Oil fields development is always followed by the influence on all the natural environment components, including soils. On the one hand, there is a mechanical disturbance of the soil cover, leading to its removal or compaction, a change in the existing structure of the soil profile, on the other hand, the qualitative characteristics of the soil (geochemical background) change. The consequences of technogenic interference in the natural environment (disruption of the natural state of natural complexes) are diverse. The soils are characterized by changes in water-physical properties, violation of oxygen regime, salinity, etc. These changes are recorded through monitoring observations. In accordance with the terms of subsoil use at deposits located on the territory of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), subsoil users assess the background (before the start of large-scale resource development) and current (field development) state of the natural environment.
The article presents the results of the analysis of the current geochemical state of the soil cover of hydrocarbon deposits in the southwestern part of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), developed by Surgutneftegas PJSC. Changes that have occurred in the soils during the development of deposits are traced. It is noted that the formation of the soil cover was significantly influenced by the harsh climatic conditions. It is shown that soil processes are seasonal and develop in that part of the soil that has time to warm up during the warm season of the year. The main features of soils and soil formation are the relatively small thickness of the soil profile, the absence of the removal of the products of soil formation and weathering outside the active layer and their accumulation in the soil, and the slowdown in the biological cycle of substances and energy. To date, the development of hydrocarbon deposits has not had a visible effect on the geochemical state of the soil cover. The soils of the fields are characterized by a heavy granulometric composition. The content of petroleum products does not exceed the approximate permissible concentration. The increased content of some heavy metals is due to the natural features of the area.
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