One of the most important factors in the decarbonization process of the oil and gas industry is the availability of geological capacity for the injection and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A geological body into which greenhouse gases can be injected must be able to receive and reliably contain the injected fluid for a long period of time, and therefore must meet the following basic requirements: a) to consist of reservoir rocks capable of receiving the injected fluid and providing the required injectivity; b) to ensure the preservation of acid gases at the injection site, or to neutralize aggressive components of the injected fluid. The geological storage must provide tightness, absence of the possibility of migration to groundwater and the earth's surface, and the ability of the rocks and fluids of the storage to interact with corrosive gas components without the formation of potential channels for the leakage of greenhouse gases. According to these criteria, the most promising are the aquifers that are propagated across substantial area in the sedimentary cover and located near carbon dioxide emitters. To confirm the possibility of using aquifers as carbon dioxide storage, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms affecting the preservation of the injected gas – structural or stratigraphic trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping and mineral trapping which provide the required level of injection safety. The article discusses the criteria for the selection and evaluation of such prospective storages in Russia, and also reveals the key characteristics that ensure the safe utilization of carbon dioxide.
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