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December 2014




The oil and gas companies


D.A. Sugaipov, Yu.L. Sandler (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Development of new oil and gas fields in JSC Gazprom Neft using the major projects management system

Key words: major project, conceptual design, design logic, project phase, information value, cost engineering.

This article is devoted to the major projects preparation and implementation system used in Gazprom Neft for development of new hydrocarbon deposits. Special focus is made on key elements of the system: project phasing, elaboration of conceptual solutions, work of project teams, including at the stage of Implementation. Detailed consideration is given to the main principles of project division into phases and selection of development concept subject to the existing uncertainties and risks. The author describes phased decision-making methods and approaches to conceptual design illustrating usage of these tools with examples of projects which have already been or are being implemented.


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U.V. Shuliev, A.N. Govzich, A.V. Bilinchuk (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Gazprom Neft JSC asset management

Key words: Gazprom Neft, technology strategy, new technologies, asset management, innovative development, production potential, high-tech well, research and development activities, pilot projects, replicating best practices and experience.

The Gazprom Neft JSC focus is proactive search, fast customization and effective deployment of those technologies, which are the priority in order to reach the strategic 2025 goals.

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A.A. Vashkevich (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
System approach in exploration

Key words: systematic approach, exploration, new technologies, standards, functional model, risks and uncertainties, competences.

The article considers a systematic basis to ensure technological process of exploration process - hydrocarbon volume calculation, identification and analysis of risks and uncertainties by the example of Gazprom Neft JSC. This framework includes new technologies, adapting best practices the industry, as well as the implementation of methodological support.

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Economy, management, the legal right


A.G. Komkov, I.F. Rustamov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Armyaninov, Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
The efficiency of cross-functional team as a base of informed decisions

Key words: efficiency, optimization, cross-functional team, scenario, infrastructure.

This article describes the approach of Gazprom Neft to increase the efficiency of mature fields, and what impact a well-formed cross-functional team will have on the end result. Also the procedure of comprehensive, integrated asset assessment and its impact on informed decisions is described in this article.

References
1. Yuditskiy S.A., Vladislavlev P.N., Osnovy predproektnogo analiza organizatsionnykh sistem (Fundamentals of pre-project analysis of organizational systems), Moscow: Finansy i statistika Publ., 2005, 144 p.
2. Upravlenie proektami v kompanii (Project Management in company),
Moscow: Publ.of PM Expert, 2014.
3. Archibald R.D., Managing high technology programs and project, 3rd ed.,

N.Y.: John Wiley and Sons, 2003.


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M.M. Khasanov, D.A. Sugaipov, A.V. Zhagrin, I.L. Sandler, O.O. Skudar, S.V. Tretiakov, Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazprom Neft LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Improvement of CAPEX estimation accuracy during early project stages

Key words: cost estimation, cost engineering, cost model.

In this article represented a route to create tools for improvement CAPEX estimation accuracy on early project stages and effect of estimation accuracy to project realization during concept field design.
References
1. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 12–14.
2. Glossariy stoimostnogo inzhenera (Glossary of Cost Engineers),
http://www.aacei.org/
3. AACE International recommended practice no. 17R-97 Cost estimate classification system.
4. SK-01.13.00, Upravlenie krupnymi proektami v oblasti razvedki i dobychi
OAO “Gazprom neft'” (Management of exploration and production large
projects in Gazprom Neft JSC)
5. BHuddharaju P., Laskar S., Samual R., Robust well-cost estimation using a
support vector machine model, SPE 106577. 2007.
6. Kitchel B.G. et al., Probabilistic drilling-cost estimating, SPE 35990. 1997.
7. Saibi M., A probabilistic approach for drilling cost engineering and management case study: Hassi-Messaoud oil field, SPE/IADC 107211. 2007.

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A.G. Komkov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.S. Bochkov, M.I. Kuzmin, R.R. Mudarisov, O.Yu. Melchaeva, I.V. Istomina (LLC Gazpromneft NTC, RF, Saint-Petersburg) In order to sustain the companys competitive advantages in the long term perspective, Gazprom
Knowledge management system as a technology management tool

Key words: knowledge management, knowledge distribution, technical solutions library, innovative resources, competence centers, best practices, lessons learned, advanced and new technologies.

In order to sustain the company’s competitive advantages in the long term perspective, Gazprom Neft pays much attention to create a proper set of processes connected with accumulation, maintenance and distribution of knowledge across the companys structure, as well as best practices and experiences reproduction among all the employees involved into the Upstream division of Gazprom Neft. As part of the companys overall strategy, together with the process of transition from the Smart Buyer concept to that of the Rapidly Reacting Follower, Upstream division initiated the project of development and implementation of a corporate Knowledge Management System. Particularly, its functional goal was determined based on the analysis of knowledge management best practices in the worlds leading petroleum companies. This approach was used while developing resembling system inside Gazprom Neft R&D branch. This article also contains description of the web page that provides information on the Knowledge Management System, its current state and development perspectives.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


G.V. Volkov, A.I. Andronov, A.S. Sorokin, D.A. Litvichenko (Gazpromneft-NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Perform a pilot studying results for the testing of high-productivity techniques in Eastern Siberia

Key words: land seismic, single receivers, wideband signal, high-productivity vibroseis.

The paper reviews the results of pilot studying analysis in Eastern Siberia. The purpose was to test modern approaches to the definition of sweep generation and registration parameters and confirmation of selected parameters. Pilot studying included the following steps: 1) testing of high-productivity techniques such as Flip-flop and Slip-sweep method; 2) testing of sweep parameters with a focus on the low frequencies; 3) diversity stack productivity estimation; 4) analysis of the influence on the quality of the data type receivers and their geometry.
References
1. Gafarov R.M., Obrabotka dannykh Slip sweep bez poteri kachestva
poluchaemykh dannykh v usloviyakh tsentral'noy chasti Rossii (Slip sweep
data processing without losing the quality of the data of central part of Russia), Proccedings of 14th International Scientific and Practical Conference
“Geomodel'-2012” (Geomodel’ 2012), 10-14 sentyabrya 2012 g.
2. Shneerson M.B., Potapov O.A., Grodzenskiy V.A. et al., Vibratsionnaya
seysmorazvedka(Vibroseismic exploration), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 20 p.
3. Cherepovskiy A.V., Seysmorazvedka s odinochnymi priemnikami i istochnikami: obzor sovremennykh tekhnologiy i proektirovanie s"emok (Seismic exploration with single receivers and sources: a review of modern technology and acquisition design), Educational tour of EAGE, 2012, 133 p.

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I.I. Kubyshta, Yu.V. Pavlovsky (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Stain-Petersburg), S.V. Kompaniets, O.V. Tokareva (Irkutsk Electroprospecting Company, RF, Irkutsk), L.N.Shakirzyanov (Gazpromneft-Angara JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Multifunctional (integrated) approach of 3D seismic and high-density electro-prospecting data interpretation to increase well success in Eastern Siberia region

Key words: East Siberia, 3D seismic survey, high- density electro prospecting survey, trapps, terrigenous Vendian deposits, carbonate lower Cambrian deposits, reservoir forecast

A case study of simultaneous accomplishments of the vibroseis 3D seismic survey and the high-density electro prospecting TEM survey, processing «connect-points», is presented at the results of the common interpretation. The data pertain to one of Gazpromneft-Angara LLC license blocks in Eastern Siberia.


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V. Ovechkina, T. Olneva (Gzpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Seismic samples of lithological traps by the example of deep-water fan

Key words: seismic sample, seismic facies analysis, deep-water fan, effectiveness.

The authors considered the possibilities to create the seismic samples library of lithological traps. Main approach used in this study is seismic facies analysis. Seismic facies analysis allows to research geological environment in detail. The expression ‘seismic imaging’ fits this approach the most. Seismic samples of lithological traps help to predict the local objects and increase the researches effectiveness.

References
1. Shimanskiy V.V., Zakonomernosti formirovaniya nestrukturnykh lovushek i prognoz zon neftegazonakopleniya v yurskikh i nizhnemelovykh otlozheniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Laws of formation of non-structural traps and
forecast of oil and gas accumulation zone in the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of Western Siberia): Thesis of doctor of geological and mineralogical sciences, St. Petersburg, 2003.
2. Kontorovich A.E. et al., West Siberian province: state of resource base, development forecasts of oil and gas production, actual problems of subsoil use (In Russ.), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference “Aktual'nye
problemy poiskov, razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza” (Actual
problems of prospecting, exploration and development of oil and gas),
Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 2004.
3. Burshteyn L.M. et al., Raw material base of the oil and gas industry in Western Siberia: forecast undiscovered resources, patterns of their localization, probable structure, dynamics of detection (In Russ.), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference Aktual'nye problemy poiskov, razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Actual problems of prospecting, exploration and development of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 2004.
4. Nezhdanov A.A., Seysmogeologicheskiy analiz otlozheniy Zapadnoy Sibiri
dlya tseley prognoza i kartirovaniya neantiklinal'nykh lovushek i zalezhey UV
(Seismogeological analysis of deposits in Western Siberia for the purpose of
forecasting and mapping of non-anticlinal traps and hydrocarbon deposits):
Thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences, Tyumen', 2004.
5. Gol'din S.V.,Contact images and seismic vision (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Conference-School on Geometry and Analysis, Novosibirsk, 2002.
6. Ol'neva T.V., Seismic vision and seismic measurement: efficiency prediction of properties in the inter-well space (In Russ.), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference Problemy geologii i geofiziki neftegazovykh basseynov i rezervuarov (Problems of Geology and Geophysics of oil and gas basins and reservoirs), Sochi, 2012.
7. Zolotov A.N., Lur'e A.G., Rudnitskaya D.I., Salmanov F.K., A study of the Neocomian productive sediments of East Urengoy field (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1998, no. 8.

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K.V. Strizhnev (Gasprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.A. Cherevko (Gazpromneft Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), V.V. Zhukov, F.R. Grabovskaya, I.A. Karpov, N.V. Morozov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Bazhenov formation reservoir rocks of the Palyanovskaya area (Western Siberia)

Key words: lithotypes, TOC, reservoir rocks, bazhenov formation, Palyanovskaya area, Western Siberia

This paper is based on the results of lithological and geochemical core analysis. Obtained parameters allow to make detailed characterization of the Palyanovskaya area Bazhenov formation and to distinguish significant intervals containing reservoir rocks with mobile oil.
References
1. Braduchan Yu.V., Gurari F.Kh., Zakharov V.A. et al., Bazhenovskiy gorizont Zapadnoy Sibiri (Bazhenov horizon of Western Siberia), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1986, 216 p.
2. Zakharov V.A., Conditions of formation of the Volga-Berriasian high carbon of Bazhenov suite of Western Siberia According to the data of paleoecology (In Russ.) Collected papers “Evolyutsiya biosfery i bioraznoobraziya” (The evolution of the biosphere and biodiversity), Moscow: Tovarishchestvo nauchnykh izdaniy KMK Publ., pp. 552–568.
3. Gurari F.G., Domaniks and their petroleum potential (In Russ.), Sovetskaya
geologiya, 1991, no. 11, pp. 313.
4. Kollektory nefti bazhenovskoy svity Zapadnoy Sibiri (Oil collectors of
Bazhenov suite of Western Siberia): edited by Dorofeeva T.V., Leningrad:
Nedra Publ., 1983, 131 p.
5. Bazhenova O.K., Burlin Yu.K., Sokolov B.A., Khain V.E., Geologiya i
geokhimiya nefti i gaza(Geology and geochemistry of oil and gas), Moscow:
Publ. of MSU, 2000, 415 p.

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Drilling of chinks


A.V. Bilinchuk, A.N. Govzich (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.N. Sitnikov, G.D. Sadetskiy, V.V. Koryabkin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
An integrated approach to the well drilling support in Gazprom Neft group

Key words: high tech wells, drilling operations support, increase in efficiency, proactivity, multidisciplinary teams.

The strategy of Gazprom Neft group in the field of hydrocarbons exploration and production in modern conditions is based on the significant influence of new technologies. The more complex technologies are applied, the more opportunities arise for the oil companies in order to reach maximum and cost-effective reserves recovery. Horizontal and multilateral wells with complex completions or multistage fracturing are proper examples of such technologies. At the same time, the construction of high-tech wells requires to devote considerable attention to the data gathering and its processing, risk assessment and effectiveness of multidisciplinary activities. This paper reveals some Gazprom Neft practices in the processes of complex well design and their implementation. Some further challenges to be faced are also stated in the article.

References
1. Dietrich J., Steady-state models better predict waterflood frac results,
Oil&Gas Journal, 2006, June 26. –http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-
104/issue-24.html
2. Diyashev I.R., Economides M.J., The dimensionless productivity index as a general approach to well evaluation, SPE Production&Operations, 2006, August,

pp. 394401.


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Working out and operation of oil deposits


Khasanov M.M., Babin V.M., Melchaeva O.U., Ushmaev O.S. (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Echeverria Ciaurri D. (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, USA, New York), Semenikhin A.S. (IBM Science and Technology Center, RF, Moscow)
Application of Mathematical Optimization Techniques for Pattern of Horizontal Wells Selection

Key words: optimal well pattern selection, multiobjective optimization, conceptual oilfield development, models hierarchy.

The paper describes an approach to selection of horizontal well placement. Given a field dynamic model we use advanced optimization techniques to sel ect horizontal well length, well placement, well control that improve the field economics and increase field recoveries. In order to deal with well-known problems of using optimization algorithms for field development as big number of variables and computational complexity of hydrodynamic simulation we propose multi-layer approach. First, we use chain of simulators and dynamic models (fr om analytic models to fine-scale hydrodynamic model). Second, we decompose optimal well placement and control task of high dimension into a number of optimization problems of lower dimension: selection of optimal well pattern, local well placement optimization, selection of well control. Thus we reduce number of complicated model runs. The proposed approach was implemented for FDP optimization of a Gazprom Neft JSC greenfield.
References
1. Butler R., Horizontal wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Petroleum Society Monograph, 1992, no. 2.
2. Willhite P.G., Waterflooding, SPE Textbook, 1986, no. 3.
3. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Nekhaev S.A., Karamutdinova D.M.,
The optimal parameters of oil field development (In Russ.), SPE 162089, 2012.
4. Bellout M.C., Echeverría Ciaurri D., Durlofsky L.J. et al., Joint optimization of oil well placement and controls, Computational Geosciences, 2012, no. 16(4), pp. 1061–1079.
5. Isebor O.J., Durlofsky L.J., Echeverría Ciaurri D., A derivative-free methodology with local and global search for the constrained joint optimization of well locations and controls, Computational Geosciences, 2013, pp. 120.
6. Isebor O.J., Durlofsky L.J., Echeverría Ciaurri D., Generalized field development optimization using derivative-free procedures, SPE Journal, 2014, pp. 118.
7. Recham R., Bencherif D., Investigation of optimum well spacing based on
a combined simulation and economic models, Canadian International Petroleum Conference, 2003.
8. Roberts T., Economics of well spacing, SPE 240, 1961.
9. Tokunaga H. A, Hise B.R., Method to determine optimum well spacing,
SPE 1673, 1966.
10. Fletcher R., Leyffer S., Nonlinear programming without a penalty function, Mathematical Programming, 2002, no. 91(2), pp. 239269.
11. Echeverría Ciaurri D., Isebor O.J., Durlofsky L.J., Application of derivativefree methodologies to generally con-strained oil production optimisation problems, International journal of mathematical modelling and numerical optimization, 2011, no. 2(2), pp. 134161.
12. Audet C., Dennis J.E Jr., Analysis of generalized pattern searches, SIAM
Journal on Optimization, 2002, no. 13(3), pp. 889903.
13. Torczon V., On the convergence of pattern search algorithms, SIAM Journal on Optimization, 1997, no. 7(1), pp. 125.
14. Audet C., Dennis J.E. Jr., Mesh adaptive direct search algorithms for constrained optimization, SIAM Journal on Optimization, 2002, no. 17(1),
pp. 188217.
15. Brouwer D.R., Jansen J.D., Dynamic optimization of waterflooding with
smart wells using optimal control theory, SPE Journal, 2004, no. 9(4),
pp. 391402.

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M.M. Khasanov, B.V. Belozerov, A.S. Bochkov, O.S. Ushmaev, O.M. Fuks (Gazpromneft NTC, LLC, RF, Saint Petersburg
Application of the spectral theory to the analysis and modelling of the rock properties of the reservoir

Key words: geological modelling, geostatistics, data analysis and interpolation, spectral theory.

This paper considers the problem occurring during geological modelling of the oil field – the problem of well data interpolation between the wells, also their extrapolation to the unexplored areas of the field and further reconstruction of the rock properties of the reservoir. The article describes a new method for analysis and modelling of the reservoir properties based on the spectral theory. Several parameters are presented, which allow to identify specific facial zones of the field using the geophysical well data, as well as the method to reconstruct logging data and then the properties of the reservoir.

References
1. Matheron G. The theory of regionalized variables and its application,
Fontainebelau: Center of Geostatistics, 1971, p. 212.
2. Matheron G., The intrinsic random functions and their applications, Adv.
Appl. Probability, 1973, no. 5, pp. 439468.
3. Matheron G., The intrinsic random functions and their applications,
Fontainebelau: Center of Geostatistics, 1978, 175 .
4. Krige D.G., A statistical approach to some mine valuations and allied problems at the Witwatersrand, Master's thesis: University of Witwatersran, 1951, 272 .
5. Dubrule O., Geostatistics for seismic data integration in Earth models, Tulsa, Society of Exploration Geophysicists & European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers, 2003, 281 p.
6. Baykov V.A., Bakirov N.K., Yakovlev A.A., New methods in the theory of geostatistical modelling (In Russ.), Vestnik Ufimskogo gosudarstvennogo aviatsionnogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2010, V. 37, no. 2, pp. 209215
7. Baykov V.A., Bochkov A.S., Yakovlev A.A., Accounting of nonhomogeneity in Priobskoye field geological modeling and simulation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 5, pp. 5054.
8. Bochkov A.S., Mukhamadeev D.S., Novye podkhody geostokhasticheskogo
modelirovaniya mestorozhdeniy (New approaches to geostochastic
reservoir modeling), Ufa: Publ. of RN-UfaNIPIneft' LLC, 2011. . 29.
9. Frisch U., Turbulence: The Legacy of A.N. Kolmogorov, Cambridge University Press, 1996, 312 p.
10. Reynolds A.D., Dimensions of paralic sandstone bodies, AAPG Bulletin,
1999, V. 83, no. 2, pp. 211229.
11. Dem'yanov V.V., Savel'eva E.A., Geostatistika. Teoriya i praktika (Geostatistics. Theory and practice), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2010, 327 .

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M.M. Khasanov, A.I. Brusilovsky, R.A. Khabibullin, A.I. Odegov, D.A. Serebryakova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
New procedure for estimation of gas-oil ratio at the pressure below bubble-point

Key words: gas-oil ratio (GOR), PVT correlation, composition model.

This paper attempts to provide engineer with GOR-PVT correlation selection rules. Results provided as GOR-PVT correlation Maps of Applicability and procedure of calculation GOR by selected PVT correlation. The procedure was checked during PVT study of 77 oil fields.

References
1. Brusilovskiy A.I., Nugaeva A.N., Method of modeling the PVT-properties of reservoir hydrocarbon mixtures in planning the development of oil fields using the models like Black oil (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2005, no. 7, pp. 41-43.
2. Cronquist S., Dimensionless PVT behavior of Gulf Coast reservoir oils, J. Pet. Tech., 1973, May, pp. 538-542.
3. Namiot A.Yu., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri razrabotke neftyanykh i
gazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Phase transformations in the development of oil
and gas fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 183 p.
4. Standing M.B., A Pressure-Volume-Temperature correlation for mixtures of
California oils and gases, Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, 1947, 275.
5. Glaso O., Generalized pressure-volume-temperature correlations, J.Pet.
Tech., 1980, May, 1980, pp. 785-795.
6. Velarde J., Blasingame T.A., McCain W.D. Jr., Correlation of Black Oil properties at pressures below bubble point pressure – a new approach, Paper 97-93 presented at 1997 Annual CIM Petroleum Soc. Technical Meeting, Calgary, 811 June.
7. Brusilovskiy A.I., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy
nefti i gaza (Phase transformations in the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2002, 575 p.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits


R.R. Ismagilov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), I.A. Kudryavtsev, Yu.V. Maksimov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Phases of conceptual design for field development

Key words: major projects, stages of major projects, conceptual design.

This article considers efficiency evaluation instruments for the projects dealing with integrated development of new assets. It represents description of the approaches Gazprom Neft JSC uses to accomplish conceptual design of major projects realization at different stages. The article also covers general requirements concerning the scope of related activities and the order they follow during the conceptual project engineering of field development.


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R.R. Ismagilov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), U.V. Maksimov, O.S. Ushmaev, A.F. Mozhchil, N.Z. Gilmutdinova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Integrated model for complex management of reservoir engineering and field construction

Key words: Integrated conceptual design, complex approach to reservoir engineering, capital cost optimization, cost engineering.

The main objective of conceptual design is to determine the optimal ratio of capital investments in drilling and completion the oilfield and the potential result of these investments. This article describes the creation of an automated system which will be capable of solve optimization problems in the interconnection of reservoir, wells, surface facilities (determination of the optimal profile of oil production, the optimization of technical solutions for the construction of wells and infrastructure, etc.); use the cost-engineering tools; automate iterative approach.

References
1. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 14 –16.
2. Karsakov V.A., Tret'yakov S.V., Devyat'yarov S.S., Pasynkov A.G, Drilling cost optimization during conceptual project phase of field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 3335.

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Rational use of oil gas


M.A. Misharin (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.R. Absalyamov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Prospects of optimize of energy on Gazprom Neft JSC objects with use of hydrocarbons

Key words: power, energy, cogeneration, gas turbine, hydrocarbons, organic cycle.

The article presents the ways of optimization of the equipment and technologies at the gas energy objects of Gazprom Neft using a low-boiling working fluids (pentane, butane), and the results of computational studies. Using heat of exhaust gases of gas turbine plants is considered in the circuit with a low-boiling working media with the production of additional electricity, which allows increasing the efficiency of the plant by 10-20 %. The problem of increasing caloric fuel gas and as a consequence of the decrease in consumption in the gas turbine installation is discussed.
References
1. Garris N.A., Kolokolova N.A.,Main directions of resource- and energy-saving at gas transport (In Russ.) Neftegazovoe delo = Oil and Gas Business, 2009, V. 7, no. 1, pp. 81–85.
2. Il'in R.A., Il'in A.K., Ivanov V.A., Exergy efficiency of domestic and foreign gasturbine installations (In Russ.), Vestnik Astrakhanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Seriya: morskaya tekhnika i tekhnologiya = Vestnik of Astrakhan State Technical University. Series: Marine Engineering and Technologies, 2010, no. 1, pp. 105109.
3. Krushnevich S.P., Exergy analysis of a gas turbine engine of simple cycle (In Russ.), Energotekhnologii i resursosberezhenie, 2011, no. 2, pp. 1115.
4. Pyatnichko V.A., Pyatnichko A.I., Krushnevich T.K., Utilization of low-grade heat to produce electricity using pentane as the working fluid (In Russ.),
Ekotekhnologii i resursosberezhenie, 2003, no. 4, pp. 36.
5. Shvarts G.R., Golubev S.V., Levykin B.P. et al., Exhaust power plants with organic heat transfer fluids (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2000, no. 6, pp. 14.

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Information technology


A.N. Sitnikov, A.A. Pustovskih PhD, R.R. Gilmanov, A.Y. Sheremeev, R.Z. Zulkarniev (Gazpromneft-NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Digital information systems creation for optimization of complex geotechnical jobs programs formation process for Gazprom Neft JSC oilfields

Key words: digital information systems, geotechnical jobs

In 2014 JSC Gazprom Neft JSC has launched the project on creation of digital information systems aimed at optimization of complex geotechnical jobs programs formation process. Development of digital systems allows propelling this process to the next qualitative level with the following results: 1) run calculations for candidate well selection for geotechnical jobs in the shared system, promptly estimate production potential of these jobs, and, according to the results, timely form the geotechnical jobs programs at full efficiency;2) accumulate in the shared system all processes of geotechnical jobs approval in the Company, provide downloading and storage of accompanying information for wells, maintain a database of approved/disapproved geotechnical jobs, form complex geotechnical jobs programs. The Company considers the implementation of digital information systems as an approach to build successful business-process for complex geotechnical jobs programs formation.

References
1. Li H., Jia Zh., Wei Zh.,A new method to predict
performance of fractured of fractured horizontal wells, SPE 37051.
2. Joshi S.D., Horizontal well technology, PennWell Books, 1991.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


I.V. Shpurov, A.E. Rastrogin, V.G. Bratkova (State Reserves Commission under Ministry of Natural Resources of the RF, RF, Moscow)
On the problem of hard-to-recover oil reserves development in Western Siberia

Key words: Western Siberia, hard-to-recover reserves, the rate of decline of oil production.

The necessity of involvement in the production of additional reserves, that are not covered previously, is marked. The distribution of Western Siberia oil fields by the degree of development is given. The retrospective of involvement in the development of the objects with hard-to-recover oil reserves in the territory of Western Siberian oil-and-gas province is considered.
References
1. Lisovskiy N.N., Khalimov E.M., On the classification hard to recover reserves (In Russ.) Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2009, no 6, pp. 33-35.
2. Shpurov I.V., Pisarnitskiy A.D., Purtova I.P., Varichenko A.I., Trudnoizvlekaemye zapasy nefti Rossiyskoy Federatsii. Struktura, sostoyanie, perspektivy osvoeniya (Hard to recover oil reserves of the Russian Federation. Structure, status and prospects of development), Tyumen': Publ. of FGUP ZapSibNIIGG, 2012, 256 p.
3. Shpurov I.V., New classification of hydrocarbon reserves - adjusting means
of the innovation process in the energy sector (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal' = Oil&Gas Vertical, 2014, no. 16, pp. 46-55.

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R.Z. Mukhametshin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Account of the genesis of non-structural traps in oilfields development with hard-to-recover reserves

Key words: non-structural traps, erosion-accumulative processes, paleochannel, sandstones, Early Carboniferous.

The problems of hydrocarbon raw stock resource base build-up in the old oil-producing regions are solved largely due to oil deposits in non-structural traps. A special role in reducing the oil production decline rate and efficient development of new fields, including ones with hard-to-recover oil reserves, is belonged to traps , the formation of which is due to erosion-accumulative processes. An important problem at exploration works carrying out in the areas of development of sleeve-like sand bodies is on-time detection leading to their formation processes, which indication is possible by a number of features, including morphological ones. High capacitive - filtration properties of the Early Carboniferous thickness, filling paleochannels, caused increased productivity of wells intersected them, and features of its structure caused a natural water drive reservoirs. This causes change of the development system and selection wells operation technology fitted the features of production facilities adequately.
References
1. Khalimov E.M., Nadezhkin A.D., Tsotsur V.S., Perspektivy poiskov rukavoobraznykh
zalezhey nefti v terrigennykh porodakh nizhnego karbona Zapadnoy
Bashkirii (Prospects of searches the shoe string oil pool in terrigenous rocks
of the Lower Carboniferous of Western Bashkiria), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1976, V. 46, pp. 75–80.
2. Mukhametshin R.Z., Paleovrezy i ikh rol' v osvoenii trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti (Downcutting and their role in the development of hard-to-recover oil reserves), Moscow: Geoinformmark Publ., 2006, 80 p.
3. Medvedev A.L., Kompleks zapolneniya vrezannykh dolin novyy nefteproduktivnyy ob"ekt v melovykh otlozheniyakh Krasnoleninskogo svoda Zapadnoy Sibiri (na primere Kamennogo mestorozhdeniya) (Downcut river valleys and complexes of their filling - a new oil-productive object in the Cretaceous deposits of Krasnoleninsk arc of Western Siberia (for example, Stone Field)): Thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, St. Peterburg, VNIGRI, 2010.
4. Grachevskiy M.M., Kuznetsov V.G., Paleogeography of Bobrikovian time in the Middle Zavolzhe (In Russ.), Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR, 1963, V. 150, no. 1, pp. 146149.
5. Mukhametshin R.Z., Conditions of formation the Lower Carboniferous erosional downcutting in Tatarstan and their influence on the oil content
(In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya i geofizika, 1981, no. 3, pp. 913.
6. Mukhametshin R.Z., Khalturin V.G., Tikhonov V.V., Features of the development of oil deposits complicated erosional incision (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1983, no. 10, pp. 2427.
7. Donov G.M., Semakin B.V., Zavesin M.A., Trofimov V.A., Mapping the Pre-Visean downcuttings" by seismic methods on the supporting Ust-range
Cheremshansky range (In Russ.), Collected paper”Kartirovanie lovushek na
opornykh poligonakh (Mapping the traps on the supporting ranges),
Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 1983, pp.18-29.
8. Sazonov B.F., Problems of development high-viscosity oil fields and increase their oil recovery (In Russ.), Interval, 2003, no. 6-7 (53-54), pp. 53-57.
9. Mukhametshin R.Z., Akhmetov A.N., Delev A.N., Sharipov B.R., Optimization of the system of field development based on detailed correlation of productive strata (for example, oil fields of Melekess depression, Ural-Volga region) (In Russ.), Proceedings of the 2nd International scientific conference “European Applied Sciences: modern approaches in scientific researches, Stuttgart, Germany, February 18-19, 2013, V. 1, pp. 48-51.

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V.I. Galkin, T.V. Karaseva , I.A.Kozlova , M.A. Nosov, S.N. Krivoshchekov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Differentiated probabilistic assessment of the generation processes in Domanic sediments of Perm region

Key words: Domanic sediments, dispersed organic matter, bitumens, informative geochemical parameters, complex probabilistic criteria, prognostic evaluation of generation, territory oil-and-gas developing intensity zoning.

Assessment of the generation features of specific sediments of Sargaevskiy, Semiluki, Mendymskiy horizons and Upper Frasnian substage, marked out as Domanic, is carried out on basis of the statistical analysis of geochemical markers. Comprehensive probabilistic criterion, controlling the presence of migration-capable bitumens in the domanic type stratum and separated horizons, is substantiated with the help of the executed analysis. Regional scheme of epi-bitumens development sites distribution is constructed and regional perspectives of Perm region territory are substantiated.
References
1. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kochnev A.A., Sannikov I.V., Oil and gas prospects of domanic sediments in Perm Krai (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo
politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i
gornoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 18-26.
2. Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Melkishev O.A., Shadrina M.A., Geochemical indicators of dispersed organic matter (DOM) of rocks as criteria of hydrocarbon potential evaluation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 28-31.
3. Kozlova I.A., Galkin V.I., Vantseva I.V., Evaluation of petroleum potential
of Solikamsk depression based on geological and geochemical characteristics
of oil and gas source rocks (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010,
no. 7, pp. 20-23.
4. Galkin V.I., Zhukov Yu.A., Shishkin M.A., Primenenie veroyatnostnykh modeley dlya lokal'nogo prognoza neftegazonosnosti (The use of probabilistic models for the oil and gas potential local forecast), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 1990. – 108 s.
5. Sosnin N.E., Development of statistical models for predicting oil-and-gas content (on the example of terrigenous Devonian sediments of North Tatar arch) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 5, pp. 16-25.
6. Krivoshchekov S.N., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Determination of potentially oil bearing areas by behavioristical method by the example of Perm Region (Krai) (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 7-14.
7. Galkin S.V., Accounting methods of geological risks on the stage of oil fields exploration (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 4, pp. 23-32.
8. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kozlova I.A., Sannikov I.V., Estimate of the petroleum potential of the western Solikamsk depression based on geochemical and geodynamic data, Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 12-15.
9. Kozlova I.A., Galkin V.I., Krivoshchekov S.N., Study of specific markers of the generation and migration of hydrocarbons Riphean-Vendian strata in Perm region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 88-90.
10. Kozlova I.A., Shadrina M.A., Geological and geochemical assessment of oil and gas in the upper Proterozoic possibility sediments in the Perm Region (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 8, pp. 18-27.

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A.M. Khusainova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Ways to improve interpretation of well data for operational modeling of horizontal wells

Key words: reservoir properties, geophysical logging, geophysical methods, reservoir.

The article is devoted to a topical problem of justifying methods of well logging data interpretation at small sectors of deposits in specific geological conditions in the absence or limited provision with core samples. This technique can reliably estimate reservoir properties and oil saturation of reservoir rocks in wells needed to perform geological and hydrodynamic modeling in Republic of Bashkortostan.
References
1. Baymukhametov K.S., Viktorov P.F., Gaynullin K.Kh., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy
Bashkortostana (Geological structure and development of Bashkortostan oil
and gas fields), Ufa: Publ. of RITs ANK Bashneft', 1997, 424 p.
2. Ivanova M.M., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya (Oil and gas field geology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 414 p.
3. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu geologicheskikh zapasov nefti i
gaza ob"emnym metodom(Guidelines for calculation of geological reserves of
oil and gas by volumetric method): edited by Petersil'e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow – Tver': Publ. of VNIGNI and NPTs Tver'geofizika, 2003, 312 p.
4. Berezin V.M., Yarygina V.S., Shutikhin V.I., Evaluation of original water saturation productive formations of deposits of Bashkortostan by laboratory methods (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1979, no. 9, pp. 184-190.
5. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu podschetnykh parametrov
zalezhey nefti i gaza po materialam geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin s
privlecheniem rezul'tatov analizov kerna, oprobovaniy i ispytaniy produktivnykh
plastov (Guidelines to determine the calculation parameters of oil and
gas using well logging data with the involvement the results of core analysis,
sampling and testing of productive formations): edited by Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Kozyar V.F., Yatsenko G.G., Kalinin: Soyuzpromgeofizika Publ., 1990, 260 p.
6. Vendel'shteyn B.Yu. Rezvanov R.A., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya
parametrov neftegazovykh kollektorov (Geophysical methods of determining
the parameters of oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 318 p.
7. Gudok N.S., Izuchenie fizicheskikh svoystv poristykh sred (The study of the physical properties of porous media), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 205 p.
8. Bulgakov R.B., Rekomendatsii o primenenii nakoplennykh petrofizicheskikh zavisimostey dlya interpretatsii GIS pri podschete zapasov nebol'shikh mestorozhdeniy Bashkortostana v usloviyakh otsutstviya ili ogranichennogo obespecheniya novym kernom(Recommendations for the application of accumulated petrophysical relationships to interpret the well logging in calculating the reserves of small deposits of Bashkortostan in the absence or limited provision of new core), Ufa, 2008, 343 p.
9. Bulgakov R.B., Ishbulatova R.Kh., Privalova O.R., The reliability of the data of core laboratory analysis as a basis of petrophysical interpretation of well logging (In Russ.), Proceedings of nauchnogo simpoziuma "Novye geofizicheskie tekhnologii dlya neftegazovoy promyshlennosti" (New geophysical technologies for the oil and gas industry), 21-25 May 2002, Ufa, 2002, 83 p.
10. Dakhnov V.N., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya kollektorskikh svoystv i neftegazonasyshcheniya gornykh porod (Geophysical methods for the determination of reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 343 p.
11. Zaynutdinov R.S., Residual oil saturation and coefficient of oil displacement by water of the Lower Carboniferous sandstones of Ilishevskoe field according to a study of the core (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 1997, no. 11, pp. 270-275.

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K.N. Kaurov, V.N. Eremin (Scientific production enterprise of geophysical equipment Looch, RF, Novosibirsk), M.I. Epov, V.N. Glinskikh, K.V. Sukhorukova, M.N. Nikitenko (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk)
Electromagnetic-logging-while-drilling equipment and numerical inversion software

Key words: electromagnetic logging while drilling, gas-oil-saturated reservoir, deviated and horizontal well, electrical resistivity, inversion.

New Russian logging-while-drilling equipment for investigating deviated and horizontal boreholes has been developed. It consists of electromagnetic, gamma-ray and inclinometer modules. The technical features of the equipment, as well as its laboratory testing results and practical log data are considered in the paper. Along with that, we have developed the basic algorithms and software for the electromagnetic signals numerical simulation and inversion. Its testing demonstrates promising results when determining resistivity and boundaries location for the layers that are within the sondes sensitivity area. We provide an example of the inversion results for the signals measured in a three-meter water-oil saturated sand-shale reservoir penetrated by a horizontal wellbore.

References
1. Kennedy W.D., Corley B., Painchaud S. et al., Geosteering using deep resistivity images from azimuthal and multiple propagation resistivity, SPWLA 50th Annual Logging Symposium, 2009, June 21–24 .
2. Li Q., Omeragic D., Chou L. et al., New directional electromagnetic tool for proactive geosteering and accurate formation evaluation while drilling,
SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, 2005, June 2629.
3. Meyer W.H., Hart E., Jensen K., Geosteering with a combination of extra
deep and azimuthal resistivity tools, SPE 115675-MS, 2008.
4. Omeragic D., Habashy T., Esmersoy C. et al., Real-time interpretation of formation structure from directional measurements, SPWLA 47th Annual Logging Symposium, 2006, June 47.
5. Rabinovich M., Le F., Lofts J., Martakov S., The vagaries and myths of lookaround deep-resistivity measurements while drilling, Petrophysics, 2012, V. 53, no. 2, pp. 86101.
6. Rosthal R., Barber T., Bonner S. et al., Field test of an experimental Fully Triaxial Induction tool, SPWLA 44th Annual Logging Symposium, 2003, June 2525.
7. Aksel'rod S.M., Advance navigation in horizontal drilling (based on foreign
publications) (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2012, no. 9 (219), pp. 87122.
8. Epov M.I., Kayurov K.N., El'tsov I.N. et al., New apparatus complex SKL of geophysical logging and program-method means of EMF PRO interpretation (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2010, no. 2, pp. 1619.
9. Eremin V.N., Volkanin Yu.M., Tarasov A.V., Tool-and-method support for electromagnetic logging while drilling (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2013, no. 4 (226), pp. 6269.
10. Glinskikh V.N., Nikitenko M.N., Epov M.I., Processing high-frequency electromagnetic logs from conducting formations: Linearized 2D forward and inverse solutions with regard to eddy currents (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2013, V. 54, no. 12, pp. 19421951.
11. Surodina I.V., Epov M.I., High-frequency induction data affected by
biopolymer-based drilling fluids (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2012, V. 53, no. 8, pp. 10621069.
12. Nikitenko M.N., Epov M.I., Glinskikh V.N. et al., Development of LWD highfrequency resistivity tool, Proceedings of the 6th Saint Petersburg International Conference and Exhibition 2014 Geosciences Investing in the Future (Saint Petersburg, Russia, 710 April 2014), Saint Petersburg, 2014.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


I.V. Yazynina, E.V. Shelyago (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), A.D. Kurochkin (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Determining the fluids distribution in the pore space of core samples by centrifuge tests

Key words: wettability, capillary pressure, centrifuge, drainage, imbibition, pore distribution, saturation, core.

The article describes a new experimental method for determining the oil and water distribution in the pore space of core samples. The authors present a comparison of processes of drainage and capillary imbibition. Evaluation of existing methodologies is provided. The method and device of modern ultracentrifuge is described.

References
1. Fedortsov V.K., Methods of selecting the tested zone in terrigenous hydrophilic reservoirs of exploration wells (In Russ.), Collected papers “Geologopromyslovye metody izucheniya polimiktovykh kollektorov Zapadnoy Sibiri” (Geological and field methods for studying the polymictic collectors of Western Siberia), Proceedings of ZapSibNIGNI, 1990, V. 151, pp. 25-44.
2. Mikhaylov N.N., Sechina L.S., The role of adsorbed fluids in the evaluation of the effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods (In Russ.), Proceedings
of IV International Scientific Symposium Teoriya i praktika primeneniya
metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Theory and practice of enhanced
oil recovery methods), Part 2, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2013,
pp. 14–17.
3. Abramzon A.A., Poverkhnostno-aktivnye veshchestva. Svoystva i primenenie (Surfactants. Properties and Applications), Leningrad: Khimiya Publ., 1975, 248 p.
4. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.N., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh
svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of physical properties of the oil-water-bearing rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2007, 592 p.
5. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods
of study of oil and gas bearing reservoir rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979,
199 p.
6. Slobod R.L., Chambers A., Prehn W.L., Use of centrifuge for determining
connate water, residual oil and capillary curves of small core samples, Trans.
of AIME, 1951, V. 192, pp. 127.
7. Khanin A.A., Porody-kollektory nefti i gaza i ikh izuchenie (Reservoir rocks of oil and gas and their study), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 295 p.

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I.N. Koshovkin, A.V. Kuznetsov, P.V. Molodykh, T.N. Silkina, A.Yu. Megalov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk), S.V. Zakharov (Tomskneft JSC, RF, Tomsk Region)
Implementation of organizational and methodical approaches to reservoir management of Tomskneft VNK JSC

Key words: reservoir management, well test monitoring management, oil production decline rate, geophysical surveys quality control, oil production rates change.

Maintenance of oil production level or decrease of its decline rate at modern stage of Tomskneft VNK JSC fields development requires an application of several organizational and methodical approaches to reservoir management. Recovery factor and decline rates achievement, well intervention effectiveness is considered to be the main reservoir management tasks that may be solved with determination of ‘well – reservoir’ system parameters.
References
1. Silkina T.N., Cherkunov D.E., Kuznetsov A.V. et al., TomskNIPIneft JSC information solutions on well test database organization and quality control support (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 3943.
2. Silkina T.N., Molodykh P.V., Skorodulina M.V., Geochemical control methods for monitoring oil and gas fields development in Tomskneft OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 3, pp. 110113.
3. Shchelkachev V.N., Osnovy i polozheniya teorii neustanovivsheysya fil'tratsii: Monografiya (Fundamentals and theory of unsteady filtration: Monograph), Part 1, Moscow: Neft' i gaz, 1995, 586 p.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


R.Z. Sakhabutdinov, M.Kh. Musabirov, A.F. Yartiev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), V.G. Fadeev, M.M. Zalyatov, R.G. Khannanov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk)
Design and commercialization of well stimulation technologies based on import-substituting chemical agents and compositions

Key words: technology, import substitution, bottom-hole zone treatment, well stimulation, technology effectiveness, economic benefits.

For the last decade, the research efforts of TatNIPIneft Institute have been aimed at the feasibility of designing of new EOR methods, compositions of completion fluids, and novel technologies for controlled physicochemical stimulation, considering optimization of expenses associated with import substitution. Pilot projects yielded encouraging results though differing in effectiveness in terms of both technology and economics. These differences can be accounted for diversity of technological options, variety of geological and operation environment, and risks inherent to all experimental and pilot projects.

References
1. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva RF ot 24 dekabrya 2013 no. 1224 (Government Decree of 24 December 2013 no. 1224), URL: http://www.garant.ru/products/
ipo/prime/doc/70450030/#ixzz3IBHnLWDl
2. Kershenbaum V.Ya., Belozertseva L.Yu., Problems of import substitution of oil and gas equipment (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2014, no. 5, pp. 4–6
3. Ibragimov N.G., Musabirov M.Kh., Yartiev A.F., Effectiveness of well stimulation technologies package developed by Tatneft OAO (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 4447.
4. Musabirov M.Kh., Denisov D.G., Kriushkin V.A. et al., Razrabotka i aprobirovanie usovershenstvovannykh kislotnykh stimuliruyushchikh kompozitsiy (“KSK-Tatneft'”) dlya karbonatnykh i terrigennykh plastov-kollektorov Tatarstana (Development and testing of improved acid adjuvant compositions ("KSK-Tatneft") for the carbonate and terrigenous reservoirs of Tatarstan), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2008, pp. 378390.
5. RD 153-39.0-682-10. Instruktsiya po tekhnologii kislotnoy stimulyatsii plastovkollektorov s primeneniem stimuliruyushchikh kompozitsiy KSK (Instruction about the acid stimulation of reservoirs using adjuvant compositions "KCK"), edited by Musabirov M.Kh., Orlov E.G., Rakhmanov R.M. et al., Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2010, 25 p.
6. Patent no. 2308475 RF, MPK S09K 8/74, Composition for acid treatment of
critical zone of formation (Variants), Inventor: Musabirov M.Kh.
7. M.Kh. Musabirov, A.M. Daminov, D.A. Marunin, E.M. Abusalimov et al., Analiz tekhniko-ekonomicheskikh pokazateley vnedreniya fiziko-khimicheskikh tekhnologiy stimulyatsii skvazhin (Analysis of technical and economic parameters of implementation of physical and chemical of technologies of well stimulation), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2013, V. 81, pp. 296306.

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V.. Krukov, R.V. Valiullin, M.. Muslimov (Scientific-Technical Company MODULNEFTEGASCOMPLECT CJSC, RF, Ufa)
Perfomance capabilities of mobile well test and completion units

Key words: mobile well test and completion unit, automatic well stream measurement, gathering, treatment, transportation of oil and formation water.

Mobile well test and completion unit can operate as process development unit for oil treatment and is integrated in to process lines of oil and gas treatment plants and preliminary water knockout plants/ Existing permits and licenses for well test and completion unit allows operation according to lie-in and pilot operating project designs at early stages of oil field development. Proposed solution helps to reduce investments at stages of oilfield drilling (exploratory and development) and initial stage of oilfield operation, as well as partially recover investments due to sale of products.

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The oil-field equipment


K.V. Litvinenko (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.E. Zdolnik (Bashneft JSOC, RF, Ufa), V.G. Mikhailov (Bashkirian State Pedagogical University, RF, Ufa)
An approach to ESP characteristics degradation modeling under high erosive wear conditions

Key words: electrical submersible pump (ESP), erosive wear of ESP, simulation, degradation of ESP characteristics, sand production and proppant flowback.

An acceleration of oil production creates significant challenges for electrical submersible pumps. The main challenges for the pumps in high drawdown applications are accelerated pump wear and early failures caused by sand production and proppant flowback. Therefore, sand control considerations are very important for effective production acceleration of artificially lifted wells. Furthermore, an effective decision making on lifting and sand control technologies requires accurate models for pump runlife estimation and pump head & efficiency degradation due to sand production. This paper presents a new dynamic model for the pump head & efficiency estimation under long-term erosion conditions. The model allows to take into account the pump wear estimation during artificial lift selection and thus it enables pumps runlife improvement and operating costs reduction.

References
1. Kragel'skiy I.V., Mikhin N.M., Spravochnik: Uzly treniya mashin (Handbook: Friction units of machines), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1984, 280 p.
2. Vinogradov V.N., Sorokin G.M., Kolokol'nikov M.G., Abrazivnoe iznashivanie (Abrasive wear), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1990, 224 p.
3. San D., Modeling gas-liquid head performance of electrical submersible
pumps: PhD dissertation, The University of Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2003, 219 p.
4. Mikhaylov A.K., Malyushenko V.V., Lopastnye nasosy (Vane pumps), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1977, 288 p.

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Transport and oil preparation


V.N. Degtyarev, S.I. Agrafenin (Giprovostokneft OJSC, RF, Samara)
Effect of inadvertent shutdown of pipeline Northern Light

Key words: cold paraffin-base crude oil, flow rate gradient, effective oil viscosity

The article covers the reasons of inadvertent shutdown of pipeline Northern Light transported cold paraffin-base crude oil from the North-Khosedayuzskoye field and describes this process.


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A.S. Timerbaev (HMS Neftemash OJSC, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen), L.V. Taranova, E.V. Golubev, O.Y. Mitroshin (Tyumen State University, RF, Tyumen)
Research in specifics of separation of oil-in-water emulsions inside of a centrifugal separator with impeller

Key words: dynamic hydrocyclone, centrifugal separator, separation oil-water emulsion, numerical simulation.

Regarding current increase of well production water cut level, the great attention is paid nowadays to the problem of treating produced oily water used for injection into wells. To improve the efficiency of oily water treatment, a centrifugal separator with vane impellers is introduced. This research aims at investigation of the machine geometric parameters and operation characteristics, such as dimensions of the discharge conduits and distribution of treated medium flow rate between the discharge conduits for separation of oil-in-water emulsion inside of the disassembled centrifugal separator. The research brought the detailed study of tangential fluid velocity field inside of the engineered centrifugal separator, which allowed defining general picture of this velocity distribution inside the machine cavity and getting precise dependency between distribution of tangential velocity over the centrifugal separator length and radius, as well as dependencies of the total flow rate between the discharge conduits of the centrifugal separator.
References
1. Kutepov A.M., Ternovskiy I.G., Kuznetsov A.A., Hydrodynamics of hydrocyclone (In Russ.), Zhurnal prikladnoy khimii = Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 1980, V. 53, no. 12, pp. 2676–2681.
2. Mansurov R.I., Bril' D.M., Emkov A.A., The main directions in the development of techniques and technology of oil and water treatment at fields
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1990, no. 9, pp. 5462.
3. Mustafaev A.M., Gutman B.M., Teoriya i raschet gidrotsiklona (Theory and
design of hydrocyclone), Baku: Maarif Publ., 1969, 172 p.
4. Ternovskiy I.G., Kutepov A.M., Gidrotsiklonirovanie (Hydrocycloning),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1994, 350 p.
5. Timerbaev A.S., Investigation of physical-chemical method of water treatment for reservoir pressure maintenance systems by using a centrifugal separator with impeller (In Russ.), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Novye tekhnologii neftegazovomu regionu” (New technologies - oil and gas region), Part 2, Tyumen': TSOGU Publ., 2012, 284 p.
6. Guangdong G., Songsheng D., Research on dispersed oil droplets breakage
and emulsification in the dynamic oil and water hydrocyclone, Advance
Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2013, 5 (08), pp. 11101116.
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8. Timerbaev A.S., Taranova L.V., Verification of the numerical model separation process of oil-water mixture in a centrifugal separator (In Russ.), Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2014, no. 5, URL: www.science-education. ru/119-14839.
9. Timerbaev A.S., Taranova L.V., Numerical simulation separation oil-water
emulsions in centrifugal separator (In Russ.), Fundamental'nye issledovaniya,
2014, no. 9(3), pp. 547551.

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Information technology



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O.S. Zatik, I.G. Katrichek, T.Yu. Sidorova (SurgutASUneft, Surgutneftegas OJSC, RF, Surgut)
Providing quality description of the technological complex structure in operating control system on objects of Surgutneftegas OJSC

Key words: replication of DCS/SCADA, operating object control, typical technological complex, Gellish templates, heat and power objects, boiler plants.

The article reveals the theme of practical usage of Gellish templates in the DCS/SCADA, built on an OKO software. It describes the process of creating OKO objects using templates, for example, describing of heat and power objects – boiler plants. Matching the description of the technological complex structure in OKO systems with Gellish templates allows, firstly, reducing the time of describing its structure during the replication similar objects of DCS/SCADA; second, to pre- and redefine the technological complex structure in automatic mode and reduce the effect of the «human factor» in the process of replication of DCS/SCADA; third, to provide a holistic and qualitative description of the objects structure due to using templates that are legitimate across the entire enterprise.
References
1. Zatik O.S., Katrichek I.G., Sidorova T.Yu., Providing quality of data
about technological complex in Integrated information system of
Surgutneftegas OJSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2014, no. 6, pp. 124128.
2. Van Renssen A., Gellish Formal English, Definition and application of
a universal information modeling language, ISBN 978-1-304-60376-0,
2013.

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Ecological and industrial safety


V.V. Seredin, M.V. Pushkareva (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), L.O. Leibowich, A.O. Bacharev, A.V. Tatarkin, A.A. Filimonchikov (NIPPPPD Nedra Ltd., RF, Perm)
Geological environment changes during oil fields development in complex geological conditions

Key words: geological environment, hydrocarbon pollution, geo-ecological, geophysical and engineering-geological studies.

The aim of the study was to determine the level of geological environment contamination as a result of long-term use of an oil field in the Perm Region, which is located in complex geological conditions. During the study areal electrical exploration was carried out with the help of the vertical electrical sounding (VES) method, 15 geotechnical boreholes were drilled and geo-environmental soil testing was carried layer by layer. Interpretation of geophysical data revealed the presence of hydrocarbon and chloride components in soils and karst rock mass. The researchers have found petropollutted grotto and the water source exit with traces of oil, they mark their association with the locations of oil wells. Most likely sources of oil pollution of the geological environment are oil wells. Thus, in the mining and geological conditions, due to the development of karst processes, long-term operation of the oil field in the presence of incidents and emergencies leads to the formation of hydrocarbon contamination in the subsurface with the subsequent distribution into ground- and surface water.

References
1. Gorbunova K.A., Andreychuk V.N. et al., Karst i peshchery Permskoy
oblasti (Karst and caves of the Perm region), Perm': Publ. of, 1992.
2. Seredin V.V., Research of hydrocarbons soil pollution degree in oil and
gas deposits (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo
politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe
i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 12, pp. 67–74.
3. Pushkareva M.V., Seredin V.V., Leybovich L.O., Chirkova A.A., Appraisal of measures on environmental protection for oil production objects
within the surface water intake zone of sanitary control (In Russ.),
Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2011, no.
8, pp. 2730.
4. Pushkareva M.V., Seredin V.V., Leybovich L.O. et al., Adjustment of
zonal boundaryof drinking water protective area (In Russ.), Zdorov'e
naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2011, no. 10, pp. 4548.
5. Pushkareva M.V., Seredin V.V., Leybovich L.O., Chirkova A.A., Complex
of sanitation and antiepidemic measures for protection of water intake
area “Tulvinskoe” (In Russ.), Zdorov'e naseleniya i sreda obitaniya, 2011,
no. 9, pp. 1417.
6. Kolesnikov V.P., Osnovy interpretatsii elektricheskikh zondirovaniy
(Based on the interpretation of electrical soundings), Moscow: Nauchnyy
mir Publ., 2007, 248 p.
7. Kolesnikov V.P., Kostarev S.M. Tatarkin A.V., Application of the electrometry methods and technologies for search and geometrization of
technogenic accumulations of fluids in the subsurface part of geological
environment (In Russ.), Collected papers Ekologicheskaya reabilitatsiya
promyshlennykh proizvodstv (Ecological rehabilitation of industrial
plants), Perm': IPK Zvezda Publ., 2005, pp. 288301.
8. Shevnin V.A., Delgado O., Ryzhov A.A., Mapping the oil pollution of
the geological environment using resistivity method (In Russ.), Razvedka i okhrana nedr, 2004, no. 5, pp. 27 32.

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O.P. Yermolaev, B.M. Usmanov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), O.E. Mishanina, E.V. Khisamutdinova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Basin approach to evaluation of human impact on the environment in oil production regions

Key words: basin approach, human impact, integral assessment, 3D analysis, geo-information systems, environment, use of natural resources.

The article demonstrates efficiency of basin approach to environmental area assessment based on Tatneft’s experience. Basin approach when used in combination with 3D geo-information analysis techniques enables to evaluate human impact on the environment, extent of landscape disturbance as well as impact of particular industries.
References
1. Yermolaev O.P., Assessment of the suspended sediment yield in the rivers'
basin of the Russian Plain, World Applied Sciences Journal 27 (5): 626-631,
2013.
2. Trofimov A.M., Rubtsov V.A., Ermolaev O.P., Regional'nyy geoekologicheskiy
analiz (Regional geo-ecological analysis), Kazan': Brig Publ., 2009, 270 p.
3. Yermolaev O.P., Erosion processes of the forest and forest-steppe zones in
the eastern part of the Russian Plain, World Applied Sciences Journal, 2014, 29 (3), pp. 453-459.
4. Yermolaev O., Avvakumova A., Cartographic-geoinformational estimation
of spatio-temporal erosion dynamics of arable soils in forest-steppe landscapes of the Russian Plain, IAHS-AISH Publication, 2012, V. 356, pp. 332-337.
5. Ermolaev O.P., Mal'tsev K.A., Ivanov M.A., Automated plotting of boundaries
of basin geosystems for the Volga Federal District (In Russ.), Geografiya i
prirodnye resursy = Geography and Natural Resources, 2014, no. 3, pp. 32–39.
6. Horton, R.E., Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: a
hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology, Geological Society of
America Bulletin, 1945, 56(3), pp. 275-370.
7. Ibragimov N.G., Gareev R.M., Ibatullin R.R. et al., Current status of the
ecosystems in the territory of Tatneft OAO industrial activity (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 5, pp. 108111.
8. Arkhipov Yu.R. et al., Matematicheskie metody v geografii (Mathematical
methods in Geography), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1976, 352 p.
9. Boyko F.F., Change in Tatar ASSR forest cover as a result the human impact (In Russ.), Collected papers “Problemy otraslevoy i kompleksnoy geografii” (Problems of industrial and complex geography), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1976, pp. 179184.
10. Kuznetsov V.I., Milyaev V.B., Tarakanov A.O., Matematicheskiy apparat
kompleksnoy ekologicheskoy otsenki (The mathematical apparatus of integrated environmental assessment), St. Petersburg: Publ. of NII Okhrany Atmosfernogo Vozdukha, 1998, 75 p.
11. Viktorov A.S., Matematicheskaya morfologiya landshafta (Mathematical
morphology of landscape), Moscow: Tratek Publ., 1998, 180 p.

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