from unmanned platforms to automate the determination by species composition of woody vegetation was continued. As the main approach, an object-oriented approach was applied to classification using extracted statistics on spectral features. The practical implementation of the determination by species composition described in the article was carried out in several stages. Preliminary processing of aerial survey materials with the DJI P4 Multispectral and DJI Matrice 600 Pro UAVs was performed. Training sample was formed based on the reference elements in the test polygon. The segmentation was performed by buffering the vertices of trees obtained at the first stage of processing by laser reflection points. Statistics are collected on the channels of all input images (a data set of 4 rasters with a different combination of channels). The models were trained and classified using the controlled Support Vector Machines method across the entire set of created multi-channel images. Comprehensive assessment of the accuracy of the Support Vector Machines algorithm on the input data was carried out, subsequently, the Random Forrest algorithm was used for comparative analysis on the most informative image with subsequent evaluation of the results. Conclusions are made about the conditions of applicability of both methods, increasing the information content of multispectral images by using signal reflection intensity as an additional data channel, achieving an overall accuracy level of 84% with the combination of data and the Support Vector Machines algorithm recommended in the article, and promising areas for further research are also identified.
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5 Pogorodniy A.N., Filin N.N., Shumeyko S.A. et al., The unmanned aerial vehicles usage experience on tasks of forest inventory and topography (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 9, pp. 90–94, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-9-90-94
6. Filin N.N., Pogorodniy A.N., Arbuzov S.A., Berdnikov N.N., Using aerial survey materials in order to determine the rock and altitude components of the characteristics of forest plantations when conducting surveys at the facilities of Rosneft (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2022, no. 9, pp. 111–115, DOI: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2022-9-111-115
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The authors proposes a method for creating a computational model for performing thermal engineering calculations, which makes it possible to take into account the complex relief morphology, the mutual arrangement of engineering-geological elements under the condition of inhomogeneous spatial occurrence and uneven temperature distribution, taking into account the complex relief of the computational model. The correct consideration of the described parameters in the process of performing predictive heat engineering calculations requires software that allows performing mathematical modeling of the dynamics of changes in the temperature distribution in permafrost soils. The article presents a comparative analysis of computational domains built using the methodology described in certified software using standard tools and the approach proposed by the authors. Based on the results of the analysis, the substantiation of the presented methodology for creating a calculation model and performing predictive heat engineering calculations was obtained. The method described allows with great accuracy: to take into account the relative position of engineering-geological layers in the calculation model, to fix the boundary between thawed and frozen soils, to perform linear interpolation of the temperature distribution between engineering-geological wells. Performing predictive heat engineering calculations in accordance with the proposed methodology will significantly improve the accuracy of the results of predictive heat engineering calculations and, as a result, facilitate the process of choosing the most effective technical solutions that ensure the safe operation of structures located in permafrost conditions. The introducing the proposed methodology into calculation software systems will significantly speed up the process of preparing calculation models and reduce the time for performing predictive heat engineering calculations.
1. ÑÏ 25.13330.2020. Îñíîâàíèÿ è ôóíäàìåíòû íà âå÷íîìåðçëûõ ãðóíòàõ. Àêòóàëèçèðîâàííàÿ ðåäàêöèÿ ÑÍèÏ 2.02.04-88.
2. Ïîñêîíèíà Å.À., Êóð÷àòîâà À.Í. Îïòèìèçàöèÿ ðåøåíèé ïî òåðìîñòàáèëèçàöèè ãðóíòîâ îñíîâàíèé // Èçâåñòèÿ âóçîâ. Íåôòü è ãàç. – 2020. – ¹ 2. – Ñ. 49–59. – https://doi.org/10.31660/0445-0108-2020-2-49-59.
3. Òèïèçàöèÿ èíæåíåðíî-ãåîëîãè÷åñêèõ è ãåîêðèîëîãè÷åñêèõ óñëîâèé äëÿ ñîñòàâëåíèÿ ÷èñëåííîãî ïðîãíîçà òåïëîâîãî ñîñòîÿíèÿ ìíîãîëåòíåìåðçëûõ ãðóíòîâ / Å.Â. Çåíêîâ, Â.Ã. Ãåîðãèÿäè, Í.Ã. Ãèëåâ [è äð.] // Íåôòÿíîå õîçÿéñòâî. – 2021. – ¹ 7. – Ñ. 100–106. – https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2021-7-100-106
4. Âûáîð îïòèìàëüíûõ òåõíè÷åñêèõ ðåøåíèé ïî ïðîêëàäêå íåôòåïðîâîäà äëÿ îáåñïå÷åíèÿ íàäåæíîé ýêñïëóàòàöèè òðóáîïðîâîäíîé ñèñòåìû «Çàïîëÿðüå – ÍÏÑ Ïóðïå» íà îñíîâå ïðîãíîçíûõ òåïëîòåõíè÷åñêèõ ðàñ÷åòîâ / Þ.Â. Ëèñèí, À.Í. Ñàïñàé, Â.Â. Ïàâëîâ [è äð.] // Òðàíñïîðò è õðàíåíèå íåôòåïðîäóêòîâ è óãëåâîäîðîäíîãî ñûðüÿ. – 2014. – ¹ 1. – Ñ. 3–7.
5. Ïðîåêòèðîâàíèå ïðîìûñëîâûõ ïîäçåìíûõ òðóáîïðîâîäîâ íà ìíîãîëåòíåìåðçëûõ ãðóíòàõ ñ èñïîëüçîâàíèåì ñîâðåìåííûõ êîìïëåêñîâ ïðîåêòèðîâàíèÿ / À.À. Ôèëèìîíîâ, Ä.Â. Ëèïèõèí, À.Å. Ìåëüíèêîâ, Ê.Â. Êèðüÿíîâà // Âåñòíèê Òîìñêîãî ãîñóäàðñòâåííîãî àðõèòåêòóðíî-ñòðîèòåëüíîãî óíèâåðñèòåòà. – 2021. – Ò. 23. – ¹ 4. – Ñ. 127–137. – DOI: 10.31675/1607-1859-2021-23-4-127-137.
6. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïîëüçîâàòåëÿ FROST 3D. – https://frost3d.ru/vypolnenie-prognoznyh-raschetov-temperaturnogo-rezhima-merzlyh-gruntov/
7. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïîëüçîâàòåëÿ Áîðåé 3D. – https://www.boreas3d.ru/boreas3d%20user%20manual.pdf
8. Ðóêîâîäñòâî ïîëüçîâàòåëÿ nanoCAD. – https://smartcad.ru/upload/downloads/elements/file-21.pdf
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Since the early 2000s in the world practice of offshore oil and gas production, the problem of deposits of high-molecular naphthenic acids calcium salts in process facilities of offshore platforms has become known. The rapid formation and accumulation of naphthenic acids calcium salts in oil treatment units (separators, coalescers) can cause disruption of oil production at offshore fields of the Russian Federation and in the production of heavy biodegradable oil onshore. At the Sakhalin-2 project facilities, such deposits were discovered in 2015 and unambiguously identified in 2020. The emulsions discovered in 2015 significantly worsened the oil preparation process and required increased demulsifier consumption. The deposits blocked process units (separators and coalescers) and reduced their throughput; this is led to a long-term annual shutdown of equipment for its purification. It has been proposed that the recovered deposits were products of undesirable interaction of produced oil and drilling fluids components or reaction products in the use of polymeric scale inhibitors. In 2019-2020 a deep analysis of the component composition of the formed sediments and, in particular, the search for "atypical" components was carried out. Obtained data showed that one of the likely causes of sediment formation may be naphthenic acids calcium salts. The composition of sediments from process units on the Piltun-Astokhskaya-B platform of Sakhalin Energy LLC has been investigated via several modern instrumental analytical methods. In addition, identification and semi-quantitative determination of high-molecular naphthenic acids by IR spectroscopy and HPLC/MS in oil were performed. The field trial of a reagent based on tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate (THPS) as an inhibitor of naphthenate deposits finished, the reagent confirmed its effectiveness, and a program for its use was developed.
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5. Taylor S.E., Hiu Tung Chu, Metal ion interactions with crude oil components: Specificity of Ca2+ binding to naphthenic acid at an oil/water interface, Colloids Interfaces, 2018, V. 2, no. 3, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/colloids2030040
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When assessing the strength of pipes with defects such as "metal delamination" at the stages of construction, operation and repair of main pipelines in the oil and gas complex, we should take into account the influence of the location, shape, size and places where metal delamination comes out to the pipe surface on the stress concentration in the pipe walls near metal delamination and the strength of the pipe walls. The analysis of stresses in the walls of pipes of the main pipeline with defects of the "metal delamination" type was performed by the finite element method using the ANSYS software package. Stress calculations were performed for a pipeline section with three types of defects: metal delamination without reaching the surface (inside the pipe wall); metal delamination with access to the inner surface of the pipe; metal delamination with an exit to the outer surface of the pipe at three different values of the internal working pressure (the pressure at the current operating mode of the pipeline, the design pressure and the test pressure). To identify the types of delaminations that create the highest stress concentration, an analysis was made of calculating the maximum stresses in the sections of the pipeline with delaminations that have access to the inner and outer surface of the pipe wall, and without exit to the surface, and the maximum stresses on the inner surface of the wall pipes on a defect-free section at various values of the internal working pressure. The zones of stress concentration are determined under various values of the internal working pressure. Comparison of the calculated resistance of the metal of the pipe wall in terms of yield strength with the maximum stress values in the zones of stress concentration in the places where delaminations emerge on the inner and outer surfaces of the pipe wall at various values of the internal working pressure for various categories of pipelines and their sections to check the safety margin strength.
1. RD-23.040.00-KTN-011-16. Magistral’nyy truboprovodnyy transport nefti i nefteproduktov. Opredelenie prochnosti trub i svarnykh soedineniy s defektami (Main pipeline transport of oil and oil products. Determination of the strength of pipes and welded joints with defects), Moscow: Publ. of Transneft’, 2015, 153 p.
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3. STO Gazprom 2-2.3-483-2010. Tekhnicheskie trebovaniya k trubam, byvshim v ekspluatatsii, otremontirovannym v zavodskikh usloviyakh (Technical requirements for pipes that were in operation, factory repaired), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom ekspo, 2011, 189 p.
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The article outlines the basic principles of using computer simulation to optimize processes in the design, modernization and production of equipment (including pre-production). Computer modeling is used as a tool for implementing methods for calculating critical states of equipment under certain operating conditions. The article discusses two approaches to optimizing the technical and economic performance of equipment. The first is to change the structural composition of the equipment, including the composition of the equipment and parts used, the methods for preparing them for use as part of assembly units (methods for preparing surfaces, determining the conditions for their interface, etc.). The second is in determining the optimal technological features of equipment manufacturing and its further operation. It should be noted that the article contains solutions accumulated during the implementation of several projects, both on the examples of prototypes and on examples of serially produced equipment. Equipment manufactured for the needs of companies - operators of pipeline systems, as well as their service organizations, was taken as modeling objects. In addition, the article discusses the basic principles for assessing the possibility of operating equipment in conditions established by manufacturers, as well as in conditions that do not correspond to those declared. The main goal of the ongoing research is to develop a methodological approach that allows to form the principles of equipment reliability management, while minimizing its cost, as well as the timing of its manufacture. Thanks to the development of the IT sphere, which made it possible to expand the scope of numerical methods and techniques for constructing mathematical models, it became possible to use them in solving engineering problems, including those requiring obtaining results with a low error of calculation methods. All materials presented in the article were obtained using numerical simulation methods of dynamic (explicit and implicit) analysis, as well as linear and nonlinear methods of static solution.
1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Analysis of methods and approaches to reliability assessment in the prediction of main pipeline transport equipment failures (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, V. 7, no. 6, pp. 104–114, DOI:10.28999/2541-9595-2017-7-6-104-114
2. Pronikov A.S., Parametricheskaya nadezhnost' mashin (Parametric reliability of machines), Moscow: Publ. of Moscow State Technical University N.E. Bauman, 2002, 560 p
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