Laboratory evaluation of oil spill remediation via peat sorbents at low temperatures

UDK: 502.36:622.276
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-10-132-136
Key words: Sorbent, thermal treatment, solute, composition, properties, water, temperature, sorption tests, ecosystem samples, pollution, bioutilisation
Authors: N.V. Chukhareva (Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk), M.P. Sartakov (Yugra State University, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), I.D. Komissarov (Northern Trans-Urals State Agricultural University, RF, Tyumen)

The purpose of the article is to study the properties of terrestrial peat in order to use it in oil spill liquidation from water surface at low temperatures. To define sorption capacity at 20 and 2 °С, the sorption tests of air-dried and thermally treated fuscum and sphagnum peat samples with high decomposition degree were carried out. It has been revealed that peat samples thermally treated in their decomposing gases (up to 250 °С) are characterized by high oil-sorbing capacity, hydrophobic nature and are capable to stay at water surface for a long time.  This fact is proved by the buoyancy coefficient compared with that of the untreated peat samples. It is caused by the impact of thermal treatment on peat properties, i.e. alterations in elemental, group and functional composition. 

The increase in solute density results in sorbent oil-sorbing capacity increase. The decrease in sorption test temperature has no impact on the water-retaining capacity and buoyancy during the tests.

The thermally-treated peat was successfully used to purify water from residual petroleum hydrocarbons, which was proved by the data of the fluorometric study. The microbilological tests aimed at defining the number of physiological groups of bacteria which destroy petroleum hydrocarbons proved the balanced nature of bacterial processes and ability of ecosystem samples to be utilized at low temperatures. In addition, alteration in peat-sorbent properties due to thermal treatment (as energetic substrate) resulted in the increase in the number of bacteria and capacity to sorb commercial crude oil.

Acknowledgments. The research is carried out at Tomsk Polytechnic University within the framework of Tomsk Polytechnic University Competitiveness Enhancement Program grant.

References

1. Pezeshki S.R. et al., The effects of oil spill and clean-up on dominant US Gulf coast marsh macrophytes: a review, Environmental pollution, 2000, V. 108, no. 2, pp. 129-139.

2. Annunciado T.R., Sydenstricker T.H.D., Amico S.C., Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills, Marine pollution bulletin, 2005, V. 50, no. 11, pp. 1340-1346.

3. Chukhareva N.V., Bulgakova O.L., Rozhkova D.S., Khadkevich I.A., Oil spill utilization by peat sorbent (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 116-120.

4. Kamenshchikov F.A., Bogomol'nyy E.I., Udalenie nefteproduktov s vodnoy poverkhnosti i grunta (Removal of oil products from the water surface and soil), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2006, 528 p.

5. Emtsev V.T., Mishustin E.N., Mikrobiologiya (Microbiology), Moscow: Drofa Publ., 2005, 445 p.

6. Nalivayko M.G., Khvashchevskaya A.A., Mikroflora prirodnykh vod  istochnikov tsentralizovannogo pit'evogo vodosnabzheniya (Microflora of natural waters sources of centralized drinking water supply), Collected papers “Sovremennye problemy gidrogeologii, inzhenernoy geologii i gidrogeoekologii Evrazii” (Modern problems of hydrogeology, engineering geology and hydrogeoecology in Eurasia), Proceedings of  All-Russian conference with international participation, Tomsk, 23-27 November 2015, Tomsk, 2015, pp. 526-529.

7. Smol'yaninov S.I., Maslov S.G., Termobriketirovanie torfa (Thermo-briquetting of peat), Tomsk: Publ. of TSU, 1975, 108 p.

8. Nassar M.M., MacKay G.D.M., Mechanism of thermal decomposition of lignin, Wood and Fiber Science, 2007, V. 16, no. 3, pp. 441-453.

9. Aronov S.G., Nesterenko L.L., Khimiya tverdykh goryuchikh iskopaemykh (Chemistry of solid fossil fuels), Khar'kov: Publ. of Khar'kovskogo gos. un-ta, 1960, 371 p.

10. Tarnovskaya L.I., Zakonomernosti izmeneniya gruppovogo sostava torfa v protsesse termoliza (Regularities in the change in the peat composition in the process of thermolysis): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tomsk, 1985, 199 p.

11. Lych A.M., Gidrofil'nost' torfa (Peat hydrophilicity), Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika Publ., 1991, 256 p.

12. Lishtvan I.I., Fizika i khimiya torfa (Physics and chemistry of peat), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 304 p.

13. Ispiryan S.R., Razrabotka metodiki kompleksnoy otsenki pogloshcheniya torfom neftemasloproduktov (Development of a methodology for a comprehensive evaluation of the absorption of peat by petroleum oil products): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tver', 2001, 151 p.  

The purpose of the article is to study the properties of terrestrial peat in order to use it in oil spill liquidation from water surface at low temperatures. To define sorption capacity at 20 and 2 °С, the sorption tests of air-dried and thermally treated fuscum and sphagnum peat samples with high decomposition degree were carried out. It has been revealed that peat samples thermally treated in their decomposing gases (up to 250 °С) are characterized by high oil-sorbing capacity, hydrophobic nature and are capable to stay at water surface for a long time.  This fact is proved by the buoyancy coefficient compared with that of the untreated peat samples. It is caused by the impact of thermal treatment on peat properties, i.e. alterations in elemental, group and functional composition. 

The increase in solute density results in sorbent oil-sorbing capacity increase. The decrease in sorption test temperature has no impact on the water-retaining capacity and buoyancy during the tests.

The thermally-treated peat was successfully used to purify water from residual petroleum hydrocarbons, which was proved by the data of the fluorometric study. The microbilological tests aimed at defining the number of physiological groups of bacteria which destroy petroleum hydrocarbons proved the balanced nature of bacterial processes and ability of ecosystem samples to be utilized at low temperatures. In addition, alteration in peat-sorbent properties due to thermal treatment (as energetic substrate) resulted in the increase in the number of bacteria and capacity to sorb commercial crude oil.

Acknowledgments. The research is carried out at Tomsk Polytechnic University within the framework of Tomsk Polytechnic University Competitiveness Enhancement Program grant.

References

1. Pezeshki S.R. et al., The effects of oil spill and clean-up on dominant US Gulf coast marsh macrophytes: a review, Environmental pollution, 2000, V. 108, no. 2, pp. 129-139.

2. Annunciado T.R., Sydenstricker T.H.D., Amico S.C., Experimental investigation of various vegetable fibers as sorbent materials for oil spills, Marine pollution bulletin, 2005, V. 50, no. 11, pp. 1340-1346.

3. Chukhareva N.V., Bulgakova O.L., Rozhkova D.S., Khadkevich I.A., Oil spill utilization by peat sorbent (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 116-120.

4. Kamenshchikov F.A., Bogomol'nyy E.I., Udalenie nefteproduktov s vodnoy poverkhnosti i grunta (Removal of oil products from the water surface and soil), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2006, 528 p.

5. Emtsev V.T., Mishustin E.N., Mikrobiologiya (Microbiology), Moscow: Drofa Publ., 2005, 445 p.

6. Nalivayko M.G., Khvashchevskaya A.A., Mikroflora prirodnykh vod  istochnikov tsentralizovannogo pit'evogo vodosnabzheniya (Microflora of natural waters sources of centralized drinking water supply), Collected papers “Sovremennye problemy gidrogeologii, inzhenernoy geologii i gidrogeoekologii Evrazii” (Modern problems of hydrogeology, engineering geology and hydrogeoecology in Eurasia), Proceedings of  All-Russian conference with international participation, Tomsk, 23-27 November 2015, Tomsk, 2015, pp. 526-529.

7. Smol'yaninov S.I., Maslov S.G., Termobriketirovanie torfa (Thermo-briquetting of peat), Tomsk: Publ. of TSU, 1975, 108 p.

8. Nassar M.M., MacKay G.D.M., Mechanism of thermal decomposition of lignin, Wood and Fiber Science, 2007, V. 16, no. 3, pp. 441-453.

9. Aronov S.G., Nesterenko L.L., Khimiya tverdykh goryuchikh iskopaemykh (Chemistry of solid fossil fuels), Khar'kov: Publ. of Khar'kovskogo gos. un-ta, 1960, 371 p.

10. Tarnovskaya L.I., Zakonomernosti izmeneniya gruppovogo sostava torfa v protsesse termoliza (Regularities in the change in the peat composition in the process of thermolysis): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tomsk, 1985, 199 p.

11. Lych A.M., Gidrofil'nost' torfa (Peat hydrophilicity), Minsk: Nauka i tekhnika Publ., 1991, 256 p.

12. Lishtvan I.I., Fizika i khimiya torfa (Physics and chemistry of peat), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 304 p.

13. Ispiryan S.R., Razrabotka metodiki kompleksnoy otsenki pogloshcheniya torfom neftemasloproduktov (Development of a methodology for a comprehensive evaluation of the absorption of peat by petroleum oil products): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tver', 2001, 151 p.  



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