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|OIL & GAS INDUSTRY|
The article presents results of experiments on models of filtration àcross sand and silt deposits of Low Cretaceous age of one of the fields in Western Siberia. Models were treated by drilling mud and subsequent by different acid mixtures to restore their permeability. We observed fall-off in permeability of granular reservoir in the result of drilling fluid (mud) pumping. Partial removal of mud cake formed under the action of the differential pressure on it from the ‘reservoir’ of about 7 MPa led to restoration of the permeability of a reservoir model only 18-21 % of their original permeability. Using post-processing reservoir model by acid mixture allowed to increase model permeability to 36-37% of its initial permeability and demulsification - up to 50-58%. The results can be used in the secondary formation exposing granular reservoir in order to increase their productivity. The effect of the mixtures used in the experiments is, firstly, in the chemical decomposition formed mud cake and, secondly, in the destruction of the water-hydrocarbon emulsion.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-5-12-16
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
Parameters of the carbonate rocks of the oil deposits of 301, 302 and 303 of Romashkinskoye field were estimated on 69 core samples. Modelling of reservoir conditions during deposits development was carried out using IFES-1 facility (Republic of Bashkortostan, Oktyabrsky, VNIIGIS). We estimated true resistivity, P-wave velocity and the porosity before loading the sample and after load removal. Samples were placed in a chamber and the measurements were made under conditions close to the reservoir ones. Loading configuration intended constant confining pressure (rock pressure) and changes in pore (reservoir) pressure. At each stage of reservoir pressure changing it has been given a certain period (30 min) to complete the transition process. Two months after the measurement (after full restoration of elasto-mechanical properties) we determined gas permeability of samples again. Porosity of Vereckiann rocks was 3–20 %, of Bashkirian - 1.5–21 %, of Protvinskian – 0.2–23 %.
We considered two variants of the technology-related loading: soft and hard. In the soft mode pore (reservoir) pressure reduced from maximum (6.56–7.15 MPa) to an average value (2.24–4.0 MPa) and then restore to maximum. In the hard mode pressure reduced from maximum pore (reservoir) pressure to average value, decreased to minimum (1.0–0.2 MPa) and then restored to maximum.
We determined that rocks parameters had not significantly changed under soft mode of technology-related loading. Under hard mode of loading porosity decreased, true resistivity and P-wave velocity grew up.
Comparative analysis shows that for the majority of collector of the Vereiskian and Bashkirian productive horizons gas permeability is characterized by reduction of porosity. In case of Protvinskian high fractured rocks gas permeability increases sometimes.
1. Gubaydullin A.A., Musin K.M., Nurtdinova G.N. et al., Differentsiatsiya slozhnopostroennykh karbonatnykh kollektorov bashkirskogo yarusa po dannym analiza kerna (Differentiation of complex carbonate reservoirs of Bashkirian stage according core analysis), Proceedings of International conference, Kazan', 8–10 September 2003, pp. 609–612.
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4. Gubaydullin F. A., Krupin S.V., Firsov S.V., Development of the foundations for the regulation of the filtration characteristics of porous media with deteriorated reservoir properties during technological work to increase oil production (In Russ.), Proceedings of the XVII Mendeleev Congress on General and Applied Chemistry, Kazan, September 21–26, 2003.
5. Iktisanov V.A., Opredelenie fil'tratsionnykh parametrov plastov i reologicheskikh svoystv dispersnykh sistem pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Determination of filtration parameters of reservoirs and rheological properties of disperse systems in the development of oil fields), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2001, 212 p.
6. Sitdikova L.M., Izotov V.G., Bruzhes L.N. et al., Material composition of the Upper Jurassic horizon of Tevlinsko-Russkinsky field (West Siberian oil and gas province) (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference, SGEM, 2016, V. 1, Book 1, pp. 369–376.
7. Kayukova G.P., Kosachev I.P., Plotnikova I.N. et al., Oil generation potential of the Permian deposits of Tatarstan based on the content, structure and thermal stability of organic matter in rocks (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference, SGEM, 2016, V. 1, Book 1, pp. 453–460.
8. Sidorova E.U., Sitdikova L.M., Izotov V.G., Onishchenko Y.V., Leading material complexes of the crystalline basement of the Tatar arch (East of the Russian plate) in the formation of weathering crust (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference, SGEM, 2016, V. 1, Book 1, pp. 321–328.
9. Mukhamatdinov I.I., Aliev F.A., Sitnov S.A. et al., Study of rheological behavior of systems ''polymer solution - rocks'' (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 121–123.
10. Runyan R.P., Nonparametric statistics: A contemporary approach, Massachusetts, USA: Addison-Wessley Publishing Company, 1977.
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The article describes the results of the study of geo-fluid and abnormally high reservoir and pore pressure in the sedimentary cover of the southern part of the Pre-Ural fore deep. In order to evaluate the reliability of the seal rock and the degree of preservation of oil and gas deposits by means basin modeling technology was used to study the distribution of capillary pressures over time. Within the study area were modeled four petroleum systems: Lower Devonian-Frasnian, Frasnian-Tournasian, Visean-Bashkir and Lower Permian. The simulation results showed that three of the four simulated petroleum systems - Frasnian-Tournasian, Visean-Bashkir and Lower Permian - are resistant to the factor of "reliability of the seal rocks". For the Lower Devonian-Frasnian petroleum system predicted a high probability of failure of deposits for individual areas within of studied territory. To evaluate the pore pressure of seal rocks on the logging data applied the method of "equivalent depth" by wells of the study area: No. 501 (Vershinovskoye field), No. 1 (Nagumanovskoye), No. 210 (Dongolyukskoye), No. 106 (Preduralskoye). It has been determined that the pore pressure in the wells correlated with each other, which confirms the existence of zones of anomalously high pore pressures in the study area. It was established that the main stream of hydrocarbon migration that could be captured with traps of different types, occurs in the interval of the section located below the depth intervals related to the regional area of abnormally high pore pressure. The possibility of using the laws of development, conservation and relaxation abnormally high pore and reservoir pressure as an indicator of the likely type and nature of migration processes, environments of formation of oil and gas deposits, and, accordingly, a search criteria.
1. Kerimov V.Yu., Gorbunov A.A., Lavrenova E.A., Osipov A.V., Models of hydrocarbon systems in the Russian Platform - Ural junction zone, Lithology and Mineral Resources, 2015, V. 50, no. 5, pp. 394–406.
2. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Senin B.V., Lavrenova E.A., Basin modeling tasks at different stages of geological exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 26–29.
3. Senin B.V., Kerimov V.Yu., Lavrenova E.A., Serikova U.S., Numeric basin modeling at different stages of oil and gas prospecting, Proceedings of 16th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development “Geomodel 2014”.
4. Osipov A.V., Monakova A.S., Zakharchenko M.V., Mustaev R.N., Assessment of caprock fluid-resistive characteristics of Pre-Urals fore deep southern part, Proceedings of 17th Scientific-Practical Conference on Oil and Gas Geological Exploration and Development “Geomodel 2015”.
5. Kerimov V.Yu., Serikova U.S., Mustaev R.N., Guliev I.S., Deep oil-and-gas content of South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 50–54.
6. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Fundamental challenges of the location of oil and gas in the South Caspian Basin, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, Part 1, pp. 1109–1112.
7. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Bondarev A.V., Evaluation of the organic carbon content in the low-permeability shale formations (as in the case of the Khadum suite in the Ciscaucasia Region), Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 2016, V. 32, no. 6, pp. 1–7.
8. Kerimov V.Yu., Lobusev M.A., Bondarev A.V., Shilov G.Ya., Pressure conditions of formation of oil and gas complexes of the northern part of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 16–20.
9. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S. et al., The shale hydrocarbons prospects in the low permeability Khadum formation of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 50–53.
10. Kerimov V.Yu., Osipov A.V., Lavrenova E.A., The hydrocarbon potential of deep horizons in the south-eastern part of the Volga-Urals oil and gas province (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 4, pp. 33–35.
11. Kerimov V.Yu., Shilov G.Ya., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S., Thermobaric conditions of hydrocarbons accumulations formation in the low-permeability oil reservoirs of Khadum suite of the Pre-Caucasus (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 8–11.
12. Magara K., Migratsiya i akkumulyatsiya nefti i gaza (Migration and accumulation of oil and gas), In: Dostizheniya v neftyanoy geologii (Achievements in petroleum geology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, pp. 132–142.
13. Martynov V.G., Kerimov V.Yu., Shilov G.Ya., Rachinskiy M.Z., Geoflyuidal'nye davleniya i ikh rol' pri poiskakh i razvedke mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Geofluidal pressures and their role in prospecting and exploration of oil and gas deposits), Moscow: Infra-M Publ., 2013, 347 p.
14. Kerimov V.Yu., Rachinsky M.Z., Geofluid dynamic concept of hydrocarbon accumulation in natural reservoirs, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016, V. 471, Part 1, pp. 1123–1125.
15. Rachinsky M.Z., Kerimov V.Yu., Fluid dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs: edited by Gorfunkel M.V., USA: Wiley-Scrivener Publishing 2015, 640 p.
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The paper describes the fracture recognition methods and algorithms for automated readout of experimental data (openness, intensity, extent, and surface density of fractures) from petrographic thin section images and photographs of core. Previously, the experimental data, such as length, openness, and surface density of fractures, was read off manually from core cuts and required much time.
Some of the most important properties of core can be determined by analyzing digital images of petrographic thin sections and core pictures. At the same time, assessment of the properties of fractured-vuggy reservoirs in this case is not an easy task and the creation of a tool for automated estimation of core fracture parameters is a topical issue today.
This issue is addressed through a modern automated approach to the processing of experimental data obtained from studies of luminophore-saturated core samples. The advancement in computer technologies has allowed to develop digital methods for obtaining and analyzing optical images of core samples that provide processing full-size information with a high degree of accuracy.
The method of finding these indicators in computer processing is to identify the boundaries of fractures on the surface of core thin sections. One of effective algorithms of the SUSAN boundary detector (Smallest Univalue Segment Assimilating Nucleus) is used for this. To determine the geometric length of a fracture, image thinning operation based on Zhang – Suen algorithm is applied. An original algorithm for measuring the width and extent of fractures with a specified error has also been developed.
The algorithm for recognizing and determining the size of fractures from thin section images can be divided into four stages. On the first stage the area of the studied object in the picture is determined. The objects in the photos that can determine fracture parameters - photos of thin sections, photos of full-sized core - have irregular geometric dimensions. Therefore, when studying the fracturing in the images provide a tool for correct and accurate estimation of the object area in the photograph. The second stage is an estimation of the length of all fractures in the photo. To estimate the fracturing parameters, the lengths of all the fractures in the picture, taking into account their tortuosity, should be included. On the third stage the width of fractures is estimated. To estimate the fracture capacity (fracture porosity), it is necessary to evaluate the openness of each fracture and find the average of this parameter. The fourth stage is fracturing parameters estimate. Using the values obtained fracture we can estimate porosity and rock permeability parameters.
The advantages of software processing of experimental data include the computation rate, the accuracy of determining the geometric characteristics close to manual estimation, and the possibility of further increase of the program functions. Additional value includes the possibility of automating the preliminary analysis of core material and readout of experimental data from petrographic thin section images and core photographs, as well as rapid evaluation of fracture geometry in reservoirs.
1. Bagrintseva K.I., Sautkin R.S., Shershukov G.I., Metodika programmnoy obrabotki eksperimental'nykh dannykh posle nasyshcheniya karbonatnykh porod lyuminoforom (Technique of program processing of experimental data after carbonate rocks saturation with a phosphor), Proceedings of III International Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists “Aktual'nye problemy neftegazovoy geologii KhKhI veka” (Actual problems of oil and gas geology of the XXI century), Part 4, St. Petersburg, Publ. of VNIGRI, 2013, pp. 4–7.
2. Klyuev A.V., Aristov G.V., Opredelenie parametrov mikrostruktury metallov metodami komp'yuternogo zreniya (Determination of the parameters of the microstructure of metals by computer vision methods), Proceedings of XII All-Russian school-conference of young scientists “Upravlenie bol'shimi sistemami” (Managing large systems), Volgograd, 2015, pp. 701–714.
3. Taylakov O.V., Makeev M.P., Algorithmic support of the analysis of optical images of anschlift-ore and its application for evaluating structural changes in coals (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten' (nauchno-tekhnicheskiy zhurnal), 2008, V. S13, pp. 189–197.
4. Gmid L.P., Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po litologo-petrograficheskomu i petrokhimicheskomu izucheniyu osadochnykh porod-kollektorov (Methodological guidelines for lithologic-petrographic and petrochemical studies of sedimentary reservoir rocks), St. Petersburg, Publ. of VNIGRI, 2009, 160 p.
5. Ivanov D.V. et al., Algoritmicheskie osnovy rastrovoy grafiki (Algorithmic fundamentals of raster graphics), URL: http://www.intuit.ru/goto/course/rastrgraph/
6. Smith S.M., Brady J.M., SUSAN – a new approach to Low Level Image Processing, DRA Technical Report TR95SMMS1b, 1995, 57 p.
7. Molchanova V.S., Eight-connected asymmetric skeletonization algorithm for binary images (In Ukr.), V³snik SumDU. Ser³ya “Tekhn³chn³ nauki”, 2013, no. 2, pp. 43–50.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The article presents the analysis of the conditions necessary for formation pressure gradient influence on relative phase permeability.
In oil and gas mechanics it is traditionally accepted that the filtration characteristics of the reservoir rock, such as relative phase permeability and capillary pressure, do not depend on the pressure gradient because of the dominant influence of capillary forces in the distribution of moving phases over the pore space. Indeed, the capillary number defined as the dimensionless ratio of the formation pressure gradient in the product with the rock permeability coefficient to the value of the surface tension between the filtering phases in the main area of the developed fields (excluding, perhaps, the wellbore zones of the wells) is in the actual development conditions in the region of small values. From the physical standpoint, the capillary number is interpreted as the ratio of hydrodynamic and capillary forces and the small value of this number means that the capillary forces play the main role in the distribution of the wetting and non-wetting phase over the pore space of the rock.
At the same time, if we proceed from the physical meaning of the capillary number, it is necessary to take into account that in the course of field development conditions arise when the capillary forces approach zero values. In the hydrophilic reservoir, for example, with increasing watercut, the capillary curve will approach zero and this means that at this stage of watercut the ratio of hydrodynamic and capillary forces will increase and the effect of hydrodynamic forces, that is the formation pressure gradient, on the phase distribution over the pore space will also increase.
Thus, the analysis of the physical meaning of the capillary number presented in the work shows that there are stages of field development when an increase in the reservoir pressure gradient will affect the shape of the relative permeability curves. This result can be useful, in particular, in analyzing the conditions for the effective application of forced fluid extraction technology.
1. Efros D.A., Issledovanie fil'tratsii neodnorodnykh sistem (Research of the filtration of inhomogeneous systems), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 312 p.
2. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v prirodnykh plastakh (Movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 211 p.
3. Gimatudinov Sh.K., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of the oil and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 312 p.
4. Lake L.W., Johns R., Rossen B., Pope G., Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil Recovery, Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014, 496 p.
5. Tiab D., Donaldson E C., Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
6. Svalov A.M., Problemy dobychi nefti i gaza. Kapillyarnye effekty v podzemnoy gidrodinamike: Novye rezul’taty (Problems of oil and gas production. Capillary effects in underground hydrodynamics: New results), Moscow: Librokom Publ., 2013, 112 p.
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The article presents the results of void space study in Baituganskoye field Serpukhian paybed Ñ1s. Recent detailed studies have been carried out for rack samples from 13 wells.
Reservoir Ñ1s is formed by limestone è dolomite. Lasting post-sedimentation transformations finally have resulted in complicated structure of void space – to porous-fissured- cavernous rock type. Oil saturation of reservoir Ñ1s depends on fissures, caverns and partially with reservoir matrix within the zone of fissures and separate reservoir parts adjacent to the top.
Characteristics of rocks with intergranular component have been estimated based on standard-size core analysis data. Average porosity of these rocks is 9.8 %, average permeability – 0.159 μm2. Characteristics have been calculated considering boundary capacity equal to 6.3%, filtration characteristic – 0.0022 μm2. Fissures and caverns capacity has been calculated together based on difference between total porosity (defined from neutron-gamma method diagrams) and intergranular capacity (defined at cores). On average it is equal to 3.27 %.
In addition, noticeable volume of Serpukhian dense rocks’ variety is observed, which as per well logging data (in accordance with boundary porosity) are distinguished as the reservoir. In this case, tight rock portion has been excluded from oil-saturated volume - as the following ratio: number of dense samples (with off-grade porosity and permeability within reservoir productivity section) versus total number of analyses. Average share of dense part in oil-saturated volume of reservoir Ñ1s is equal to 52.2 %.
Characteristic feature of reservoir Ñ1s is lack of water-free crude production and quick growth of wellstream watercut. Hydrodynamic studies have covered 29 % of well stock, which have shown that (depending on well location) permeability varies within 0.07–1.45 μm2. The most successful well are located at pool’s east – high fissuring zone. Hydrodynamic studies have not been carried out for these wells; however, based on yield and drawdown analysis results, permeability is 2.4–7.3 μm2. Wells watercut character and 3D simulation results show coning presence from OWC.
Considering the above mentioned occurrence conditions of reservoir Ñ1s, we can recommend fluid’s quick draw-off. After watercut, which can develop within several years, wells may be either converted for overlying bed or used for side-tracking.
1. Smekhov E.M., Teoreticheskie i metodicheskie osnovy poiskov treshchinnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza (Theoretical and methodological foundations for the search for fractured oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 186 p.
2. Bagrintseva K.I., Usloviya formirovaniya i svoystva karbonatnykh kollektorov nefti i gaza (Conditions for formation and properties of carbonate reservoirs of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. RGGU, 1999, 285 p.3. Tkhostov B.A., Vezirova A.D., Vendel'shteyn B.Yu., Dobrynin V.M., Neft' v treshchinnykh kollektorakh (Oil in fractured reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 221 p.
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The authors formulated and described problem associated with reducing horizontal well productivity during the bringing the well on to stable production on the field with high-viscosity oil and unconsolidated sandstones. Optimization solutions are applied for the program of well output to the target bottomhole pressure. After productivity analysis of the first wells drilled during full-scale development of the reservoir it was concluded to use filters with a long interval of winding. Based on additional laboratory experiments the composition of the drilling mud was changed and it was decided to use breaker system as replacement fluid after drilling. Bench testing of downhole filters showed that destruction of rocks forms so-called ‘pillow’ on the filter that significantly reduces the rate of oil through the filter element. This happens due to the adhesion of mixture of shattered rocks and high-viscosity oil on the filter which in turn leads to lower productivity of wells.
After analyzing the dynamics of bottom hole pressure in the wells it was determined that the most likely reason for the extra decline in productivity of wells is the intensity of the decrease of bottomhole pressure at an early transient regime of filtration which leads to significant gradients of pressure in the bottomhole zone of the well and subsequent destruction of the rock. According to the laboratory test results of core analysis and geomechanical modeling it was determined that the discreteness of the decrease of bottomhole pressure up to 0.5 MPa allows to bottom-hole formation zone to be resistant to deformation and destruction. In accordance with it the step of reduction of the bottomhole pressure at the output wells on production regime was chosen to be 0.3-0.5 MPa.
Thus during full-scale development it was recommended to include constraints on the bottomhole pressure decrease in time, the control of suspended solids concentration, the dynamic level, the performance of the pump during the transition to the next level of reduction in bottomhole pressure.
1. Research report “Tekhnologicheskaya skhema razrabotki Vostochno-Messoyakhskogo neftegazokondensatnogo mestorozhdeniya” (Technological scheme for the development of the East Messoyakh oil and gas condensate field), Part 4, Tyumen': Publ. of Gazpromneft' NTTs, 2014.
2. Research report “Potokovye eksperimenty na obraztsakh kerna skvazhin Vostochno-Messoyakhskogo mestorozhdeniya” (Stream experiments on core samples of the East Messoyakhskoye field), Tyumen': Publ. of Neftekom, 2014, 311 p.
3. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2007, 505 p.
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The paper presents a new technique designed to control unwanted water production in open-hole sections of horizontal production wells targeting carbonate reservoirs. It consists in water shut-off treatments with coiled tubing conducted through a supplementary horizontal hole drilled below and parallel to the main horizontal (water producing) wellbore to form a rigid water barrier using polyaluminumchloride and polyacrylamide. These water shut-off stages are also discussed in this paper.
The existing geological model presents a typical Bashkirian reservoir production zone. It was used to create a three-dimensional numerical flow model, which not only contained geological model parameters but also described in situ fluid dynamics. For the purposes of reservoir simulation study, the main horizontal wellbore located in the upper portion of the production zone was as summed to be 324 m long, while the length of the supplementary wellbore located in the water-oil zone was assumed to be 375 m. Over the course of reservoir simulation, it was taken into account that tracer (water shut-off composition) injection resulted in relative permeability changes in the order of 0.1 to 1 times depending on tracer concentration. This is attributable to water phase mobility changes. If no tracer is presenting model grid blocks, water phase mobility does not change. Otherwise, if a grid block is filled with tracer, particularly in the vicinity of the supplementary wellbore, water phase mobility reduces 10 times. Simulation data on tracer distribution in situ are reviewed for three simulation cases: 1) perforations around the horizontal wellbore – tracer distribution while flowing towards the production well is negligible; 2) water shut-off treatments in the upper portion of the horizontal wellbore – tracer covers a larger reservoir area compared to the previous case; 3) water shut-off treatments in the upper and side portion of the horizontal wellbore – reservoir coverage with tracer (water shut-off composition) is much more considerable compared to the previous cases. According to reservoir simulations conducted to study water-oil ratio versus tracer injection rate, the optimal injection rate for the tracer is within 0.5-1 m3/d. Numerical studies suggest that natural fracture network should also be considered during treatments. Economic assessment of further Bashkirian reservoir production performance using horizontal wells and tracer injection from the existing well is favorable.
1. Kadyrov R.R., Remontno-izolyatsionnye raboty v skvazhinakh s ispol'zovaniem polimernykh materialov (Well isolation squeeze using polymeric materials), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2007, 423 p.
2. Khakimzyanov I.N., Khisamov R.S., Bakirov I.M. et al., Voprosy optimizatsii i povysheniya effektivnosti ekspluatatsii skvazhin s gorizontal'nym okonchaniem na osnove matematicheskogo modelirovaniya mestorozhdeniy Tatarstana (Problems of optimization and increase the effectiveness of operation of wells with horizontal completion on the basis of mathematical modeling of Tatarstan fields), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2014, 239 p.
3. Patent no. 2597220 RF MPK E 21 V 43/32, E 21 V 33/138, Method for isolation of water flow in open horizontal section producing wells, Inventors: Evdokimov A.M., Nizaev R.Kh., Novikov I.M., Bakirov I.M., Kadyrov R.R., Khasanova D.K.
4. Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Nikiforov A.I. et al., Teoriya i praktika modelirovaniya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v razlichnykh geologo-fizicheskikh usloviyakh (Theory and practice of modeling the development of oil fields in various geological and physical conditions), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2009, 239 p.
5. Yartiev A.F., Ekonomicheskaya otsenka proektnykh resheniy pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy dlya pozdney stadii ekspluatatsii (Economic evaluation of design decisions in the development of oil fields for the late stage of operation), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2006, 160 p.
6. Yartiev A.F., Ekonomicheskaya otsenka proektnykh resheniy innovatsionno-investitsionnykh vlozheniy dlya neftyanoy promyshlennosti (Economic evaluation of design solutions for innovative investment investments for the oil industry), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2011, 232 p.
7. Yartiev A.F., Yurkov D.V., Safiullin M.A., Tufetulov A.M., Nalogooblozhenie neftedobyvayushchey promyshlennosti: istoriya i perspektiva (Taxation of the oil industry: history and perspective), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2015, 164 p.8. Federal Law no. 401-FZ from 30.11.16 “O vnesenii izmeneniy v chasti pervuyu i vtoruyu Nalogovogo kodeksa Rossiyskoy Federatsii i otdel'nye zakonodatel'nye akty Rossiyskoy Federatsii” (On amendments to parts one and two of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation and Certain Legislative acts of the Russian Federation).
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
The basic initial data for thermal engineering calculations that provide reliable and safe operation of buildings and structures on permafrost soils are the thermophysical properties of soils, in particular the coefficient of thermal conductivity and heat capacity of soils in frozen and thawed states, determining the speed of advancement, the shape of the thawing haloes, etc., some of which Poorly defined indirectly and require direct measurements. Carrying out of measurements in laboratory conditions requires transportation of soil samples from the sampling site with the preservation of not only the frozen state, but what is extremely important is the thermo stating at the level of the temperature values of the sample locations in order to obtain the most objective parameters of the soil properties. Although in most cases it is insignificant, but the coefficient of thermal conductivity of frozen soil depends on temperature, which can be explained in part by the presence of some unfrozen water. In the light of the above difficulties, according to the author, first of all, it is necessary to develop methods of field determination of thermophysical characteristics of frozen soils, as well as in connection with the need to determine the properties of large soil masses. These methods, in the opinion of the authors, have great prospects in connection with a reduction in transportation costs for samples and a more correct determination of soil properties in some cases, as well as the possibility of maintaining an undisturbed soil structure.
1. Certificate of authorship no. 1827607 SSSR. MKI3 G 01 N 25/18, Sposob opredeleniya koeffitsienta teploprovodnosti bol'shikh massivov neodnorodnykh sred (Method for determining the thermal conductivity of large massif of inhomogeneous media), Authors: Danielyan Yu.S., Zaytsev V.S., Ashpiz E.S.
2. Danielyan Yu.S., Zaytsev V.S., Determination of heat conductivity of large soil massifs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 5, pp. 98–100.
3. Kukhling Kh., Spravochnik po fizike (Handbook of physics): translated from the German, Moscow: Mir, 1985, 520 p.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Oil fields development practices indicate permeability degradation of reservoir formations in the bottomhole area at all development stages. Main reasons for this are the rock compaction in the bottomhole area due to hydrodynamic impact during well construction, swelling of argillaceous cement of reservoir formations, etc. To recover permeability to the initial values several methods may be applied, such as various types of acid and heat treatments, hydrofracturing, injection of surfactant and other chemicals.
Formation acid treatment significantly assists operators to maximize production on their fields. Demands in acid treatment technologies applied under high reservoir temperature conditions appear to a greater extend. During wells bottomhole area treatment with acid compounds the reaction and diffusion speed increase with temperature rise. This leads to speeding-up the reactions between acid and rocks what reduces the efficiency of treatment and may provoke other complications. To conduct bottomhole area treatment successfully it is necessary to have solutions on achieving the maximum required depth of penetration.
To resolve such complications in Vietsovpetro JV, in order to improve oil recovery from high temperature production wells, it was proposed the implementation of systems which assist in generating hydrofluoric acid in the formation.
Revealed, that the formation bottomhole area treatment method which assumes implementation of chelate compounds and ammonium biflouride which generate hydrofluoric acid in the formation bottomhole area during interreaction, is the simultaneous resolution of complications related to the high temperature and secondary sedimentation.
The proposed complex compositions for the bottomhole area treatment of high temperature wells allow for generating the hydrofluoric acid in the bottomhole area of the well. Complex consists of main treatment fluid made based on chelate compounds, buffering acid compound which pumped before the main treatment fluid and saline displacement mud.
1. Le V'et Khay, Trudnosti, voznikayushchie pri kislotnoy obrabotke prizaboynykh zon skvazhin (Problems with acid treatment of bottomhole well zones), Collected papers “Problemy i metody obespecheniya nadezhnosti i bezopasnosti sistem transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza” (Problems and methods of ensuring the reliability and safety of transport systems for oil, oil products and gas), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference within the framework of the Oil and Gas Forum and the 13th International Specialized Exhibition “Gaz. Neft'. Tekhnologii – 2015” (Gas. Oil. Technology - 2015), Ufa, 2015, p. 128.
2. Lund K., Fogler H.S., Predicting the flow, reaction of HCl/HF acid mixtures in porous sandstone cores, SPE 5646-PA, 1976.
3. Williams B.B., Hydroflouric acid reaction with sandstone formation, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1975, February, pp. 52–55.
4. Thomas R.L., Crowe C.W., Matrix treament employs new acid system for stimulation and control of fines migration in sandstone formations, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1981, July, pp. 18–21.
5. Analiz, sovershenstvovanie i vnedrenie metodov vozdeystviya na prizaboynuyu zonu i uvelicheniya proizvoditel'nosti skvazhin v usloviyakh mestorozhdeniy SP “V'etsovpetro” (Analysis, improvement and implementation methods of a bottom hole treatment and increasing productivity of wells in a field of Vietsovpetro JV), Proceedings of NIPImorneftegaz V'etsovpetro JV, Vungtau, 2000, 217 p.
6. Analiz tekushchego sostoyaniya razrabotki mestorozhdeniy “Belyy Tigr” i “Drakon” (Analysis of the current state of development of the "White Tiger" and "Dragon" fields), Proceedings NIPImorneftegaz SP “V'etsovpetro”, Vungtau, 2015, 150 p.
7. Ty Tkhan' Ngia, Veliev M.M., Le V'et Khay, Investigation of new blend composition based on chelators and hydrofluoric acid for production wells yield increase with elevated reservoir temperatures (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2015, no. 10, pp. 42–48.
8. Ty Tkhan' Ngia, Le V'et Khay, M.M. Veliev, Nguen Kuok Zung, Issues related to the high temperature and secondary precipitation formation at the well bottom and ways to resolve it under Vietsovpetro JV conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 106–109.
9. Le V'et Khay, Veliev M.M., Improved productivity of producing wells based on non-acidic component with the formation of acid composition at the bottom-hole zone (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 4 (102), pp. 52–59.
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The analysis of the abrasive jet perforation applying results at the wells of the reservoirs in the Perm region is given. During the operation sand carrier-liquid is injected in two modes (with different injection pressure), as a result cuts and vertical channels are appeared. 4-6 cuts in the casing are created at the preselected depths by abrasive jet perforation. The bulb cavities are washed out in the rock, its sizes depend on the rocks strength, the action duration and the sand carrier-liquid power. It is shown that the channels height created by abrasive jet perforation is about 13 cm; its depth is about 22 cm. The permeability of bottomhole zone’s near field is increasing substantially, that leads to increasing of oil production rates. According to field materials, the average increase of oil production rates was 5.72 tons per day, and for newly introduced wells, the average oil production rate was 16.3 tons per day after the operation. The average additional oil production is more than 1500 tons per operation. According to the work results, it is noted that the abrasive jet perforation helps in a gentle way to increase the permeability of the bottomhole zone. As a result of the field studies analysis, it was noted that additional oil production by geological and technical measures can decrease with lowering of bottomhole and reservoir pressures. The well production rates after abrasive jet perforation gradually decrease, due to the decrease of bottomhole and reservoir pressures; however, the well productivity coefficients after the operation are higher than at similar pressures before operation.
1. Ilyushin P.Yu. et al., Analysis of well intervention aimed at oil production enhancement in the Perm krai′s fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, V. 14, no. 15, pp. 81–89, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2015.15.9.
2. Anur'ev M.K. et al., To forecast the oil production decline rate based on history data of developing oil deposits (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2013, V. 12, no. 6, pp. 93–100.
3. Patent no. 2185497 RF, The method of hydraulic jet perforation and the device for its implementation, Inventors: Matyashov S.V., Yurgenson V.A., Krysin N.I., Opalev V.A., Permyakov A.P., Semenishchev V.P.
4. Uirsigroch M., Poplygin V.V., Rusinov D.Yu. Wiercigroch M., Poplygin V.V., Rusinov D.Iu., Evaluation of reservoir energy consumption during oil well operation on the north Perm region (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2016, V.15, no. 21, pp. 313–319, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2016.21.2.
5. Solovkin O.E., Sophistication ways of wells “spare” perforation (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2010, no. 5, pp. 48–51.
6. Poplygin V.V., Poplygina I.S., Changes in productivity wells in bobrikovsky terrigenous of deposits at high Upper Prikamie gas-saturated reservoir oil (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2012, V. 11, no. 5, pp. 63–69.
7. Erofeev A.A., Mordvinov V.A., Changing the properties bottom-hole within the development of bobrikovsky Unvinskogo deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2012, V. 11, no. 5, pp. 57–62.
8. Poplygin V.V., Poplygina I.S., Evaluation of rational bottom-hole pressure for oil deposits with high gas saturation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no.10, pp. 104–105.
9. Poplygin V.V., Galkin S.V., Forecast quick evaluation of the indices of the development of the oil deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry. 2011, no. 3, pp. 112–115.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
Mobile steam plants (UPP-1600/100) mounted on a truck chassis are widely used in the oil and gas industry. They are designed for the generation of steam. As heat energy in steam is used, the energy of combustion of diesel fuel combusted in the burner device. PPU-1600/100 equipped with spray burners. Along with the high incidence of nozzle burners, they have significant drawbacks that adversely affect the technical-economic indicators of PPU-1600/100. Alternatively, the authors proposed misfortunate burner which has improved operational characteristics of PPU-1600/100.
We developed burner without nozzle capable to operate on a wide range of hydrocarbon fuels (diesel fuel, heating oil, waste oil, waste liquid combustible petrochemical industry, flammable gases) and modernized PPU-1600/100. Tests of the upgraded installation were conducted and the experimental data were obtained for comparative analysis of technical, economic characteristics and environmental performance of flue gases. We found that the proposed burner allows to reduce operating costs of PPU-1600/100. This effect is achieved by increasing the combustion efficiency and the use of liquid combustible waste as an alternative fuel. Environmental performance of the upgraded PPU-1600/100 significantly outpaces that one of commercially available steam mobile units.
Misfortunate burner allows to burn on full of various flammable liquids, including flammable liquid waste and produce cheap heat. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally by the example of the operation of the PPU-1600/100 equipped with burner device without nozzle.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
By reaction of triglycerides of olive oil with diethanollamine at the temperature 120–140 °C diethylolamide has been obtained. Then, with participation of orthophosphoric acid at the temperature 30–40 °C a phosphate derivative of the diethylolamide was synthesized. Phosphate derivatives show an inhibitors activity in hydrogen-sulphide medium: at the concentration 10–20 ppm protection effect is 55–61 % and at the concentration 50–100 ppm – 70–77 %. On the basis of the phosphate derivative, at its molar ratio 1:2 with monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA) complex salts have been obtained which exhibit a high degree of protecting steel from hydrogen-sulphide and carbon dioxide corrosion. Complex salts tested in hydrogen-sulphide corrosion at the four concentration (10, 20, 50, and 100 ppm). At the concentration of MEA salt 10–20 ppm protection is 75–83 %, at the concentration 50–100 ppm – 92,0–94,1 %, for DEA salt - 65,0–72,0 % and 95,0–97,4% correspondingly, and for TEA salt 62,0–72,0 % and 96,0–98,5 % correspondingly. So, TEA salt implementation guarantees a higher degree of protection then the other complex salts.
Also complex salts were tested under carbon dioxide corrosion at the concentration 50 ppm. At the concentration 50 ppm MEA salt shows a protection 99.0 %, DEA salt – 98.5 %, and TEA salt – 98.0 %.
Physical properties of complex salts are defined.
1. Vigdorovich V.I., Vigdorovich M.V., Ryazanov A.V., Bactericidal properties and suppression by inhibitors such as AMDOR-IR diffusion of hydrogen through a steel membrane over SRB (In Russ.), Zashchita metallov = Protection of Metals, 2007, V. 43, no. 1, pp. 103–107.
2. Bondareva S.O., Lisitskiy V.V., Yakovleva N.I., Murinov Yu.I., Hydrolysis of 1,2-disubstituted imidazolines in aqueous media (In Russ.), Izvestiya RAN. Seriya khimicheskaya = Russian Chemical Bulletin, 2004, no. 4, pp. 767–771.
3. Vigdorovich V.I., Sinyutina S.E., Tsygankova L.E., Oshe E.K., Effect of oxyethylated amines on corrosion and hydrogenation of carbon steel (In Russ.), Zashchita metallov = Protection of Metals, 2004, V. 40, no. 3, pp. 282–294.
4. Vigdorovich V.I., Tsygankova L.E., Ingibirovanie serovodorodnoy i uglekislotnoy korrozii metallov. Universalizm ingibitorov (Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide corrosion of metals. Universalism of inhibitors), Moscow: KARTEK Publ., 2011, 244 s.
5. Kashkovskiy P.B., Vagapov P.K., Kuznetsov Yu.I., Ob osobennostyakh letuchego ingibirovaniya serovodorodnoy korrozii stali aminami (On peculiarities of volatile hydrogen sulfide corrosion inhibiting using steel amines), Proceedings of VII scientific and practical conference of young specialists and scientists of the branch of “Gazprom VNIIGAZ”, Ukhta, 2010, 24 p.
6. Vagapov R.K., Kashkovskiy R.V., Kuznetsov Yu.I., Volatile inhibitors of hydrogen sulfide corrosion for protection of steel equipment and pipelines (In Russ.), Korroziya: materialy, zashchita, 2010, no. 10, pp. 16–24.
7. Kashkovskiy R.V., Kuznetsov Yu.I., Vagapov R.K., On the peculiarities of the hydrogen sulfide corrosion of steel inhibition by volatile amines (In Russ.), Korroziya: materialy, zashchita, 2010, no. 4, pp. 13–18.
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The requirements for the quality of reservoir models are constantly increasing. Therefore the requirements for reservoir simulation software are increasing as well. Up-to-date simulators should keep up with very large models, they should use high performance computing and support sector modelling option – these features speed up computations up to dozens of times. It is also necessary to take into account all important physical phenomena and provide users with wide variety of tools for pre- and post-processing. Simulators should automate such processes as geological model examination and all initial data check – it helps to improve model quality and saves time spent on preprocessing.
The corporate reservoir simulator TecScheme has been used as the main simulation tool in Surgutneftegas OJSC for more than 20 years. It was used for simulation of the major oil fields of the company. Its performance has been increased significantly: improved convergence of the linear solver for complex 3-phase models, supported option of sector modelling, the variety of well constraints added as well as the new features for hard-to-recover reserves. Development of TecScheme helps to decrease spending on expensive foreign software and dependency on it. Now such new features as geological modelling tools and automated history matching are being developed.
1. Sudo R.M., Trebovaniya TsKR Rosnedr k kachestvu trekhmernykh tsifrovykh geologo-gidrodinamicheskikh modeley pri soglasovanii proektnoy dokumentatsii na razrabotku mestorozhdeniy UVS (Rosnedra CDC requirements to the quality of three-dimensional digital geological and hydrodynamic models at the coordination of project documentation for the hydrocarbon fields development), Proceedings of Scientific and practical seminar “Sovremennye trebovaniya k kachestvu trekhmernykh tsifrovykh geologo-gidrodinamicheskikh modeley pri soglasovanii proektnoy dokumentatsii na razrabotku mestorozhdeniy UVS” (Modern requirements to the quality of three-dimensional digital geological and hydrodynamic models with the approval of design documentation for the hydrocarbon fields development), Moscow, 29 October 2014.
2. Saad Y., Iterative methods for sparse linear systems, Philadelphia, PA: USA: SIAM Press, 2003, 528 p.
3. Karypis G., Kumar V.A., Fast and highly quality multilevel scheme for partitioning irregular graphs, SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 1999, V. 20, no. 1, pp. 359–392.
4. Cao H., Tchelepi H.A., Wallis J., Yardumian H., Parallel scalable unstructed cpr-type solver for reservoir simulation, SPE 96809, 2005.
5. Bakhtiy N.S., Abdulina M.V., Aristov A.A. et al., Reservoir simulator “TecScheme”: using of high performance computing for reservoir simulation (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek, 2015, no. 4, pp. 104–111.
6. Bakhtiy N.S., Nekotorye aspekty modelirovaniya mnogofaznoy mnogokomponentnoy fil'tratsii i testirovaniya vychislitel'nykh algoritmov, indutsirovannye programmnym kompleksom “Tekhskhema” (Some aspects of modeling multiphase multicomponent filtering and testing of computational algorithms, induced by the software complex " TecScheme "): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen', 2012.
7. Odeh A.S., Comparison of solutions to a three-dimensional Black-Oil Reservoir Simulation problem, SPE 9723-PA, 1981.
8. Christie M.A., Blunt M.J., Tenth SPE Comparative Solution Project: A comparison of upscaling techniques, SPE 66599, 2001.
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The article presents the reliability analysis of power supply system of oilfield consumers with and without time redundancy, which is provided by availability of raw materials or free space in crude storage.
Using Markoff process theory we considered reliability of two-phase system Booster Pump Station (BPS) – Central Production Facility (CPF) during power outages. In BPS – CPS system time redundancy is insured by CPF crude storage; products (raw materials) are received from BPS line. Functioning process of this system is performed by state and transition graph, which takes into account all possible states of time reserve: tank is empty, tank is full, and tank is filled up to intermediate innage level. If tank is empty and power supply system of all BPS breaks down, whole system failure and CPF forced stop will occur. If tank is full and CPF power supply system breaks down, forced stop of all BPS will take place.
System of differential equations for 10 probable conditions was composed and solved using Maple 14 software package. Dependence of readiness coefficient of considered system on time reserve capacity and operating time was received.
We carried out similar reliability analysis of BPS electric complex (one-phase system). Its availability factor is 0.9922 (time reserve is 1.5 h) or nonproductive time is 68 h.
Analysis showed surplus values of reliability index of considered systems that means cost overrun. Thus there is a necessity of revision of existing standards and practice of planning of oil extraction objects, transport and processing.
1. Tsinkovich O.I., Obosnovanie struktury i parametrov elektrotekhnicheskikh kompleksov promyshlennykh predpriyatiy s lokal'nymi istochnikami energii (Justification of structure and parameters of industrial electrical systems with local energy sources): thesis of candidate of technical science, St. Petersburg, 2014.
2. Gladkikh T.D., Sushkov V.V., Methodology for the distribution of the input of emergency power consumption restrictions for oilfield consumers in Western Siberia in the event of a power shortage in the power system (In Russ.), Promyshlennaya energetika, 2010, no. 10, pp. 23–26.
3. RD 39-0147323-801-89. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po raschetu i normirovaniyu nadezhnosti elektrosnabzheniya neftyanykh promyslov (Methodical guidelines for the calculation and normalization of reliability of power supply of oilfields), Authors: Novoselov Yu.B., Frayshteter V.P., Sushkov V.V., Ivanova L.B., Tyumen', 1989, 89 p.
4. Sushkov V.V., Mataev N.N., Kulakov S.G., Emelina N.M., Nadezhnost', tekhnicheskoe obsluzhivanie, remont i diagnostirovanie neftegazopromyslovogo oborudovaniya (Reliability, maintenance, repair and diagnostics of oil and gas equipment): edited by Sushkov V.V, St. Petersburg: Nestor Publ., 2008, 296 p.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
Tatneft PJSC has developed and introduced a number of standards and guidelines for reclamation of soils disturbed by oil-field facilities construction and operation. The documents developed and approved include: Program and procedure of lab tests to establish limit values of allowable residual oil and oil products content after reclamation operations; limit values of allowable residual oil and oil products content for soils prevailing on the territory of Tatneft’s activity (for farming lands); a number of guidelines for reclamation of disturbed and oil-contaminated lands; standard plans for disturbed land reclamation including farming lands, forest lands, industrial lands, as well as a standard reclamation program (including biological reclamation).
Based on the soil and environmental surveys, a soil map has been generated for the South-East of Tatarstan. An electronic array has been developed comprising a number of parameters to draw up reclamation plans. Full-scale field and laboratory tests have been performed to compare the efficiency and environmental safety of new reclamation methods for oil-contaminated and saline soils against the conventional ones. It has been found that in case of high oil-contamination level the new biotechnologies proved to the most efficient in reducing oil products in soil to the allowable residual content over the shortest time, in recovering soil fertility and improving soil properties.
1. Ibatullin R.R., Mutin I.I., Iskhakova N.M. et al., Development of a standard for the permissible residual oil content and its transformation products in soil for leached chernozems of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Interval, 2006, no. 2, pp. 10–16.
2. Shaydullina I.A., Normirovanie i minimizatsiya obrazovaniya i opasnosti neftezagryaznennykh pochv dlya prirodnoy sredy (na primere OAO “Tatneft'”) (Normalization and minimization of the formation and danger of oil contaminated soils for the natural environment (by the example of Tatneft)): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Kazan', 2006.
3. Order of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Tatarstan no. 786 from 22.07.09 “Ob ustanovlenii regional'nogo normativa “Dopustimoe ostatochnoe soderzhanie nefti i produktov ee transformatsii v pochve posle provedeniya rekul'tivatsionnykh i inykh vosstanovitel'nykh rabot na territorii Respubliki Tatarstan” (On the establishment of a Regional Standard "Allowable residual content of oil and its transformation products in the soil after remediation and other restoration works on the Republic of Tatarstan).
4. Order no. 303-p ot 14.07.11 “Ob utverzhdenii regional'nykh normativov “Dopustimoe ostatochnoe soderzhanie nefti i produktov ee transformatsii v svetlo-serykh i serykh lesnykh pochvakh Respubliki Tatarstan posle provedeniya rekul'tivatsionnykh i inykh vosstanovitel'nykh rabot dlya zemel' sel'skokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya” (On approval of regional standards "Allowable residual oil content and its transformation products in light gray and gray forest soils of the Republic of Tatarstan after reclamation and other restoration works for agricultural land”).
5. Korn G.A., Korn T.M., Mathematical handbook for scientists and engineers: Definitions, theorems, and formulas for reference and review, General Publishing Company, 2000, 1151 p.
6. Shaydullina I.A., Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.D. et al., Rekul'tivatsiya neftezagryaznennykh pochv na primere vyshchelochennykh chernozemov Tatarstana (in Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 102–105.
7. Malykhina L.V., Shaydullina I.A., Antonov N.A. et al., Recultivation of oil-contaminated lands by example of leached black humus earth of Tatarstan (An integrated approach to test biotech for remediation of oil-contaminated soil), Proceedings of TatNIPInefti, 2015, V. 83, pp. 313–318
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The acquisition of new assets carries risks of excess penalties and payments for the new owner caused by insufficient attention of business owners to the issues of ensuring environmental safety at FEC enterprises, as well as a large number of legislative norms, and a continuous process of changes in these norms.
In order to identify and control the environmental risks of changing the operator of the Kharyaga Agreement on the Product Segment (hereinafter referred to as the PSA), from the operator of Total Exploration Russia Development, Zarubezhneft JSC, an environmental audit was carried out, which acts as an effective mechanism for identifying risks.
The definition of terms of reference for the environmental audit of the Kharyaga PSA, as well as the conduct of the audit itself, is a non-standard task, in view of the fact that the main regulatory document for the operator's work was the production sharing agreement, and the previous operator was focused on the implementation of its internal standards, and not legislative Requirements of the Russian Federation.
During the environmental audit it was necessary to identify environmental aspects. Environmental audits should include the assessment of environmental documents, including payment calculations, full-scale inspection of the site, sampling and laboratory studies of samples and components of the natural environment.
During the audit, the risks of incorrect assessment of the composition of pollutants emitted, local pollution areas and problems of handling production and consumption were identified.
The positive side of the project is the risk-oriented approach in defining the HSE strategy, as well as the duplication of systems for detection of emissions and fires. The conducted ecological audit made it possible to identify the company's risks when changing the operator, and also to develop a program to reduce environmental risks.
1. Gritsenko A.I. et al., Ekologiya: neft' i gaz (Ecology: oil and gas), Moscow: Akademkniga Publ., 2009, 679 p.
2. Tetel'min V.V., Yazev V.A., Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse (Environmental protection in the oil and gas sector), Dolgoprudnyy: Intellekt Publ., 2009, 352 p.3. Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M., Okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy pri dobyche nefti (Environmental protection in oil production), Moscow: Delo Publ., 2006, 552 p.
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Russian Federation takes different measures for diversification of hydrocarbon raw-materials supplies on the world market. Main business oriented directions are the gas-oil transportation to China and to the Asia-Pacific region. That is why the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) becomes one of the biggest exporting regions as well as all companies that have business activities there enter new markets.
Nowadays Surgutnefegas JSC is the biggest gas-oil production company located on the territory of Lensk district of the Republic of Sakha. At the same time the Republic of Sakha s is the second biggest center of Surgutneftegas business activity. About 12-14 % of all extractable oil reserves of Surgutneftegas in Russia are located on the territory of the republic.
The creation of infrastructure influences all the elements of the environment – atmosphere air, surface waters including the bottom clays, vegetation and topsoil etc. To account all the risks, the regular ecological monitor takes place. Analysis of monitoring data shows that business activity nave not changed the original condition of the environment. The pollution level is still low and does not exceed the TAC in many components. In numerous cases low pollution level is a result of application of modern technologies that preserve the environment.
1. Pochekaeva E.I., Popova T.V., Bezopasnost' okruzhayushchey sredy i zdorov'e naseleniya v Rostov-na-Donu (Environmental safety and public health in Rostov-on-Don), Rostov-na-Donu: Feniks Publ., 2013, 443 p.
2. Solodovnikov A.Yu., Soromotin A.M., Natural and ethnosocial features of development of Surgutneftegaz OAO fields in Republic Sakha (Yakutia) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 3, pp. 98-101.
3. Arkhipov S.V., Kirishev A.S., Usloviya formirovaniya otlozheniy produktivnogo plasta O1 Nepsko-Botuobinskoy anteklizy i ego stroenie (Conditions for the formation of deposits of the productive reservoir O1 of the Nepa-Botuoba anteclise and its structure), Collected papers “Voprosy geologi bureniya i razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Surgutskogo regiona” (Questions of geologists drilling and development of oil and gas and oil fields in the Surgut region), Proceedings of SurgutNIPIneft', Publ. of Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2005, pp. 42-49.
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The purpose of the research is to evaluate geo-ecological areas damaged by storages of sludge water in the oil and gas industry, to sel ect the direction of recovery and targeted development. In the result of this research we created a geo-ecological assessment methodology and technologies for the rehabilitation of territories disturbed by sludge storage. The evaluation scheme includes analysis of multidimensional data using the principal components method, criterial selection and matrix-digital interpretation with the construction of a three-dimensional model. Analysis of these territories characteristics showed that the most rational way of recovery is the elimination of sludge formation using sludge as a raw material production of soil-like rehabilitation material. The obstacle to the direct use of sludge water as substitutes for soils is a high humidity, the presence of organic substances, as well as low strength of the sludge particles. The technology of remediation materials production, comprising a geo-container drying, is the layers mineralization and hardening of sludge. We showed the possibility of using conditioning and inoculated additives on the basis of ash and slag waste and sludge water recycling for the intensification of sludge processing. The proposed method of assessment help to identify state of more than 20 storage of oil and gas industry waste from the standpoint of the subsequent recovery, construction and economic development of disturbed areas. The investigated mechanical properties of materials based on raw sludge allowed justifying their use as rehabilitation material. The technique offered will enable reducing the costs of the purchase of natural soils for rehabilitation as well as reducing the waste disposal costs.
1. Tupitsyna O.V., Chertes K.L., Bykov D.E., Osvoenie prirodno-tekhnogennykh sistem gradopromyshlennykh aglomeratsiy (Development of natural and man-made systems of industrial agglomerations), Samara: As Gard Publ., 2014, 336 p.
2. Putilin E.I., Tsvetkov V.S., Primenenie zol unosa i zoloshlakovykh smesey pri stroitel’stve avtomobil’nykh dorog. Obzornaya informatsiya otechestvennogo i zarubezhnogo opyta primeneniya otkhodov ot szhiganiya tverdogo topliva na TES (The use of fly ash and ash and slag mixtures in road construction: Overview of domestic and foreign experience in the application of waste fr om the combustion of solid fuels at thermal power stations), Moscow: Publ. of SOYuZDORNII, 2003, 60 p.
3. Bykov D.E., Tupitsyna O.V., Gladyshev N.G. et al., Oil-waste biodegradation complex (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii, 2011, no. 3, pp. 33–34.
4. Bykov D.E., Chertes K.L., Nazarov V.D. et al., Using sewage sludge as a biological product to accelerate solid household waste composting (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii, 2011, no. 2, pp. 16–18.
5. Esbensen K.H., Multivariate data analysis in practice, SAMO, 2006, 598 p.
6. Pystin V.N. Tupitsyna O.V., Chertes K.L., Otsenka nakopiteley shlamov vodnogo khozyaystva, kak istochnikov syr'ya dlya proizvodstva rekul'tivatsionnykh materialov (Evaluation of sludge reservoir of water industry as sources of raw materials for the production of the recultivating materials), Collected papers “Ekologiya i bezopasnost' zhiznedeyatel'nosti promyshlenno-transportnykh kompleksov ELPIT-2015” (Ecology and Safety of industrial-transport complexes ELPIT-2015), Samara: Publ. of SNTs, 2015, V. 5, pp. 239-244.
7. Anan’ev V.P., Potapov A.D., Inzhenernaya geologiya (Engineering geology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2005, 575 p.
8. Patent no. 2584031 RF, Method of processing oil sludge and cleaning oil contaminated soil, Inventors: Chertes K.L., Bykov D.E. et al.
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More than 50-years exploitation of large oil fields in Tatarstan has led to substantial transformation of hydrogeoecological conditions at different levels of the section. The most dangerous of them is intense and bulk pollution of the fresh groundwater area with salt brines produced together with fresh water. In some parts of Romashkinskoye, Bavlynskoye and Novo-Elkhovskoye deposits share of underground water with high salinity (up to 5–10 g/dm3), hardness (up to 40–70 mmol/dm3) and the chloride concentration (more than 20%-mole) as a part of Lower Kazanian bearing complex, which is the most productive part of the section, can reach 60 %.
Sometimes (for protection of the existing underground drinking water intake, elimination or localization of water pollution focus) the most optimal way to dispose contaminated water is their use in the reservoir pressure maintenance system. This may appear negative side effects such as scaling in oil horizons, wells and communication. The probability of calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate sediments, which are the commonest salts complicated oil production process in Tatarstan, was estimated on the basis of the analysis of underground water composition in the upper section (15 water samples of Lower Kazanian aquifer), water composition in oil-bearing horizon in the Devonian sequence (358 samples) and mixtures of underground water at different depths (465 virtual samples). It is shown that the most stable in respect of scale are mixtures with mineralization 68–104 g/dm3. For rapid determination of their resistance in respect of scaling regression connections are shown, their use is possible if there are data of mineralization, pH and also the concentrations of ions HCO3-, SO42-, Ca2+ in groundwater at different depths.
1. Musin R.Kh., Kalkamanova Z.G., The formation of the underground water in the upper part of hydrolithosphere in the Vostochno-Zakamsky region of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 18-22.
2. Kashchavtsev V.E., Gattenberger Yu.P., Lyushin S.F., Preduprezhdenie soleobrazovaniya pri dobyche nefti (Prevention of salt formation during oil production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 215 p.
3. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation during oil production), Moscow: Orbita Publ., 2004, 432 p.
4. Kudryashova L.V., Opredelenie prigodnosti dlya zakachki v plast tekhnicheskoy vody vodozabornykh skvazhin NGDU “Zainskneft'” (Applicability appraisal of water supply wells for technical water injection into the reservoir of Zainskneft), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2002, 37 p.
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The authors researched a hydrocarbon total content and its molecular composition for the peaty lake sediments on the petroleum contaminated and background areas at Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district (KhMAO). The aim was to compare the assessment of the peaty lake sediments petroleum pollution by the gas-liquid chromatography and infrared spectrometry taking into account the native hydrocarbon content.
It has been compared two methods (IR-photometry and gas-liquid chromatography) defining a petroleum hydrocarbons concentration in peaty lake sediments on anthropogenic areas. The main results show the IR-photometry gives a reliable result for concentrations level more than 20000 mg/kg, when biogenic hydrocarbons proportion is low towards to petroleum hydrocarbons concentration. In case of lower values there is have to be used a highly informative gas-liquid chromatography methods to investigate a hydrocarbons molecular composition and consider a biogenic part of its content. It helps to make a decision in controversial cases when it is not obvious a fact of petroleum contamination.
Additionally it has been defined a background hydrocarbon concentration in peaty lake sediments for KhMAO by two mentioned above methods. The typical molecular parameters of virgin peaty lake sediments were calculated for a content of saturated hydrocarbons. In case of non-compliance to those parameters, we suggest to attribute peaty lake sediment samples as contaminated.
The carried out investigations have been directed to increase the results accuracy in the hydrosphere biogeochemical monitoring for the KhMAO region. In addition, it might be applied for the correction of the regional standards for maximum permissible level of petroleum in the lake sediments in relation to its type.
1. Gennadiev A.N., Pikovskiy Yu.I., The maps of soil tolerance toward pollution with oil products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Methodological aspects (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie = Eurasian Soil Science, 2007, no. 1, pp. 80–92.
2. Pikovskiy Yu.I., Gennalieva A.N., Chernyavskiy S.S., Sakharov G.N., The problem of diagnostics and standardization of the levels of soil pollution by oil and oil products (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie = Eurasian Soil Science, 2003, no. 9, pp. 1132–1140.
3. Drugov Yu.S., Rodin A.A., Ekologicheskie analizy pri razlivakh nefti i nefteproduktov (Environmental analyzes for oil and oil products spills), Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya znaniy Publ., 2007, 270 p.
4. Nikanorov A.M., Stradomskaya A.G., Problemy neftyanogo zagryazneniya presnovodnykh ekosistem (Problems of oil pollution of freshwater ecosystems), Rostov-na-Donu: NOK Publ., 2008, 222 p.
5. Bachurin, Odintsova T.A., Problems of diagnostics and control of oil pollution of natural geosystems (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2005, no. 9–10, pp. 79–82.
6. Chivilev S.M., Prozorova M.V., Matveev I.V. et al., Osobennosti opredeleniya nefteproduktov v pochvakh i donnykh otlozheniyakh (Features of determining petroleum products in soils and bottom sediments), URL: http://ecopro.spb.ru/index.php?view=article&catid=2%3Aecolog&id=10%3A2010-04-02-13-0...
7. Lopatin K.I., Kashtanova O.A., Montile A.I., Optimization model of oilfield facilities location in the forest-swamp zone in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Vestnik Nizhnevartovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta. Ser. Estestvennye nauki i nauki o Zemle, 2009, V. 1, URL: http://vestnik.nvsu.ru/arhiv/12/20.pdf.
8. Zueva I.N., Glyaznetsova Yu.S., Lifshits S.Kh. et al., Methods for studying surface hydrocarbon geochemical fields of natural and technogenic origin (In Russ.), Nauka i obrazovanie, 2009, no. 1, pp. 50–55.
9. Ivanov K. E., Novikov S. M., Bolota Zapadnoy Sibiri, ikh stroenie i gidrologicheskiy rezhim (Swamps of Western Siberia, their structure and hydrological regime), Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1976, 448 p.
10. Glyaznetsova Yu.S., Chalaya O.N., Zueva I.N., Lifshits S.Kh., The questions of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation of oil-contaminated soils of the Arctic zone of Yakutia (In Russ.), Arktika i Sever, 2012, no. 5, pp. 97–108.
11. Guerra-García J.M., González-Vila F.J., García-Gómez J.C., Aliphatic hydrocarbon pollution and macrobenthic assemblages in Ceuta harbour: a multivariate approach, Marine ecology progress series, 2003, V. 263, pp. 127–138.
12. Duchko M.A., Gulaya E.V., Serebrennikova O.V., Otsenka vliyaniya antropogennykh faktorov na sostav bituminoznykh komponentov torfov yuga Zapadnoy Sibiri po dannym o sostave uglevodorodov (Assessment of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the composition of bituminous components of peat in the south of Western Siberia from data on the composition of hydrocarbons), Proceedings of 10th sibirskoe soveshchanie po klimato-ekologicheskomu monitoringu (Siberian workshop on climate and environmental monitoring), Tomsk: Agraf-Press Publ., 2013, pp. 207–209.
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The algorithm for bio-fertilizers creating on the basis of an effective consortium of regional hydrocarbon destructing microorganisms is presented in the article. The algorithm consists of several stages: the selection of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms from the different soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (RT); the selection of promising natural associations; the study of their properties and salt tolerance; the checking of their efficacy against hydrocarbons (diesel, vacuum gas oil, fuel oil, toluene, hexane); the species identification of strains consortium by the polymerase chain reaction analysis; the study of the relationship between strains nature. The bentonite from the Tarn-Varsky deposit of the RT, the chemical composition of which was studied by the quantitative spectral analysis on the ES-1 spectrometer based on the DFS-458C diffraction spectrograph and the FP-4 photoelectric recording device, is used in technology of remediation of oil-contaminated soils. Nanostructural bentonite was obtained by ultrasound influence on bentonite at a frequency of 18.5 kHz (± 10%) and was stabilized with deionized water at a concentration of 1:4. The structure of bentonite powder and nanobentonite was studied on a scanning probe Veeco (USA) microscope MultiMode V. Mutagenic activity of nanostructured bentonite was studied in the Ames test with using indicator strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA1538 (genotype hisD3052 rfa uvrB) and TA100 (genotype hisG46 rfa uvrB / pKM101), which have mutations in the genes of the histidine operon. The uniqueness of the practical application of remediation technology for oil-contaminated soils is substantiated by the use of two innovative blocks: biofertilizer (based on a consortium consisting of three strains-destructors in a ratio of 1:1:1, with a bacterial suspension titer of 3,0·1012 CFU/cm3) and nanostructured bentonite (at the rate of 0.3 t/ha). At remediation, destructing microorganisms of biofertilizer are actively built into the natural population, adapt quickly and decompose hydrocarbons effectively; nanobentonite is not removed, it improves soil structure and is a source of mineral nutrition for microorganisms. By the use of technology, the negative impact of hydrocarbon contamination on the soil and further on the food chain on plants, animals and humans is significantly reduced.
1. Kiriy O.A., Application of biological preparation Destroil for cleaning from black mineral oil polluted soils and water in Maikop region (In Russ.), Nauchnyy zhurnal KubGAU, 2013, V. 85, no. 1, pp. 82-92.
2. Degtyareva I.A., Davletshina A.Ya., The use of a consortium of aboriginal hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms for remediation of chernozem and gray forest soils of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 18, no. 4, pp. 275–279.
3. Pisarchuk A.D., Tereshchenko N.N., Lushnikov S.V., The use of hydrocarbon oxydizing bacteria Pseudomonas putida and sorbents based on modified vermicompost for the detoxification of oil contaminated soils (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Biologiya, 2011, V. 3, no. 15, pp. 180–182.
4. Glyaznetsova Yu.S., Zueva I.N., Chalaya O.N., Lifshits S.Kh., The questions of environmental monitoring and rehabilitation of oil-contaminated soils of the Arctic zone of Yakutia (In Russ.), Arktika i Sever = Arctis and North, 2012, no. 5 (yanvar'), pp. 97–108.
5. Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.A., Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Using efficient indigenous hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganism at biological rekulitivation of oil-contaminated territory of RT (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E. Baumana, 2009, V. 199, pp. 218–222.
6. Degtyareva I.A., Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Evalution of the influence from natural associations of hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms on oil-contaminated soil (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskogo universiteta. Estestvennye nauki, 2011, V. 153, no. 3, pp. 137–143.
7. Ezhov G.I., Rukovodstvo dlya prakticheskikh zanyatiy po sel'skokhozyaystvennoy mikrobiologii (Guide for practical training of agricultural microbiology), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1981, 271 p.
8. Maron D.M., Revised for the Salmonella mutagenicity test, Mut. Res., 1983, V. 113, pp. 172–215.
9. Ezhkova A.M., Yapparov A.Kh., Ezhkov V.O. et al., Fabrication of nanoscale bentonite, study of its structure and toxic properties, and determination of safe doses (In Russ.), Rossiyskie nanotekhnologii = Nanotechnologies in Russia, 2015, V. 10, no. 1–2, pp. 100-105.
10. Motina T.Yu., Yapparov A.Kh., Ezhkova A.M. et al., Comparative evaluation of the sorption properties of bentonite powder and nanosized bentonite in vivo (In Russ.), Uchenye zapiski Kazanskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii veterinarnoy meditsiny im. N.E. Baumana, 2015, V. 223, pp. 121–124.
11. Degtyareva I.A., Ezhkova A.M., Yapparov A.Kh. et al., Production of nano-bentonite and the study of its effect on mutagenesis in bacteria Salmonella typhimurium (In Russ.), Rossiyskie nanotekhnologii = Nanotechnologies in Russia, 2016, V. 11, no. 9–10, pp. 116–122.
12. Khidiyatullina A.Ya., Biorekul'tivatsiya neftezagryaznennykh pochv s ispol'zovaniem aktivnykh aborigennykh mikroorganizmov-destruktorov i ekologo-toksikologicheskaya otsenka protsessa remediatsii (Biorecultivation of oil-contaminated soils using active native microorganisms-destructors and ecological-toxicological evaluation of the remediation process): thesis of candidate of agricultural sciences, Kazan', 2013.
13. Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.A., Yapparov I.A. et al., Tekhnologiya polucheniya ekologicheski bezopasnoy produktsii sel'skogo khozyaystva pri biorekul'tivatsii neftezagryaznennykh pochv aborigennymi uglevodorodokislyayushchimi mikroorganizmami i nanostrukturirovannymi bentonitami (The technology of obtaining environmentally safe agricultural products in the biorekultivation of oil-contaminated soils by aboriginal hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and nanostructured bentonites), Kazan': Publ. of Center for Innovative Technologies, 2011, 220 p.
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The authors studied the influence of zeolite in the stricture of peat-mineral composition on destruction of oil in soil in laboratory and microfield conditions. Processes of destruction of oil components and hydrocarbon flow with different intensities with time in all the embodiments of experience. Adding to the oily soil peat-mineral composition containing zeolite in stricture provides higher efficiency: extent of destruction in microfield experiment for 90 days was 55.0% and 29.6% versus 33.0%, in the laboratory experiment for 4 months was 33.0% against 23.0%. Under influence of peat-mineral compositions the group stricture of oil samples has been changed. These changes were especially noticeable in the embodiment using peat-mineral compositions with zeolite. The most significant decrease of relative content of oils, which include n- and i-alkanes and lighter aromatic hydrocarbons marked for using peat-mineral compositions with zeolite. Marked reduction of tar and asphaltenes in oil sample this variant that indicating about the process of destruction those are difficult to microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. On the flow of processes destruction and passage in the mobile state of oil components demonstrates a reduction contents of total organic carbon and increase the carbon contents of organic substances extracted with 0.1N NaOH solution. Data of elemental analysis confirm process of oxidation of oil components. Marked decrease of share hydrocarbon compounds and increase of share oxygenates in oil samples. Process of oxidation was the most intensive for this time in the oil sample with using peat-mineral compositions with zeolite. In this case, the lowest the atomic ratio C/O marked for variants of the experiment informing about more intensive increase number of hydroxyl, phenol, carbonyl, carboxyl, quinine and other oxygen-containing groups in the composition of the oil. It was also found that in samples of residual oil, especially in the case of peat-mineral formulation with zeolite, increased the atomic ratio of C/H, which indicates decrease of proportion saturated hydrocarbons and a certain increase of proportion aromatic structures.
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2. Alekseeva T.P., Burmistrova T.I., Stakhina L.D., Tereshchenko N.N., Peat-based ameliorants for purification of soil from oil pollutants (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Biologiya, 2010, no. 1 (9), pp. 5–12.
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Field and experimental soil researches of oil polluted ecosystems in the conditions of middle taiga in West Siberia are studied. Objects of the research are background (uncontaminated) and oil polluted soils caused by crude oil spill on the territory of Vakhskoye field in Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district Yugra. The aim of research is regularities study of organic pollutants in soils exposed to technogenic hydrocarbon pollution on the territory of middle taiga in Western Siberia and influence study of oil pollution on main soil parameters.
The level and pollutants journey peculiarities in soil profile are discovered. The influence of oil pollution on physiographic complexity and chemical soil constitution within the boundaries of pollution is determined. The results are the basis of environmental forecast for pollution effect, implementation of necessary solutions by oil companies in case of emergency pollution, soil reclamation and ecological soil monitoring.
Oil flows at soil pollution is characterized by considerable variability of pollution load in different areas – epicenter – boundary (impact zone) – buffer zone. It is specified by initial genetic soil characteristics, soil profile texture that defines a specific system of pedologic and geochemical barriers and complicate halopollution structure.
Significant changes in the structure of major constituents of chemical soil constitution occur in case of pollution. When oil with definite acid-base conditions is in soil, it disturbs ecological processes and leads to specific changes in the morphology of soil profile. As a result, we have changes in basic chemical and physical-chemical parameters of podzolic soil. In middle taiga of Western Siberia starting mechanisms of technogenic soil halogenesis in case of emergency oil pollution are highly mineralized effluents where water-soluble chlorides are more significant than sulfates. Fractionating of multicomponent pollutant mixture at radial and lateral movement leads to deposition of high-molecular-weight and viscous bituminous substances in the pollution epicenter. It provides maximum (twice the amount and more) heavy metals buildup including very toxic metals such as vanadium and nickel on the surface soil layer at gradual decrease towards marginal zones.
1. Gennadiev A.N., Oil and the environment (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 5. Geografiya, 2009, no. 6, pp. 30–39.
2. Gennadiev A.N., Pikovskiy Yu.I., The maps of soil tolerance toward pollution with oil products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Methodological aspects (In Russ), Pochvovedenie = Eurasian Soil Science, 2007, no. 1, pp. 80–92.
3. Dobrovol'skiy G.V. Urusevskaya I.S., Geografiya pochv (Geography of soils), Publ. of MSU, Kolosc Publ., 2004, 460 p.
4. Shishov L.L., Tonkonogov V.D., Lebedeva I.I., Gerasimova M.I., Klassifikatsiya i diagnostika pochv Rossii (Classification and diagnostics of soils in Russia), Smolensk: Oykumena Publ., 2004, 342 p.
5. Seredina V.P., Nepotrebnyy A.I., Ognev S.A., Osobennosti migratsii nefteproduktov v podzolistoy pochve sredney taygi Zapadnoy Sibiri (Peculiarities of petroleum products migration in podzolic soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia), Proceedings of XXI International scientific and practical conference “Sovremennye problemy gumanitarnykh i estestvennykh nauk” (Modern problems of the humanities and natural sciences), Moscow: Publ. of “Institut strategicheskikh issledovaniy”, 2014, pp. 85–89.
6. Seredina V.P., Andreeva T.A., Alekseeva T.P. et al., Neftezagryaznennye pochvy: svoystva i rekul'tivatsiya (Oil-contaminated soils: properties and reclamation), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2006, 270 p.
7. Seredina V.P., Nepotrebnyy A.I., Sadykov M.E., Property change pattern of the soils in the oily ecosystems in the humid soil-formation conditions (In Russ.), Vestnik KrasGAU, 2010, no. 10, pp. 49–54.
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