|OIL & GAS COMPANIES|
This work presents possible approaches to managing development and implementation of innovations in oil and gas companies. It describes the milestones in the technological development history of the USSR oil and gas industry and in the organization of research management in global science. There are three approaches to innovations management presented, including corporate research, start-up projects and grants and open market innovations.
Today the fundamental problem of science is the lack of 'one size fits all' mechanisms aiming to achieve practical results and their implementation. A similar problem is found in most modern methods of innovation management. Multiply examples of seemingly successful startups delivered overnight shift the focus away fr om key problems in high-tech innovation management.
Any attempts to manage innovations on a market basis, startups, etc. are inefficient for challenging projects, since market feedbacks do not work for rather long initiation and completion times here. The primary production facilities are basically associated with energy giants, therefore only here the applied science can develop and breakthrough take place in the long term perspective. The reason is that for high-quality industrial innovations very specific tasks should be formulated and predictable financing provided.
To maximize the effect of innovation and carry out breakthrough research, there should be an incentive mechanism for long-time strategic feedbacks where a researcher is initially well informed about production problems, as well as interested in the practical use of R&D results. This is especially true for the oil and gas industry where a typical life cycle for the development of an asset or technology, may take decades.
The innovation management system of Rosneft Oil Company is described at the end of this article, wh ere an innovative project is presented as an organized chain of problem-oriented activities from initiating a scientific research to practical implementation of its result.
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13. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35–40.
14. Akhtyamov A.A., Makeev G.A., Baydyukov K.N. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator RN-GRID: from software development to in field implementation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 5, pp. 94–97.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
In Rosneft Oil Company the digital core study technology (Digital Core) is being mainly developed by the Tyumen Petroleum Research Center (TNNC) which is a part of the corporate scientific and industrial complex. According to the Rosneft’s 2022 strategy, the Company’s technological advantage in the upstream segment will be ensured by rolling out the existing technologies and accelerating the development of breakthrough technologies, including digital ones. The “breakthrough” digital projects include the control and management of well construction (industrial internet and robot-assisted rigs), as well as operational monitoring and reflexive field management systems (unified information environment). Among the goals set by Rosneft, one of the primary tasks for the corporate research and design complex (CRDC) is to develop technologies in the field of digital core studies including new software products to support the digital core technology.
Solving these tasks will allow to improve the efficiency of geological exploration, reduce the error in estimated indicators, and increase hydrocarbon production through high-quality selection of technologies for developing hard-to-recover reserves and reducing the production costs.
The paper describes the development of the Digital Core technology in TNNC, including the existing projects developed to date. TNNC has a set of modern laboratory equipment used for digital core studies. A CT-scanner has helped to build 3D digital images of hundreds of core samples taken from various types of reservoirs, and to scan and digitize over 5 kilometers of full-size core from the Company's fields. Digital images obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are also studied. In the process of cooperation with Russian companies, TNNC has acquired experience in micro- and nano-tomographic core studies. A unique CT-scanning-based experiment conducted to measure displacement ratios of complex carbonate vuggy-fractured rocks allowed us to visually confirm the flow rates effect on final oil recovery factors in vuggy reservoirs.
The paper also describes the TNNC experience in the field of mathematical flow modeling for several liquid phases at micro level in digitized and modeled rocks, as well as the creation of software products to support the Digital Core technology.
1. Kostin D.K., Kuznetsov E.G., Vilesov A.P., Experience of TNNC LLC in core study using CT scanner (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2014, no. 3, pp. 18–22.
2. Mal'shakov A.V., Oshnyakov I.O., Kuznetsov E.G. et al., Innovative approaches to study heterogeneous anisotropic reservoirs of Turonian deposits for reliable assessment of reservoir properties (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 18–22.
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6. Zhizhimontov I.N., Stepanov S.V., Svalov A.V., Applying a stochastic pore-network modelling to obtain refined dependence between porosity and absolute permeability by example of Neocomian deposits of the West Siberian fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 9, pp. 96–98.7. Stepanov S.V., Patrakov D.P., Vasil'ev V.V. et al., Challenges and opportunities of Digital Core analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 18–22.
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At the request of Rosneft Oil Company, theoretical substantiation, design and development of an electromagnetic tool based on a new configuration of a measurement system is carried out. Multiplesonde multi-frequency electromagnetic well logging instrument with toroidal generator and receiver coils is targeted at studying the macro-anisotropic properties of complex oil and gas reservoirs. With the application of the measurement system with toroidal coils, an electromagnetic field is excited in the near-wellbore environment, depending on both the horizontal and vertical electrical resistivity. We have developed complexes of algorithms and programs for simulation, processing and inversion of signals of the electromagnetic tool in spatially inhomogeneous anisotropic media. On the basis of large-scale numerical simulation in realistic models of geological environment, we have studied the electromagnetic signals, concluded about the high spatial resolution of the tool, and substantiated its optimal configuration, which includes sonde spacings, operating frequencies, types of measured signals and operating modes. The electromagnetic tool has been extensively tested on laboratory stands and in real borehole conditions. We have conducted successful pilot tests in terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs of the Volga-Ural petroleum province. Moreover, we have accomplished the quantitative interpretation of logs of the electromagnetic tool at intervals of sandy-argillaceous reservoirs, and have shown that taking account of clay content according to its data leads to an increase in the oil saturation factor up to 10 % compared to traditional electrologging methods.
1. Rytov S.M., Electromagnetic properties of a thin layer medium (In Russ.), Zhurnal eksperimental'noy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1955, 29, no. 5, pp. 605–616.
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4. Clavaud J. et al., Field example of enhanced hydrocarbon estimation in thinly laminated formation with a triaxial array induction tool: a laminated sand-shale analysis with anisotropic shale, Proceedings of SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, 26-29 June 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.
5. Karinskiy A.D., Solutions of forward problems for the toroidal antenna field in an anisotropic medium (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2003, no. 1, pp. 9–20.
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11. Patent no. 2578774 RF, Device for detecting electromagnetic field characteristics using toroidal coils, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N., Surodina I.V., Kiselev V.V., Nikitenko M.N.12. Patent no. 2583867 RF, Electromagnetic probe for logging in oil and gas wells, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N.
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By of Rosneft Oil Company in the last 10 years a significant number of hydrocarbon fields were being discovered in lithologic and combined traps connected with local zones of highly productive reservoirs («Sweet Areas») under the condition of monoclinal bedding within the area of Nepa-Botuoba anteclise.
The absence of anticlinal traps and non-uniformity of reservoir properties make standard approaches of estimation of resources and geological risks for this area improper. Therefore, there has been developed an internal method of estimation of resources and risks in which a classification of prospects is based on their exploration maturity and place in oil and gas exploration cycle. Also the process of estimation of a large number of similar prospects has been simplified due to selection of a common set of volumetric data.
This article discusses in detail the methodology for method of estimation of resources in accordance with the categorization proposed by the authors and approaches to the search for highly productive objects, and also highlights the main features of the structure of potential hydrocarbon deposits. Approaches to the assessment of geological risks, including practical examples, are described separately. Due to the extensive experience of Rosneft Oil Company in this area, a large database was collected in order to develop special approaches and methods described in the article, which made it possible to further check the resource assessment methods offered by the authors.
This method was evaluated on a series of exploration assets of Rosneft and is successfully used for rapid assessment of prospect of potential projects.
1. Gordeev YA.I., Gayduk A.V., Mityukov A.V., Filichev A.A., The results of exploration of Rosneft''s license areas in the Irkutsk region for 10 years (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 15–17.
2. Gayduk A.V., Fomin A.E., Tverdokhlebov D.N. et al., Oil and gas prospective facilities identification in the subsalt carbonate complex of Nepa-Botuoba anteclise as a result of historical 2D seismic data reprocessing and reinterpretation (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneftʹ”, 2016, no. 3, pp. 44–48.3. Gayduk A.V., Kashirina E.G., Redʹkin N.A. et al., Regularities of development of perspective objects in carbonate Vendian-Cambrian sedimentary cover of the southern Siberian platform (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneftʹ”, 2016, no. 3, pp. 28–31.
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In modern seismic survey design practice, all-round replacement of 2D works high-density 3D works takes place, as well as the transition from narrow-azimuth seismic surveys to high-performance wide-azimuth acquisition techniques for studying complex objects and analyzing the azimuthal parameters of subsurface. In this regard, it is necessary to thoroughly approach the planning of the field acquisition geometry in order to sel ect the optimal seismic survey for solving the geological problems, taking into account the geological structure and the depth-velocity characteristics of the section.
In recent years, Rosneft Oil Company , as part of increasing the efficiency of field seismic exploration and, as a result, exploration drilling, is introducing a set of works on designing optimal seismic surveys and finite-difference seismic modeling at company license blocks around the world. This type of work is aimed at obtaining high-quality field seismic data, which at the subsequent stages of processing and interpretation will allow to identify the target perspective objects in the wave field.
For the design of optimal 3D surveys, Rosneft Oil Company developed its own innovative approach based on a consistent multi-level refinement of the seismic survey using seismic modeling both in the ray approximation and the finite difference method in 2D and 3D realizations. This approach allows us to use the applied technologies not only for calculating the optimal field method, but also for accompanying or operative correction of acquisition geometry during fieldwork, and also at the stages of processing and interpretation for identifying and evaluating the characteristics of waves of different nature, developing an efficient processing flows and evaluation of the efficiency of the selection of search objects on the basis of synthetic data of various details.
This paper presents the application of the developed multi-level approach to the design of optimal 3D seismic surveys based on seismic modeling for the Samara region. The theoretical calculation of the parameters of the survey based on a priori information about the area is described; the efficiency of the results of 2D / 3D ray tracing and finite-difference modeling is shown with the aim of creating optimal acquisition geometry for solving the geological tasks. The application of this technique allows a more thorough approach to the planning of the field seismic surveys, which should provide the necessary quality of seismic wave registration in the geological conditions of the studying area.
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2. Logovskoy V.I., The role and content of a systematic approach to seismic exploration (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2009, no. 2, pp. 9–14.
3. Biondi B.L., 3D seismic imaging, Stanford: Publ. of Stanford University, 2004.
4. Cordsen A., Galbraith M., Peirce J., Planning land 3-D seismic surveys, Publ. of Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2000, 232 p.
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6. Shneerson M.B., Zhukov A.P., Belousov A.V., Tekhnologiya i metodika prostranstvennoy seysmorazvedki (Technology and methods of spatial seismic exploration), Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2009.
7. Litvichenko D.A., Sorokin A.S., Nazyrov D.D., Primenenie tekhnologii luchevogo modelirovaniya pri proektirovanii sistemy seysmicheskikh nablyudeniy 3D v seysmogeologicheskikh usloviyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Application of the raypath modeling technology in the design of the 3D seismic surveillance system in the seismogeological conditions of Western Siberia), Proceedings of 18th Scientific and Practical Conference on the Exploration and Development of Oil and Gas Fields “EAGE-Geomodel’ 2016”, 12-15 September 2016, Gelendzhik, URL: http://earthdoc.org/publication/publicationdetails/?publication=86768.
8. Tverdokhlebov D.N., Dan¹ko E.A., Kashirina E.G. et al., Finite-difference seismic forward modeling to improve the processing efficiency and quality of seismic interpretation (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2017, no. 6, pp. 10–18.
9. Meunier J., Seismic acquisition fr om yesterday to tomorrow, Publ. of Society of Exploration Geophysicists, 2011, 249 p.10. Pritchett W.C., Acquiring better seismic data, Springer, 1989, 428 p.
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This article continues a cycle of publications devoted to a problem of ensuring iceberg safety during explorative drilling in the Arctic seas. Rosneft Oil Company in 2016-2017 together with the Russian Arctic and Antarctic Institute and Arctic Research Center carried out experimental works on iceberg towing possibility to change iceberg’s drift. A series of almost 40 full-scale experiments were conducted by vessels of different types and at various meteo and ice conditions. Diesel icebreakers Captain Dranizyn and Novorossiysk were used together with research vessel Academician Treshnikov.
During marine operations, the following types of physical impact on icebergs of various sizes were tested: iceberg towing with a floating rope (29 experiments); iceberg towing with a towing net (6 experiments).
Parameters of experiments were registered by means of different instrumental complexes: iceberg/vessel position, tension of a towing rope/net, propulsion, wind/current direction and speed, etc.
Based on the data obtained from experiments methodology of carrying out and processing of iceberg towing is developed. Limitations on weather conditions for iceberg towing in the Russian Arctic are established. The dependence of iceberg’s resistance coefficient and drag force are obtained based on its geometrical parameters and the towing data. Mathematical model for long- and short-period fluctuations during iceberg towing is developed for objects of different size; a mathematical problem of towing for various icebergs is stated and solved. Procedures of optimum icebergs drift change are proposed for the vessels of different types.
1. Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A., Efimov Ya.O. et al., Development of corporative Ice Management System for Arctic license blocks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 11, pp. 48–51.
2. Buzin I.V., Mironov E.U., Sukhikh N.A. et al., Investigation of drift of the ice features on the Russian Arctic Offshore with the help of automatic radio beacons based on the ARGOS satellite system (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneftʹ”, 2016, no. 4, pp. 4–9.3. Sochnev O.YA., Kornishin K.A., Tarasov P.A. et al., Studies of glaciers in the Russian Arctic for safe marine operations in iceberg waters (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 92–97.
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The paper presents the results of wellbore stability modeling of a horizontal well at the Kosukhinskoye field in Western Siberia (Rosneft Oil Company). Rosneft planned to drill a horizontal well for the Tyumen Formation sediments (U3, U4). This drilling area is characterized by high risks of wellbore collapsing. Several wellbores were eliminated as a result of shear failure in the intervals of the most unstable clay deposits of the Achimov, Abalak and Tyumen ages.
Based on the results of wellbore stability calculations for offset wells, it was determined that the density of the drilling mud was not sufficient to maintain the wellbore walls in a stable state: numerous overpulls/slack offs and reamings were observed in the Achimov and Sortym deposits, as well as in the Abalak suite. As a result, casing runs were accompanied by slack offs, which led to pressure surges and the start of mud losses. The increase of mud weight when drilling several wells eventually allowed the casing to be successfully lowered and the well completed. Based on the drilling analysis results, it was also found that with the increase of the well inclination in the unstable shales of the Achimov, Abalak and Tyumen deposits (U2), the probability of shear failure increases.
To reduce the risks of complications when drilling a planned well in the problem intervals of unstable shale formations, the density of the drilling mud was recommended based on a geomechanical model that allowed to successfully drill a planned horizontal well.
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2. Vavilin V., Kolpakov V., Romanov Yu. et al., Strength properties, elastic modules and compressibility factors of rocks from oil fields OOO LUKOIL–Western Siberia (In Russ.), SPE 182028-MS, 2016.
3. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
4. Ganaeva M.R., Sukhodanova S.S., Khaliulin Ruslan R., Khaliulin Rustam R., Sakhalin offshore oilfield hydraulic fracturing optimization by building a 3D geomechanical model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 6, pp. 108–111.5. Melikov R.F., Pavlov V.A., Krasnikov A.A. et al., Geo-mechanical modeling of Berezovskaya suite to plan Kharampur field development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2018, no. 1, pp. 33–39.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The work is devoted to the validation of a Planar3D hydraulic fracturing model, implemented in the corporate hydraulic fracturing simulator RN-GRID. Hydraulic fracturing simulator is specialized software for mathematical modeling and engineering analysis of the hydraulic fracturing process. The simulator allows evaluating fracture geometry and treatment parameters, taking into account geological structure of the reservoir, rock geomechanical properties, fracturing fluid and proppant properties.
Fracture model validation was carried out by comparing the results of mathematical modeling with the results of experimental studies in the laboratory installation of organic glass.
The article discusses two typical fracture growth scenarios, one of which — fracture growth in the area of lower stress — is traditionally considered difficult for numerical modeling using simplified Pseudo3D hydraulic fracturing models. The comparisons show a good agreement between the results of modeling in the developed Planar3D model and the results of experimental studies for each of the cases considered. In addition to comparison with experimental data, a comparison was made of the results of numerical simulations in RN-GRID with the results of simulations in another Planar3D hydraulic fracturing simulator for each of the cases considered. There is a good agreement between the simulation results in these simulators.
It is noted that the use of a hydraulic fracturing simulator with an experimentally proven model allows performing physically accurate modeling of this complex process, make sound engineering decisions in treatment designing and increase hydraulic fracturing efficiency.
1. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35–40.
2. Akhtyamov A.A., Makeev G.A., Baydyukov K.N. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator RN-GRID: from software development to in-field implementation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 5, pp. 94–97.
3. Thacker B. et al., Concepts of model verification and validation, Los Alamos National Laboratory, 2004, URL: http://www.ltasvis.ulg.ac.be/cmsms/uploads/File/LosAlamos_VerificationValidation.pdf.
4. Jeffrey R.G., Bunger A.P., A detailed comparison of experimental and numerical data on hydraulic fracture height growth through stress contrasts, SPE 106030-MS, 2009.
5. Wu R., Bunger A.P., Jeffrey R.G, Siebrits E., A comparison of numerical and experimental results of hydraulic fracture growth into a zone of lower confining stress, Proceedings of the The 42nd U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium (USRMS), 29 June-2 July 2008, San Francisco, California, URL: https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ARMA-08-267.
6. Siebrits E., Peirce A.P., An efficient multi‐layer planar 3D fracture growth algorithm using a fixed mesh approach, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 2002, no. 53, pp. 691–717, DOI:10.1002/nme.308.7. Peirce A.P., Siebrits E., A dual mesh multigrid preconditioner for the efficient solution of hydraulically driven fracture problems, Int. J. Numer. Meth. Engng., 2005, no. 63, pp. 1797–1823, DOI:10.1002/nme.1330.
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|RATIONAL USE OF ASSOCIATED PETROLEUM GAS|
As a part of innovation activity conducted by Rosneft Oil Company the target innovation project devoted to development of technology for processing of natural and associated petroleum gas using microporous membranes are conducted. In the current work we describe results of industrial tests of the 10 m3/h pilot plant for the membrane treatment of associated petroleum gas in the conditions of Neftegorsk Gas Processing Plant. The plant comprised pertraction module with nanoporous (pore sizes 100×500 nm) polypropylene hollow fibre membrane contactor with total surface area of 7.2 m2 utilizing 20 % monoethanolamine as liquid absorbent and two parallel capillary condensation modules based on hollow-fiber nanoporous polyvinylidenefluoride (surface area ~2 m2) flat sheet anodic alumina oxide (surface area ~0.12 m2) membranes both having 10-nm pores in selective layer. Gases of the second stage of oil separation (24.1 vol. % C3+, 0.21 vol. % CO2, 24.1 mg/m3 H2S and 49,3 mg/m3 RSH at 0.7 MPa) and third stage of oil separation (51.2 vol. % of C3+, 0.87 vol. % CO2, 1.95 vol. % H2S and over 100 mg/m3 RSH at 0.4 MPa) were used as feed streams. During experiments with the II-stage oil gas at a feed flux of 12.5 nm3/h the hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans were nearly completely removed from the gas stream having residual content below 1 mg/m3 and 9.5 mg/m3 correspondingly. Dew point temperature for hydrocarbons was reduced down to -36 °Ñ and water dew point temperature was reduced down to 37 °Ñ. It was shown that the performance of the pilot plant could be increased to 40 m3/h without drastic downgrade of retentate quality. With III-stage oil gas the residual concentrations below 1 mg/m3 H2S and 0.02 vol. % CO2 were achieved on pertraction module with increasing absorbent flow rate. Following treatment with capillary condensation module allowed to reduce RSH content to 5 mg/m3 and achieve dew point temperature both for hydrocarbons and water as low as -31 °Ñ at feed flux of 10,2 nm3/h. Total methane and ethane loss on pilot plant was evaluated below 5 and 7 % from initial content with using II- and III-stage oil gas feed steams. Obtained results confirmed that the proposed technologies can be successfully utilized in conditioning of associated petroleum and natural gas for piping in accordance with the requirements of STO Gazprom 089-2010.
1. Kohl A.L., Nielsen R., Gas purification, Elsevier Science, 1997.
2. Bochkov F.A., Beloshapka A.N., Rybin V.V. et al., Application of membrane gas separation technology for gas treatment in the RN-Krasnodarneftegaz LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 8, pp. 66–68.
3. Epsom H.D., Araujo O.Q.F. et al., Supersonic separation in onshore natural gas dew point plant, Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 2012, V. 6, pp. 43–49.
4. Yu C.H., Huang C.H., Tan C.S., A review of CO2 capture by absorption and adsorption, Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 2012, V. 12, pp. 745–769.
5. Baker R.W., Lokhandwala K., Natural gas processing with membranes: An overview, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2008, V. 47, pp. 2109–2121.
6. Chernova E., Petukhov D., Boytsova O. et al., Enhanced gas separation factors of microporous polymer constrained in the channels of anodic alumina membranes, Scientific reports, 2016, V. 6, art. 31183.
7. Petukhov D.I., Berekchiian M.V., Pyatkov E.S., Solntsev K.A.,Eliseev A.A., Experimental and theoretical study of enhanced vapor transport through nanochannels of anodic alumina membranes in a capillary condensation regime, J.Phys.Chem.C, V. 120, no. 20, pp. 10982–10990.
8. Petukhov D.I., Lukashin A.V., Eliseev A.A. et al., Removing of heavy hydrocarbons from associated petroleum gas using capillary condensation on microporous membranes (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2015, no. 4, pp. 27–31.
9. Pyatkov E.S., Surtaev V.N., Petukhov D.I. et al., Conditioning of associated petroleum gas using capillary condensation technique with asymmetric microporous anodic alumina membranes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 82–85.
10. Petukhov D.I., Poyarkov A.A., Chernova E.A. et al., Removal of acidic components of associated petroleum gas by pertraction on microporous membranes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 55-58.
11. Klaassen R., Feron P.H.M., Jansen A.E., Membrane contactors in industrial applications, Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 2005, V. 83, pp. 234–246.
12. Patent no. 2596257 RF, Method for fractionation of low-molecular hydrocarbons mixtures using capillary condensation on microporous membranes, Inventors: Eliseev A.A., Petukhov D.I., Eliseev A.A., Brotsman V.A., Lukashin A.V.13. Patent no. 2626645 RF, Method of retrieving components from natural and petraction of technological gas mixtures on nanoporous membranes, Inventors: Eliseev A.A., Petukhov D.I., Poyarkov A.A., Lukashin A.V., Chernova E.A., Pyatkov E.S.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
Cutting capital cost and lifting OPEX is one of the main tasks in artificial lift operations. A great attention is paid to the problem of how to increase energy efficiency as the share of OPEX for electricity is remarkably high. But the cost of power efficient equipment is usually higher than that of a standard one, and in light of this an issue arises as to how to determine areas where its employment could be economically viable. In the article, approaches used by Rosneft Oil Company when selecting one of the nodes of ESP units, namely the downhole electric motors, have been described in view of achieving an effect of lower aggregate costs. For the first time among the Russian oil and gas producing companies, Rosneft has conducted tests of high-voltage downhole electric motors, and currently occupies leading positions, as far as their number in use is concerned. Through an example of RN-Nyaganneftegas JSC, one of the crude oil and gas entities belonging to Rosneft Oil Company, a dynamic pattern of practical employment of high-voltage downhole electric motors has been shown, while highlighting that their use in the equipment set of ESPs has not resulted in a lower MTBF value. When using high-voltage downhole motors, the running current is going down which allows to make up an ESP unit with a cable whose conductor strands have a smaller cross-section. A transfer to the employment of cables with conductor strands of a smaller cross-section allows to cut CAPEX. In the article, the employment performance of energy-efficient motors at the fields of Rosneft Oil Company is being described, while providing a simplified matrix of their selection in view of economic feasibility, taking into account existing equipment prices and electricity tariffs for 2018. The article provides detailed reasons for a relatively decent application of submersible permanent magnet motors, while showing areas of a possible increase in their employment, and determining high-priority tasks for producers of such equipment and specialists of Rosneft Oil Company.
1. Ivanovskiy V.N., Sabirov A.A., Degovtsev A.V. et al., Problems of energy efficiency of electric-driven centrifugal pumping units (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2016, no. 4, pp. 25–30.
2. Maston L., Economic consideration for sizing tubing and power cable for electric submersible pumps, SPE 15423-PA, 1988.
3. Yakimov S.B., Kaverin M.N., Tarasov V.P. et al., Usage of submersible electrical motors with raised pressure provides double effect without investments (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2012, no. 3, pp. 75–81.
4. Ginzburg M.Ya., Selection of submersible electric motors: economic and technological criteria (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2015, no. 9, pp. 7-12.
5. Yakimov S.B., Kaverin M.N., Tarasov V.P., Optimization of cable cross-section of electrical centrifugal pumping units is simple and efficient technology of energy saving (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2012, no. 3, pp. 53–57.
6. Rabinovich A.I., Tekhnologiya energosberegayushchey dobychi nefti s ispol'zovaniem pogruzhnykh elektroprivodnykh tsentrobezhnykh nasosov. Analiz problem i puti resheniya (The technology of energy-saving oil production using submersible electric drive centrifugal pumps. Problem analysis and solutions), Perm: Publ. of PSTU, 2017, 72 p.
7. Yakimov S.B., Kaverin M.N., Tarasov V.P., Analysis of efficiency of valve engines usage developed by "Borets" manufacturing company to decrease energy consumption in JSC "TNK-BP" (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2011, no. 3, pp. 44-48.
8. Poshvin E.V. Koshelev S., Khotsyanov I. et al., Submersible AC electric motor. History, design features, capabilities (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2011, no. 12, pp. 58–65.
9. Yakimov S.B., Current state and prospects for reduce heat losses in cable lines of high power electric submersible pumping unit (ESP) in JSC "NK "Rosneft" (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2016, no. 3, pp. 40–46.10. Eliseev D.B., Aygishev E.V. et al., On the influence of the fraction composition of abrasive particles in produced fluid on the wear types of the elements of electric centrifugal pumps (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2017, no. 11, pp. 32–38.
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One of the main problems in operating the wells equipped with ESCP units at the Samotlorskoye oil field developed by Oil Company Rosneft is the increased flow back of the abrasive particles. These particles are represented mainly by quartz and a small proportion of plagioclase, in size related to coarse aleurolitic and fine sandy groups. The presence of abrasive particles in the produced liquid causes accelerated depreciation and clogging of the working parts of the ESCP and has a significant negative effect on the operating parameters of the units. The article gives an analysis of the effectiveness of using sand separators (descenders) to protect equipment when operating the wells significantly complicated by the abrasive particles flowback. The change in the overall reliability of the ESCP units was studied using the data on the failures before and after application of sand separators in 168 wells of the AV and PK formations. The use of sand separators allowed to increase the mean time between failures by 78 days. When the equipment is operated without sand separators, the distribution of the number of failures over the run periods is described by a logarithmic function: most of the failures occur at a short run period and as the run period increases, the failure rate decreases. In case of using sand separators, most of the failures do not occur in the first months of operation, but it is distributed according to the polynomial dependence with a maximum frequency within 180-240 days. The main effect of using the sand separators is achieved by reducing the cases of pump jamming and its performance reducing due to clogging or accelerated depreciation of the working parts. In addition, it has been established that the use of sand separators does not have a noticeable effect on the structure of depreciation patterns of the pump working parts, but it allows to increase operating time of the equipment. Taking into account the current cost of sand separators and the achieved average effect in terms of increasing the run period, the use of these devices in the conditions of the Samotlorskoye field is economically feasible. At the same time, the use of sand separators in the conditions of the Samotlorskoye field does not completely solve the problem of protecting the ESCP units, therefore, in order to increase the time between failures in wells that are most complicated by sand production, new technologies should be searched for.
1. Coffee St., Briffett M., Downhole desander prevents ESP damage in high-watercut well, World Oil, 2008., V. 229(2008).
2. Yakimov S.B., Sand separation plant to protect downhole pumps. Current situation and prospects for the technology application (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2014, no. 2, pp. 44–58.
3. Ivanovskiy V.N., Sabirov A.A., Bulat A.V., Yakimov S.B., Research of desenders' efficiency used for protection of submersible pumps (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2013, no. 3, pp. 19–25.
4. Garifullin A.R., Basov S.G., Methods for protecting ESP from mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2010, no. 9, pp. 70–73.
5. Lykova N.A., Equipment for ESP operation under conditions of intensive removal of mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2017, no. 3, pp. 58–62.
6. Kolmakov E.A., Zen'kov I.V., Perspektivnye konstruktsii fil'trov v sostave UETsN (Promising designs of ESP filter), Proceedings of Mezhdunarodnyy nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya “Prirodnye i intellektual'nye resursy Sibiri. SIBRESURS 2016” (Natural and intellectual resources of Siberia. SIBRESURS 2016), Kemerovo: Publ. of KuzSTU, 2016.
7. Yakimov S.B., The index of aggressiveness of the rentrained solids at TNK-BP fields in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2008, no. 9, pp. 33–38.
8. Ivanov M.K., Burlin Yu.K., Kalmykov G.A. et al., Petrofizicheskie metody issledovaniya kernovogo materiala (Terrigennye otlozheniya) (Petrophysical methods for the study of core material (Terrigenous sediments)), Part 1, Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 2008, pp. 14–15.
9. Takacs G., Electrical submersible pump manual, Gardners Books, 2009, 420 p.
10. Yakimov S.B., Ivanovskiy V.N., Degovtsov A.V. et al., On the influence of the fraction composition of abrasive particles in produced fluid on the wear types of the elements of electric centrifugal pumps (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2017, no. 11, pp. 32–38.
11. Yakimov S.B., Shportko A.A., Shalagin Yu.Yu., Ways of improving gas separators reliability used to protect electric centrifugal pumps (ESP) in the deposits of PJSC "NK "Rosneft" (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2017, no. 1, pp. 33–39.
12. Yakimov S.B., Some aspects of choosing technology providing protection of underground equipment from sand with account of dynamics of the sand removal while putting wells into operation at Samotlor oil field (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2013, no. 6, pp. 81–89.
13. Yakimov S.B., Pushkarev A.V., Vetokhin E.G., Podkorytov S.M., Some techniques of increasing the time of de-sanders’ effective operation to protect electric centrifugal pumps from sand at Samotlor field (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2015, no. 6, pp. 55–60.14. Yakimov S.B., On the perspectives of radial stabilized compression electric submersible pumps application for wells operation efficiency improvement at AB group of the Samotlor field formations (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2016, no. 7–8, pp. 79–86.
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In 2018, the Mekhfond corporate information system was put into commercial operation in 17 companies of the Rosneft Oil Company group. The goal of the project of the Mekhfond information system is to increase the efficiency of management of the mechanized stock due to standardization, automation and increase in the efficiency of monitoring processes, analysis and adoption of technological solutions on the operation of a mechanized well stock. IS includes tools for automation of the calculation and selection of equipment for the extraction of hydrocarbons (electrical submersible pump unit, sucker-rod pumping units, sucker-rod screw pumps, electric progressive cavity pumps), taking into account energy consumption parameters and complicating factors. IS provides the specialists of the technological service of oil and gas companies, R&D institutes, the Central Office of Rosneft Oil Company with the possibility to operate on a single information field when solving business tasks related to the management of equipment operation, management of the well stock and technical modes.
The article outlines the composition of the Mekhfond information system, describes the purpose of such subsystems as Management of the mechanized stock, Equipment design and the modules included in these subsystems. Following the results of the implementation of the basic functionality, the working time of workflow personnel in the in Rosneft Oil Company is optimized and the quality of monitoring of the mechanized stock operation is improved due to the automation of the analysis, calculations of submersible equipment, determination of complicating factors and identification of wells with deviations from the technological modes of operation.
As part of the development of the Mekhfond IS, over 35 functional changes and additions to the information system are planned to be implemented within next 5 years, including those aimed at developing artificial intelligence of decision-making when working with the mechanized stock.
1. Garifulin A.R., Slivka P.I., Gabdulov R.R., “Smart wells“ – System of automated control over oil and gas production (In Russ.), Neftʹ. Gaz. Novatsii, 2017, no. 12, pp. 24–32.
2. Kosilov D.A., Improving the efficiency of the management of the mechanical well stock in the current macroeconomic conditions (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2015, no. 12, pp. 8–11.
3. Topolʹnikov A.S., Prediction of complications in the operation of mechanized wells using the RosPump program (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014, no. 2, pp. 48–53.
4. Tarasov V.P., Kuryaev S.V., Golubʹ I.M., Use of specialized software for calculating energy consumption in a mechanized well stock (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2016, no. 3, pp. 22–25.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The traditional approach to probabilistic resources assessment is based on separate assessment of each potential reservoir with subsequent aggregation of these separate estimates. This approach does not allow to incorporate the mutual dependence between confirmation of different reservoirs which is determined by the fact that genetically related exploration objects share some of the geologic factors. Depending on which aggregation method is used, either over- or underestimation of total resources takes place, the magnitude of this error can be significant. This shortcoming can become critical when carrying out geological and economic assessment of a set of small exploration objects separate development of which is uneconomic.
In this paper a method of joint probabilistic assessment of the entire set of exploration objects is presented, which allows to avoid aggregation and the related bias of the result. The practical application of this method as applied to the exploration assets of Bashneft is reviewed. The paper also addresses the existence of correlation between any amounts of the resources on the one hand and some certain set of reservoirs which is the most probable one for this particular amount, on the other. A recommendation is given to use this correlation when forming variants of production and surface facilities. This allows dismissing the intuitive approaches to formation of sets of ‘confirmed’ reservoirs for scenario calculations, automatize the process and improve the quality of the economic assessment of exploration blocks (or separate prospects with multiple potentially productive reservoirs). This method has also been widely applied in the Bashneft PJSOC.
1. Shatrov S.V., Probabilistic evaluation of oil resources on block 12, Iraq (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 86-89.
2. Polyakov A.A., Murzin SH.M., International experience in geological risk analysis (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2012, V. 7, no. 4.
3. Zakharov A.G., Stanekzay N.M., Razrabotka pilotnogo modulya dlya otsenki resursnoy bazy uglevodorodov novykh aktivov s uchetom geologicheskikh riskov (Development of a pilot module to assess the resource base of hydrocarbons of new assets, taking into account geological risks), Aktualʹnye nauchno-tekhnicheskie resheniya dlya razvitiya neftedobyvayushchego potentsiala PAO ANK “Bashneftʹ” (Current scientific and technical solutions to the oil production potential of Bashneft PJSC), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneftʹ, 2016, pp. 30-36.4. Shatrov S.V., Kotenev YU.A., Discretizing probability distributions in multi-scenario evaluation of oil and gas exploration assets (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2015, V. 13, no. 3, pp. 22-29.
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Effective process of development of hard-to-recover reserves, including tight and low permeable reservoirs of Domanic deposits, is impossible without a complex approach, connected with the laboratory study of core samples by specialized methods coupled with well log data and with preliminary modeling of stimulation processes as wells as new methods of field development. Adequate selection of technologies for the development and stimulation of the seams is also based on the study of the characteristics of the fluids of house deposits. The studies are aimed at improving the drainage of oil in the rocks in terms of increasing the production rate of the wells of the Bavlinskoye field. In the study of the concentration of hydrocarbon components in the composition of the oil samples of the house deposits on the wells, it was noted that with increasing molecular weight of the hydrocarbon component, the concentration of normal alkanes in the total composition decreases. According to the performed quantitative analysis of GLC, it was concluded that the dynamics of the change in the component composition of the oil of the wells under study by concentration does not undergo significant changes in the extraction process. In the study of rheological characteristics, the homogeneity of the properties of oil was noted for them and new information was obtained on the anomalous viscous properties of the oil under study. The revealed dependencies are proposed to be used to improve available and create new technologies for effective development of house deposits. The results of monitoring are provided with the use of services of a number of service companies for the development of cracks after a multi-zone fracturing at one of the wells, taking into account the direction of the development of anomalies and fractures, according to which the cause of the watering of the well is established. It is shown that the development of unconventional deposits for the region - dense, weak permeable carbonate reservoirs requires considerable material investments and intellectual resources. However, effective work with the hardy breeds today, as well as with other categories of hard-to-recover reserves, is the basis for the stability of the oil industry in the future.
1. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po primeneniyu yaderno-fizicheskikh metodov GIS, vklyuchayushchikh uglerod-kislorodnyy karotazh, dlya otsenki nefte- i gazonasyshchennosti porod kollektorov v obsazhennykh skvazhinakh (Guidelines for the use of nuclear-physical methods of well survey, including the carbon-oxygen logging to evaluate oil and gas saturation of reservoir rocks in cased wells): edited by Petersil'e V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow – Tver: Publ. of GERS Publ., 2006, 40 p.2. Geofizicheskie issledovaniya skvazhin: spravochnik mastera po promyslovoy geofizike (Well survey: a reference guide for field geophysics): edited by Martynov V.G., Lazutkina N.E., Khokhlova M.S., Moscow: Infrainzheneriya Publ., 2009.
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Results comparison of oil reserves recovery analysis for various reservoirs and fields at diverse development stages and with different properties is the sophisticated problem for reservoir engineering specialists. Exemplified by the experience in developing Vietsovpetro offshore oil reservoirs, the method of remaining reserves block ranking, based on multifactor analysis of hydrodynamic modelling values, is proposed. The interest of such topic lies in deficiency of the consistent structured approach to analyze remaining reserves starting from definition of the study objects, description of their characteristics and comparison between each other in similar scale for the further decision-making on well interventions reasonability and their priorities. The work proposes one of the decisions on quick selection of the prospective block from the standpoint of comparing the remaining oil reserves of various reservoirs considering the contributing factors. The algorithm revealed by trial and error, allows improving the efficiency of dataset processing, which describe the current development status for separate field areas in order to define the optimization objects of hydrocarbon reserves recovery. The basis of dataset and one of the key tools is the result of geo-hydrodynamic modelling. Geo-hydrodynamic modelling allows defining the geological-field blocks and characterizes them. We performed the detailed analysis of the oil reserves recovery status for various fields and under diverse development stages and strategies. The obtained results allow to further select and rationale the well interventions, including well pattern infilling and flooding system optimization. Implementation of such technology allows the engineer to manage a bigger dataset, evaluate development status of defined field areas and to propose the optimization activities for the development strategy.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-11-84-86
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Results comparison of oil reserves recovery analysis for various reservoirs and fields at diverse development stages and with different properties is the sophisticated problem for reservoir engineering specialists. Exemplified by the experience in developing Vietsovpetro offshore oil reservoirs, the method of remaining reserves block ranking, based on multifactor analysis of hydrodynamic modelling values, is proposed. The interest of such topic lies in deficiency of the consistent structured approach to analyze remaining reserves starting from definition of the study objects, description of their characteristics and comparison between each other in similar scale for the further decision-making on well interventions reasonability and their priorities. The work proposes one of the decisions on quick selection of the prospective block from the standpoint of comparing the remaining oil reserves of various reservoirs considering the contributing factors. The algorithm revealed by trial and error, allows improving the efficiency of dataset processing, which describe the current development status for separate field areas in order to define the optimization objects of hydrocarbon reserves recovery. The basis of dataset and one of the key tools is the result of geo-hydrodynamic modelling. Geo-hydrodynamic modelling allows defining the geological-field blocks and characterizes them. We performed the detailed analysis of the oil reserves recovery status for various fields and under diverse development stages and strategies. The obtained results allow to further select and rationale the well interventions, including well pattern infilling and flooding system optimization. Implementation of such technology allows the engineer to manage a bigger dataset, evaluate development status of defined field areas and to propose the optimization activities for the development strategy.
1. Polovinkin O.M., Geologicheskoe stroenie i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti severnoy glubokovodnoy chasti basseyna Yuzhnyy Konshon V'etnama (Geological structure and oil and gas potential of the northern deepwater part of the South Conchon basin): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Moscow, 2016.
2. Silant'ev Yu.B., Fi Man' Tung, Oil and gas statistics of Vietnam in relation to the forecast of new developments (In Russ.), Vesti gazovoy nauki, 2014, no. 3, pp. 129-131.
3. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design. Bridging the gap between theory and practice, Orsa Press, Alvin, Texas, 2002, 262 p.4. User's Guide “Paket programm Meyer dlya modelirovaniya gidrorazryva (MFrac)” (Meyer software package for fracturing modeling (MFrac)), Baker Hughes Incorporated, 2013.
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One of the most important problems arising in the construction of wells with a large deviation from the vertical is the need to ensure the stability of the well walls in the intervals of shale deposits drilled-in at large zenith angles. To solve this problem leading world companies offer a number of approaches. These approaches can significantly reduce the risk of complications, but not in all cases it is possible to achieve positive results, and this can lead to significant material losses for oil companies. The PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC has developed an integrated technology for complication-free construction of wells with a horizontal termination. This technology includes physico-mechanical studies of subterranean formation properties under reservoir conditions, geomechanical modeling of rock stability, adaptation of drilling fluid composition on the basis of the study of changes in structural and strength properties of core samples under the influence of test fluids, calculation of hydraulic washing program and speeds of tripping operations. This technology successfully passed the pilot tests while drilling a horizontal well at one of the Perm region oilfield. In order to unify the approaches to ensuring the stability of the wellbore with a complex profile for Perm region and Komi Republic, this technology was adapted for the conditions of horizontal wells construction for the Devonian deposits at the Pashninskoye oilfield (Sosnogorskiy district of the Komi Republic). The algorithm of geomechanical rock stability modeling is considered. The results of study on the selection of the components for oil-based drilling fluid are presented in order to ensure the stability of the wellbore in the intervals of Timan-Sargay and Jier deposits. Complex of modern lithological methods, including scanning electron microscopy and X-ray tomography, was used for this study. The efficiency of the developed integrated technology, including geomechanical rock stability modeling and the optimization of the drilling fluid formulation, is confirmed by the results of the pilot tests carried out during drilling a horizontal well at the Pashninskoye oifield.
1. Garshina O.V., Predein A.A., Klykov P.I. et al., Geomechanical modeling as an integral part of a complex approach to wells construction in complicated geological conditions (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2017, no. 5, pp. 28–33.
2. Rybal'chenko Yu.M., Razrabotka promyvochnoy zhidkosti dlya bureniya razvedochnykh skvazhin v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Development of the drilling fluid for exploratory wells drilling in the complicated conditions): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2009.
3. Nekrasova I.L., Garshina O.V., Khvoshchin P.A., Teoriya i praktika ispol'zovaniya invertno-emul'sionnykh rastvorov v protsesse stroitel'stva skvazhin (Theory and practice of using invert-emulsion solutions in the process of well construction), Perm': Aster Publ., 2016, 148 p.
4. Predein A., Klykov P., Complex approach to well construction with cost minimization in complicated mining and geological conditions (In Russ.), SPE 181938-RU, 2016.
5. Nekrasova I.L., Kazymov K.P., Predein A.A. et al., Change of the composition and texture of terrigenious rocks under the influence of drilling fluids (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2017, no. 6, pp. 37-43.6. Novikov V.S., Ustoychivost' glinistykh porod pri burenii skvazhin (Stability of clay rocks in well drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 270 p.
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Thanks to the development of new technologies and tools in the field of oil and gas wells drilling unconventional hydrocarbons that were previously considered economically unviable can be produced today. The use of rotary steerable systems (RSS) in well construction made possible the development of a number of offshore fields in the region of Sakhalin Island, Tazov Bay and the Baltic Sea.
Use of RSS for drilling wells with a large deviation from the vertical on shore is promising trend of the construction of wells with a long horizontal section along the productive formation. the approach to existing systems for the development of hydrocarbon deposits on land can be revised. The use of such wells allows to engage in the development of much more reserves of the field, using fewer number of wells than when applying traditional approach, and reduce of capital investments.
For cementing of casing in areas of wells with a zenith angle of more than 55° at the intervals of productive formation, the cement slurry is subject to increased requirements for rheological and fluid flow characteristics, as well as for sedimentation stability. For this purpose, laboratory studies of a number of polymeric reagents based on polysaccharides as modifying additives to cement slurries were carried out. As a result of research, the dependences of changes in flowability, water loss and plastic viscosity on the concentration of polymers in the cement slurry in three temperature ranges were obtained. The analysis of the results of laboratory studies showed that among the tested polymers Natrosol 250 HHR reagent is characterized by the best combination of water retention and rheological properties. It is established the working concentration of the polymer reagent in the cement slurry should be in the range of 0.15-0.30%. It is noted that plastic viscosity can be decreased by entering plasticizing additives into the cement slurry.
1. Ust'kachkintsev E.N., Increase productivity of construction in sidetrack of Verkhnekamsk potassium-magnesium salts field (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2012, no. 5, pp. 39–46.
2. Rynok bureniya gorizontal'nykh skvazhin i zarezki gorizontal'nykh bokovykh stvolov: tekushchee sostoyanie i prognoz razvitiya do 2027 goda (The market of horizontal drilling and horizontal sidetracking: current state and development forecast until 2027), URL: http://rpi-consult.ru/reports/dobycha-nefti-i-gaza/rynok-bureniya-gorizontalnykh-skvazhin-i-zarezki-... /
3. Tuktarov D.Kh. et al., New records of drilling and multilateral wells completions in Western Siberia (In Russ.), ROGTEC, 2016, no. 13, pp. 22–48. https://rogtecmagazine.com/novye-rekordy-bureniya-i-mnogostvol'n/?lang=ru/
4. URL: https://www.rosneft.ru/press/news/item/188675/
5. URL: http://www.slb.ru/upload/iblock/233/12_dg_0051_lukoil_baltic_sea_ cs_10_ak_apr_29_rus_letter.pdf/
6. Melekhin A.A., Oil and gas well plugging operations (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2011, no. 1, pp. 62–67.
7. Wang J.-T., Sun B.-J., Li H. et al., Numerical simulation of cementing displacement interface stability of extended reach wells, Journal of Hydrodynamics, 2018, V. 30, no. 1, pp. 420–432, DOI: 10.1007/s42241-018-0051-4.
8. Chernyshov S.E., Kunitskikh A.A., Development of cement slurries with adjustable kinetics of expansion (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaĭstvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 83–85.
9. Nikolaev N.I., Kozhevnikov E.V., Enhancing the cementing quality of the well with horizontal profile (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2014, no. 11, pp. 29–36, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2014.11.3
10. Kozhevnikov E.V., Study of properties of cement slurries for horizontal well and sidetrack cementing (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2015, no. 17, pp. 24–31. – DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.17.3
11. Kunitskikh A.A., Study of cement slurry modifying agents (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaĭstvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 46–50.
12. Abbas G., Irawan S., Kumar S., Elrayah A.A.I., Improving oil well cement slurry performance using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose polymer, Advanced Materials Research, 2013, V. 787, pp. 222–227, DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.787.222.
13. Medvedev P.I., Fizicheskaya i kolloidnaya khimiya (Physical and colloidal chemistry), Moscow: GISKhL Publ., 1954, 269 p.14. Bulatov A.I. et al., Spravochnik po krepleniyu neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Guide to oil and gas wells casing), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981, 240 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Development of a hydrodynamic model suitable for project decisions analysis is an iterative process. Usually during history matching current flows, total production and injection, residuals between history and calculated parameters are being estimated. Analysis includes wells ranking according to the total parameters, and detecting the target group of wells for correction. The main criterion for selecting wells for fine tuning is cumulative production of tuning parameter. Wells with the highest current production rates of tuning parameter are being selected for more precise adjustment of the hydrodynamic model. The problem of the standard method consists in the lack of metering for wells that have spent a small time with high rates of tuning parameter, and also absence of an automated search for a time period where the selected well needs additional tuning. We suggested additional ranking on the cumulative tuning parameters and determining the target group of wells within each actual period of time separately. Thus, a specialist obtains a list of wells that require additional tuning, not only based on the entire history development period, but for each specific actual period separately. Analysis of the effect of individual wells on operation in a certain time period is quite laborious, but this work has been automated by the authors. Automatic analysis of residuals with a given time interval has been implemented, and this allows identifying problem wells in each given period of oil formation production. History matching of hydrodynamic models using statistical analysis for time intervals separately, and not just throughout the all production period, has been tested on a series of works. As a result, authors have successfully accelerated the history matching due to the targeted correction of the wells in specific actual time intervals.
1. Kanevskaya R.D., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of exploitation of hydrocarbons), Izhevsk: Institut komp’yuternykh issledovaniy, 2002, 140 p.2 Zakrevskiy K.E., Maysyuk D.M., Syrtlanov V.R., Otsenka kachestva 3D modeley (Assessment of the quality of 3D models), Moscow: ÌÀÑÊÀ Publ., 2008, 272 p.
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The paper is devoted to the problem of adaptive forecasting of thermal efficiency in carbonate reservoirs of the high-viscosity oil Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinskoye field. The need to obtain reliable predictions has recently increased significantly due to the expansion of the steam flooding and steam-cycle stimulation applications in the reservoir. The lack of comprehensive understanding of physical processes occurring in the reservoir carbonate strata, as well as the lack of complete information on the wells operation, limits the abilities of deterministic models and method of water displacement curves to forecast the thermal efficiency. The detail of the adaptive geological model corresponds to the amount of available initial information, which is showed, for example, in cutting its layers, the boundaries of which are drawn from the results of detailed correlation and therefore their thickness is 5-10 m. The increased vertical dimensions of the layers make it possible to use the seismic data to reproduce the parameters of the interwell space due to their correlation with the well-data by fuzzy-logic functions. At the same time, the model parameters in those cells through which the wells pass do not necessarily similar with the data of these wells, since they are calculated taking into account the data of neighboring wells. The calculation of the adaptive hydrodynamic model is based on the redistribution of cumulative fluid production and injection among the cells in such a way as to obtain the actual dynamics of reservoir pressure, while the mechanism of this movement is similar to the method of cellular automata. It is shown that, based on the adaptive approach, it is possible to control the process of well thermal interaction, to determine the number of reacting wells, and to evaluate the actual additional oil production of steam flooding. In the paper, the results of adaptive forecasting of different options of the reservoir further development, allowing assessing the technological efficiency of steam flooding for the future are also shown. The performed comparison of predicted and actual values of well oil production rates after carrying out cyclic steam stimulations on them confirmed the effectiveness of the adaptive forecasting for the reservoir conditions.
1. Koottungal L., 2014 worldwide EOR survey, Oil and Gas Journal, 2014, V. 112, no. 4, pp. 79–91.
2. Ruzin L.M., Ursegov S.O., Elaboration of thermal methods of developme of Permian-Carbon reservoir of Usinskoye oilfild (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 2, pp. 82–84.
3. Shkandratov V.V., Burakova S.V., Ursegov S.O. et al., Base principles, efficiency and primary prospects for development of Permo-Carbon pool of Usinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 8, pp. 84–88.
4. Ursegov S.O., Chertenkov M.V., Taraskin E.N. et al., Results of thermo-hydrodynamic modeling of multiple cyclic steam stimulations of wells in the Permian-Carboniferous reservoir of the Usinsk Field (In Russ.), SPE 160759-RU, 2012.
5. Kahneman D., Thinking, fast and slow, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011, 499 p.
6. Mirzadzhanzade A.KH., Ametov I.M., Prognozirovanie promyslovoy ehffektivnosti metodov teplovogo vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty (Prediction of field efficiency of methods of thermal treatment of oil formation), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 205 p.
7. Tsypkin YA.Z., Adaptation, training and self-study in automatic systems (In Russ.), Avtomatika i telemekhanika, 1966, no. 1, pp. 23–61.
8. Kanevskaya R.D., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie gidrodinamicheskikh protsessov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Mathematical modeling of hydrodynamic processes of exploitation of hydrocarbons), Izhevsk: Institut komp'yuternykh issledovaniy, 2002, 140 p.9. Mulyak V.V., Poroshin V.D., Gulyaev V.G. et al., Hydrochemical monitoring - an innovative direction for analysis and control of oil fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 45–49.
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Perm region belongs to the oldest oil and gas producing regions of Russia, in this connection, the fields are at various stages of development, and the vast majority of which belongs to the small.
The productive layers of five oil and gas complexes lie at depths of less than 2.5 km, are represented by a sandy and carbonate type of reservoir, have a low temperature and relatively low reservoir properties with high variability, both in area and in section. The most complex structure and a wider range of geological and physical properties are differ by productive formations with carbonate reservoir type, which is confirmed by lower rates of their production and excess of the share of residual recoverable reserves (62%), in the current period, over the initial geological (55%) in comparison with the sand reservoir type. In the conditions under consideration, testing of hydraulic fracturing (frac) technologies occurred separately for the conditions of each type of reservoir.
Since 2005, the history of industrial application of modern approaches and equipment in the implementation of hydraulic fracturing has begun. The article presents the evolution of the application of technology modifications taking into account the features of objects. The development of technologies occurred as a result of the interaction of specialists at all stages of planning, implementation and analysis of the work performed within the framework of the formed working group, which is an integral part of the monitoring of field development. As a result of the individual approach, hydraulic fractures with the use of acid compositions, proppant, various systems of fracturing fluids, diverters and water flow restrictions for the conditions of carbonate and sandy reservoirs are successfully implemented, the conditions for their most effective application are determined. Currently, more than twenty hydraulic fracturing modifications have been tested and transferred to industrial use. The implementation of an individual approach has significantly expanded the scope of hydraulic fracturing and increase the rate of development of reserves of low-yielding layers.
1. Voevodkin V.L., Raspopov A.V., Muzhikova L.N., Kondratʹev S.A., Application of new technological solutions in the field of oil & gas development in the oilfields of LUKOIL-PERM LLC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 104–106.
2. Antonov D.V., Kondratʹev S.A., Zhukovskiy A.A., Kochneva T.S., Experience of hydraulic fracturing in the deposits of Perm region and the main directions of improving its efficiency (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 70–72.
3. Kondratʹev S.A., Zhukovskiy A.A., Kochneva T.S., Malysheva V.L., Some experience of the formation proppant fracturine in carbonate reservoirs of Perm region deposits (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2016, no. 6, pp. 23–25.
4. Galkin V.I., Koltyrin A.N., Kazantsev A.S. et al., Development of a statistical model aimed at prediction of efficiency of proppant hydraulic fracturing of a formation, based on a reservoir geological-technological parameters, for Vereiskian carbonate oil- and gas-bearing complex (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2017, no. 3, pp. 48–54.
5. Barkovskiy N.N., Kondratʹev S.A., Amirov A.M. et al., Complex approach to laboratory testing modeling of breakdown fluid (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2018, no. 9, pp. 33–40.
6. Kashnikov YU.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Shustov D.V. et al., In situ stress in the oil fields of Western Ural (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 64–67.
7. Kashnikov YU.A., Shustov D.V., Kukhtinskiy A.EH., Kondratʹev S.A., Geomechanical properties of the terrigenous reservoirs in the oil fields of Western Ural (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 4, pp. 32–65.
8. Kondratʹev S.A., Zhukovskiy A.A., Kochneva T.S., Malysheva V.L., Accounting of layers’ elastic mechanical properties when performing a formation hydraulic fracturing on the example of one of the objects of fields development in Perm region (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 12, pp. 56–59.9. Kondratʹev S.A., Zhigalov V.A., Malysheva V.L., Prediction of a formation’s elastic-mechanical properties by the data of the standard GIS complex to estimate the risks of fractures development that appeared after conducting a formation hydraulic fracturing along the vertical of the formation (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2018, no 5, pp. 55–59.
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Second fracturing operation (re-fracturing) is often used in producing wells to improve well productivity that reduces with time. In some cases well rate/pressure performance analysis indicates a significant improvement of well productivity after re-fracturing. A change of a fracture orientation (re-orientation) while re-fracturing is one of possible reasons of productivity improvement. It is important to find a method to predict the second fracture direction and to find conditions of new fracture creation. This method would help one to select appropriate wells for re-fracturing. This paper discusses two cases of numerical modeling of well rate and pressure performance for pre- and post-refracturing time periods. Case one is when properties of the "old" fracture improved. Case two is when fracture re-orientation occurs after hydraulic fracturing operation, i.e., when the two (the "old" one and the "new" one) perpendicular fractures occur. Using results of numerical modeling, it is possible to estimate the contribution of both these two cases to the well inflow. Further, the production pressure analysis for re-fractured wells was made using field data and conclusions about hydraulic fracture re-orientation were made. The occurrence of fracture re-orientation in all considered examples was checked using the RN-KIN geomechanical simulation software. Also the sensitivity analysis for various reservoir parameters was performed in order to understand the limits of the fracture re-orientation technology. This analysis allowed us to identify individual sections of the field and wells in pattern elements where fracture re-orientation after re-fracturing is most probable.
1. Baykov V.A., Rabtsevich S.A., Kostrigin I.V., Sergeychev A.V., Monitoring of field development using a hierarchy of models in software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik “NK “Rosneftʹ”, 2014, no. 2, pp. 14–17.
2. Asalkhuzina G.F., Davletbaev A.YA., Khabibullin I.L., Modeling reservoir pressure difference between injection and production wells in low permeable reservoirs (In Russ.), Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta, 2016, V. 21, no. 3, pp. 537–544.
3. Afanasʹev I.S., Antonenko I.S., Antonenko D.A. et al., Results of massed fracturing introduction at Priobskoye deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 8, pp. 62–64.
4. Davletbaev A.Ya., Baykov V.A., Ozkan EH. et al., Multi-layer steady-state injection test with higher bottomhole pressure than the formation fracturing pressure (In Russ.), SPE 136199-RU, 2010.
5. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.YA., Ivashchenko D.S., Simulation of liquid influx in low-permeability reservoir wells taking into account non-linear filtration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 54–58.
6. Baryshnikov A.V., Sidorenko V.V., Kokurina V.V. et al., Low permeable collectors with fracturing: the interpretation of hydrodynamic research based on the analysis of well’s yield reduction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 42–45.
7. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., The longterm monitoring of resevoir data as significant direction of contemporary welltest analysis development (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2012, no. 9, pp. 4–8.
8. Ishkin D.Z., Nuriev R.I., Davletbaev A.Ya. et al., Decline-analysis/“short” build-up welltest analysis of low permeability gas reservoir (In Russ.), SPE 181974-RU, 2016.
9. Latypov I.D., Borisov G.A., Khaydar A.M. et al., Reorientation refracturing on RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC oilfields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 34–38.
10. Davletbaev A.YA., Mukhametova Z.S., Simulation of the filtration in a low-permeability pool with two perpendicular technogenic hydraulic fractures (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2017, V. 90, no. 3, pp. 632–639, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10891-017-1605-y.
11. Latypov I.D., Fedorov A.I., Nikitin A.N., Research of reorientation refracturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 74–78.
12. Davletova A.R., Bikbulatova G.R., Fedorov A.I., Davletbaev A.YA., Geomechanical simulation of hydraulic fractures growth direction and trajectory in the low permeability reservoirs development (in Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik “NK “Rosneftʹ”, 2014, no. 1, pp. 40–43.
13. Fedorov A.I., Davletova A.R., Reservoir stress state simulator for determining of fracture growth direction (In Russ.), Geofizicheskie issledovaniya = Geophysical research, 2014, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 15–26.
14. Kokurina V.V., Kremenetskiy M.I., Krichevskiy V.M., Control of the efficiency of repeated hydraulic fracturing basing on the results of hydrodynamic surveys (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2013, V. 227, pp. 76–101.
15. Blasingame T.A., Johnston J.L., Lee W.J., Type curve analysis using the pressure integral method, SPE 18799-MS, 2018.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
A variety of geological and physical structural features of the oil and gas pools under development and the properties of the produced fluids predetermine the need to apply individual approaches to solve the problems of improving the operating efficiency of wells in difficult conditions. Currently, the tasks of integrated multiple-factor study of the processes of gas and liquid mixtures motion in the bottomhole zone – pump – wellbore system are relevant with the purposes of predicting the intensity of difficulties in oil production and optimizing the operating conditions of submersible pumping equipment. The drop in the bottomhole pressure below the oil bubblepoint pressure, which is forced to maintain the required oil recovery rate, ensures that a large amount of free gas enters the directional and horizontal wells with the liquid. The significant differences in reservoirs and formation fluids properties determine the need to sel ect the optimal well operating conditions with account of the specifics of the gas and liquid mixtures motion in the actuating elements of pumps and tubing and the intensity of the occurring complicating factors due to increased free gas content in the produced fluid.
The analysis of the operating conditions of the oil wells operated by Rosneft Oil Company has shown that, when producing a relatively water-free well stream, the free gas ratio at the pump suction may exceed permissible values even with a two-fold bottomhole pressure reduction in relation to the bubblepoint pressure of the produced liquid, which leads to the need to use gas separators as part of the ESP. In addition to being a difficulty on its own, a high gas-oil ratio contributes to the occurrence of associated difficulties such as the sedimentation of inorganic salts, paraffin, asphalt, resin substances, and solids. The article shows that the negative impact of the deposits of inorganic salts, paraffin asphaltene-resin-paraffin substances is most significant for the wells in the fields operated by RN-Purneftegas and RN-Vankor. Reducing the pressure at the pump intake below the oil bubblepoint pressure and the resulting free gas in the produced stream leads to intensive scaling in the flow channel of the ESP. When dismantling emergency pumps, salts were universally found in their lower stages while in deposits of inorganic salts were present in the upper stages only in 60% of the studied cases due to a decrease in the free gas as the gas and liquid mixture moves through the pump.
Application of the probabilistic approach and the reliability theory to the reviewing of more than 80,000 failures of the pumping equipment has shown that the probability of a failure-free operation for more than 400 days tends to zero for the wells with a high gas-oil ratio.
1. Lysenko V.D., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Teoriya i praktika (Development of oil fields. Theory and practice), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1996, 367 p.
2. Diyashev R.N., Lysenko A.V., Kosterin A.V., Skvortsov E.V., Fil'tratsiya zhidkosti v deformiruemykh neftyanykh plastakh (Fluid filtration in deformable oil reservoirs), Kazan': Publ. of Kazan Mathematical Society, 1999, 238 p.
3. Surguchev M.L., Metody izvlecheniya ostatochnoy nefti (Residual oil recovery methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 347 p.
4. Antipin Yu.V., Valeev M.D., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Predotvrashchenie oslozhneniy pri dobyche obvodnennoy nefti (Prevention of complications in the production of water cut oil), Ufa: Bashkirskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1987, 168 p.
5. Kuznetsov N.P., Zermionova V.I., K voprosu o smeshenii vod v sisteme PPD (On the issue of water mixing in the reservoir pressure maintenance system), Collected papers “Bor'ba s solevymi i asfal'tosmoloparafinovymi otlozheniyami v neftepromyslovom oborudovanii” (Salt and asphalt-resin-paraffin control), Proceedings of All-Union Scientific and Technical Meeting, Kazan', 1982, p. 56.
6. Kasñhavtsev V.E., Gattenberger Yu.P., Lyushin S.F., Preduprezhdenie soleobrazovaniya pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation prevention during oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 215 p.
7. Marinin N.S., Yaryshev G.M., Mikhaylov S.A. et al., Metody bor'by s otlozheniem soley (Salt deposition control methods), Moscow: Neftepromyslovoe delo Publ., 1980, 56 p.
8. Kuznetsov N.P., Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologiy preduprezhdeniya parafino-solevykh otlozheniy i korrozii v neftepromyslovom oborudovanii (na primere OAO “Yuganskneftegaz”) (Improving technologies for the prevention of paraffin-salt deposits and corrosion in oil field equipment: case study Yuganskneftegaz OAO): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 1999.
9. Shamray Yu.V., Povyshenie effektivnosti tekhnologicheskikh protsessov dobychi nefti na osnove razrabotki i vnedreniya kompleksnykh uglevodorodnykh sostavov dlya udaleniya asfal'tosmoloparafinovykh otlozheniy (Improving the efficiency of technological processes of oil production based on the development and implementation of complex hydrocarbon compositions for the removal of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits): thesis of candidate of technical science, Kazan', 1990.
10. Tronov V.P., Vliyanie razlichnykh faktorov na vypadenie parafina iz nefti (The influence of various factors on the wax deposition fr om oil), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft, 1965, V. 7, pp. 311–320.
11. Mel'nichenko V.E., Otsenka vliyaniya osnovnykh tekhnologicheskikh kharakteristik dobyvayushchikh skvazhin na resurs pogruzhnykh elektrotsentrobezhnykh nasosov (Assessment of the impact of the main technological characteristics of production wells on the resource of submersible electric centrifugal pumps): thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2018.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The article considers the solution of the issue of carrying out gas pipelines without an optimal pressure drop, providing for the movement of cleaning devices through the internal cavity of existing pipelines. Insufficient pressure drop due to the fact that a greater number of fields of the Russian Federation are imposed on the territories associated with oil and gas provinces and are in the late stages of development. The possible options for the organization of cleaning in the current situation are considered; the shortcomings of each of the methods are noted. A proposal has been made to carry out water treatment by installing small-sized start-up devices along the gas pipeline - receiving cleaning devices in combination with mobile compressor units. These devices are a modernized design of scraper cranes widely used on gas pipelines. The following drawbacks of the old crane design are presented: the need to sel ect the correct stiffness of the scraper, since the scraper often simply did not leave the chamber; the inability to run diagnostic devices and to connect the compressor unit directly to the crane unit; high probability of damage to both the scraper itself and the catching grid at high speed of the cleaning device.
Modernization was based on the following options: strengthening the operator's safety level when working with the use of loading-receiving cleaning / diagnostic equipment; implementing the control after the projectile at its launch and reception; protecting equipment fr om damage. The detailed schemes of the new compact camera are presented. An effective scheme for cleaning gas pipelines using new equipment has been proposed.
1. Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety “Pravila bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii vnutripromyslovykh truboprovodov” (Rules for the safe operation of field pipelines), 2017.
2. P1-01.05 S-0038 V. 1.00. Pravila po ekspluatatsii, revizii, remontu i otbrakovke promyslovykh truboprovodov na ob"ektakh OAO “NK “Rosneft'” i ego dochernikh obshchestv (Standard no. P1-01.05 S-0038 V. 1.00 “Pravila po ekspluatatsii, revizii, remontu i otbrakovke promyslovykh truboprovodov na ob"ektakh OAO “NK “Rosneft'” i ego dochernikh obshchestv” (Rules for operation, inspection, repair and rejection of field pipelines at the facilities of Rosneft OJSC and its subsidiaries), 20.09.2013.), 20.09.13.
3. Federal standards and rules for industrial safety “Pravila bezopasnosti v neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti” (Safety rules in oil and gas industry), 12.03.13.
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Conventional Russian and foreign strength calculations of pipelines transporting liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons are presented as a deterministic estimation of wall thickness based on the given design pressure, the selected pipe diameter and mechanical properties of the pipe steel. In deterministic estimates, basic strength calculations are performed using a force-determined strength condition expressed as nominal rated stress vs. permissible stress. A set of safety and reliability factors is introduced into these calculations to account for basic design, process and operational factors.
The article provides a quantitative assessment of the role of statistical factors of operational loading, the breaking point and the yield point, mechanical tolerance for wall thickness and pipe diameter, and pipe material degradation. It links the safety factors used in the international standards (API 579 and DIN 2470) and the Russian Construction Code SNiP 2.05.06-85*. The article suggests considering the statistical data on operational loading of oil pipelines by recording pressure at the inlet and outlet of the given oil pump station and measurement of local pipe stress in representative pipeline sections. The paper also contains proposals to consider that the strength properties of pipes may be affected by pipe steel degradation, especially in surface layers, in the course of long-term operation. Strength reserve values were obtained to account for other factors such as welds present, manufacturing defects in pipes and pipe steel, local corrosion, loading cyclicality and cyclic crack extension). These values should be further considered with advent of the new basic and check calculation methodology, to account for their stochastic nature.
1. Mazur I.I., Ivantsov O.M., Bezopasnost' truboprovodnykh sistem (Safety of pipeline systems), Moscow: Elima Publ., 2004, 1104 p.
2. Lisin YU.V., Makhutov N.A., Neganov D.A., Varshitskiy V.M., Comprehensive analysis of the pipelines safety and basic mechanical properties of the pipe steels (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2017, no. 1(28), pp. 30–38.
3. Rodionova S.G., Revel'-Muroz P.A., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2016, no. 5 (25), pp. 20–31.
4. Makhutov N.A., Permyakov V.N., Resurs bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii sosudov i truboprovodov (Resource of safe operation of vessels and pipelines), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2005, 516 p.
5. PNAE G-7-002-89, Normy rascheta na prochnost’ oborudovaniya i truboprovodov atomnykh energeticheskikh ustanovok (Norms for calculating the strength of equipment and pipelines of nuclear power plants), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1989, 525 p.
6. Makhutov N.A., Konstruktsionnaya prochnostʹ, resurs i tekhnogennaya bezopasnostʹ (Structural strength, life and man-made safety), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2005.
7. Lisin Yu.V., Makhutov N.A., Neganov D.A. et al., Identification of pipe steels of domestic and foreign manufacturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 2, pp. 90–95.
8. Pluvinage G, Bouledroua O., Meliani M.H., Corrosion defect harmfulness by domain failure assessment diagram, Pipeline. Science and Technology, 2018, no. 3, pp. 163–177.
9. Neganov D.A., Maslikov S.N., Sergaev A.A., Ehrmish S.V., Application of in-line inspection data for calculating the bearing capacity of pipelines with the use of improved material reliability factor (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 8, pp. 130–133.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The territory of Surgutneftegas PJSC for the long time was limited by the middle Ob location. For more than 50 years period the extraction of hydrocarbons has reduced. To compensate it the new ways of researches on new territories are performed. One of such regions is the south of Nefteyugansk district of Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district (KhMAD – Ugra).
Nowadays, Nefteyugansk district takes the first place by the density of licensed sites in KhMAD – Ugra. The south and south-east were poorly researched for the long time, but now there’re a lot of licenses provided for the new researches. In several license areas, prospecting and exploration is carried out by Surgutneftegas PJSC. It’s a common fact that even the first stages of oil extraction influence the environment such as form of the landscape and geochemical condition of the ecosystem. Soils are influenced only on the territory of the fields, water resources are influenced more.
To lesser the influence on all the components Surgutneftegas PJSC performs the ecological monitor. The research results help to notify any changes in the components of the nature. The potential of the region is very high.The preparatory researches results show us that a new gas-oil extraction center of the company in KhMAD-Ugra would appear in this region soon. Researches and analysis provide us with all the necessary information of the natural condition of region and all the natural components. This is very important because of the difference between the south of Nefteyugansk district and the right shore of the Ob River where the main cluster of gas-oil extraction of the company is located.
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The article is devoted to the problem of comparative evaluation of the reuse value of storage objects for oil-contaminated waste on the basis of analysis of data on the physicochemical composition of waste with the aim of differentiating resource sources in the analyzed group. The reuse value of wastes is a quantitative assessment of their physicochemical composition and properties, which determines the degree of suitability of waste for use as material resources in recycling technologies. Accounting for this assessment is necessary in determining the significance of a particular storage object as a source of these resources, as well as in calculating the resource potential of waste, which is a complex quantitative indicator of the possibility of effective waste recycling, assessed by a combination of diverse criteria (technological, logistic, technical-economic, environmental , etc.). The proposed methodology for comparative analysis of reuse value, based on the use of the method DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis), allows to obtain a relative, not an absolute assessment of reuse value, i.e. with its help it is possible to determine how each particular oil-contaminated waste storage object is effective from the point of view of secondary use with respect to all other objects of the analyzed set. The effectiveness of each object in question in the most general case is defined as the quotient of the sum of all its output parameters, determining positive characteristics or results, by the sum of all input factors representing means that are used to obtain positive results., The value of efficiency for each object is determined in relative units, after which the comparative analysis and ranking of objects is carried out. DEA-method allows to determine the most effective objects in the analyzed group and to construct the efficiency boundary corresponding to them, while the measure of ineffectiveness of all other objects is determined, in comparison with the most effective ones in the group. An example of the application of the developed methodology to the solution of the problem of comparative evaluation of the resource value of a group consisting of twenty waste storage objects of the oil refining industry of the Samara region is given.
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