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February 2015




The oil and gas industry



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Economy, management, the legal right


I.A. Ponomareva, Yu.G. Bogatkina, N.A. Eremin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Economic and mathematical estimation of gas field by the method of real options with the risk factors application

Key words: economic estimation, investment gas project, cost estimate, options, the design decisions.

The mathematical method, which allows to consider the forecasted changes in the external factors, and also the possibility to react on them and to make the corresponding decisions at the stage of the estimation of project is considered. The Black - Scholes inancial model gives the possibility to determine the forecast optional cost of sites with the specific portion of risk. At that the degree of the authenticity of the estimation of oil reserves, the oil prices and expenditures forecast, and also the possibility of the flexible reaction of the company to changes in these factors is taken into account. After the overestimation of the investment portfolio the decision can be accepted about the retention of those sites, whose optional cost proved to be high, and the putting up the remaining sites for sale on the appropriate cost.

References
1. Ampilov Yu.P., Gert A.A., Ekonomicheskaya geologiya (Economic geology), Moscow: Geoinformmark Publ., 2006, 400 p.
2. Ponomareva I.A, Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Kompleksnaya ekonomicheskaya otsenka mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya v investitsionnykh proektakh (A comprehensive economic evaluation of hydrocarbon deposits in investment projects), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2006, 134 p.
3. Derevyanko P.M., Comparison of fuzzy and imitation modeling approach to
activity of the enterprise in conditions of uncertainty (In Russ.), Collected papers “Sovremennye problemy ekonomiki i upravleniya narodnym
khozyaystvom” (Modern problems of the economy and economic management), Proceedings of SPbGIEU, 2005, V. 14, pp. 289-292.
4. Dubois D., Prade H., Possibility theory: an approach to computerized processing of uncertainty, Plenum Press, New York, 1988.
5. Nedosekin A.O., Nechetko-mnozhestvennyy analiz riska fondovykh investitsiy (Fuzzy multiple risk analysis of a stock investment), St. Peterburg: Sezam Publ., 2002, 181 p.
6. Nedosekin A.O., Otsenka riska investitsiy po NPV proizvol'no-nechetkoy formy (Risk assessment of investments in arbitrarily-fuzzy shape of NPV), St. Peterburg, 2004, 200 p.
7. Ponomareva I.A, Eremin N.A., Bogatkina Yu.G., Ekonomiko-metodicheskoe modelirovanie razrabotki neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Economic and methodological modeling of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2010, 112 p.
8. Ponomareva I.A, Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., Kompleksnaya ekonomicheskaya otsenka mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya v investitsionnykh proektakh (A comprehensive economic evaluation of hydrocarbon deposits in investment projects), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2006, 134 p.
9. Eremin N.A., Modelirovanie mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov metodami
nechetkoy logiki (Modeling of hydrocarbon deposits by methods of fuzzy
logic), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1994, 462 p.
10. Eremin N.A., Ponomareva I.A., Bogatkina Yu.G., Application of fuzzy sets theory to assess the risk of oil and gas investment projects in terms of the production sharing agreement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 9, pp. 78-80.
11. Ponomareva I.A., Bogatkina Yu.G., Eremin N.A., The search algorithm of automated system of a technical and economic estimation of oil and gas fields
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 4, pp. 105-108.
12. Bogatkina Yu.G., Ponomareva I.A., Eremin N.A., Ovcharov L.A., Smart
graphical user interface for modeling of technical and economic performance
calculations for the oil and gas fields development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 4, pp. 60-62.
13. Zolotukhin A.B., Eremin N.A., Nazarova L.N., Ponomarenko E.M., The theory of fuzzy sets in the choice of methods of influence on oil pool (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1991, no 11, pp. 21-23.
14. Eremin Al.N., Eremin An.N., Eremin N.A., Smart fields and wells, A Textbook PC of Kazakh-British Technical University (KBTU) JSC, 2013, 344 p.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


R.Kh. Sungatullin, G.M. Sungatullina, M.S. Gluchov, Yu.N. Osin, V.V.Vorobiyev (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
The possibility of using space correlation with microspheres petroleum deposits

Key words: cosmic dust, microsphere, magnetite, stratigraphy, correlation, petroleum deposits

The article presents data on the microspheres in Phanerozoic sediments of the Caspian Basin. It found almost perfect spherical formations diameter 170-950 microns. Studies were performed using microspheres of scanning electron microscopy with a microprobe analysis by X-ray. In mineralogical respect to the scope composed mainly of magnetite. Trace elements (Si, Al, Mn) in the microspheres increased from Paleozoic to Cenozoic deposits that can be used in the future as a geochemical criterion for stratigraphic correlation sections. In Cenozoic microspheres missing potassium and chromium, as noted in Paleozoic microspheres high chlorine content, which may be due to the presence of hibbingita. Textured surface of the microspheres (takyrs, plates, ribs, triangular depression, etc.), the presence of nickel and titanium impurities absence indicate their cosmic origin. Microspheres can be used as benchmarks in the search mikrostratigraficheskih hydrocarbons in sediments of different facies.
References
1. Korchagin O.A., Tsel'movich V.A., Dubinina S.V., Meteoritic microspheres and particles from deep-water Upper Cambrian limestomes (Batyrbai, South Kazakhstan) (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 2007, no. 3, pp. 16-21.
2. Grachev A.F., Korchagin O.A., Tsel'movich V.A., Kollmann Kh.A., Cosmic dust and micrometeorites in the transitional clay layer at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in the gams section (Eastern Alps): Morphology and chemical composition, Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2008, V. 44, no. 7, pp. 555-569.
3. Lozovskiy V.R., Permian-Triassic crisis and its possible cause (In Russ.), Byulleten' MOIP. Otdel geologicheskiy, 2013, V. 88, no. 1, pp. 49-58.
4. Pecherskiy D.M., Nurgaliev D.K., Fomin V.A. et al., Extraterrestrial iron in the Cretaceous-Danian sediment, Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2011, no. 5, pp. 379-401.
5. Sungatullin R.Kh., Sungatullina G.M., Osin Yu.N., Trifonov A.A., Cosmic matter in the oil sediments of the Middle Caspian (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 9, pp. 77-79.
6. Gladenkov Yu.B., Prospects infra-zonal (micro-stratigraphic) sedimentary
strata subdivision (In Russ.), Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya korrelyatsiya =
Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 1995, V. 3, no. 4, pp. 3-15.
7. Tsel'movich V.A., Gindilis L.M., Shevelev G.N., Magnitnye mikrochastitsy iz pylevoy komponenty Chelyabinskogo meteorita. Predvaritel'nye materialy
(Magnetic microparticles from the dust component of the Chelyabinsk meteorite. Preliminary materials), Proceedings of V Russian Youth Conference “Mineraly: stroenie, svoystva, metody issledovaniya” (Minerals: structure, properties, methods of research), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Institut geologii i geokhimii UrO RAN, 2013, pp. 196-199.
8. Korchagin O.A., Metallic microspheres and microparticles in lower Cenomanian sediments of the Crimea: evidence for the cosmic dust event, Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2010, V. 431, no. 2, pp. 441-444.
9. Korchagin O.A., Tsel'movich V.A., Pospelov I.I., Qiantao B., Cosmic magnetite microspherules and metallic particles near the Permian-Triassic boundary in a global stratotype section and point (Stratum 27, Meishan, China), Doklady Akademii nauk = Doklady Earth Sciences, 2010, V. 432, no. 1, pp. 631-637.
10. Spravochnik. Neftyanye i gazovye mestorozhdeniya SSSR (Handbook. Oil
and gas fields of the USSR): edited by Maksimov S.P., Part 1. Evropeyskaya
chast' SSSR (The European part of the USSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987,
358 p.
11. Buchwald V.F., Koch C.B., Hibbingite (Beta-Fe2(OH)3Cl), a chlorine-rich corrosion product in meteorites and ancient iron objects, Meteoritics, 1995, V. 30, no. 5, pp. 493.
12. URL: http://www.igm.nsc.ru
13. Silaev V.I., Golubeva I.I., Filippov V.N. et al., Meteorite Chelyabinsk: mineralogical and petrographic characteristics (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Geologiya, 2013, V. 2 (19), pp. 8-27.
14. Karpov G.A., Mokhov A.V., Mikrochastitsy samorodnykh metallov, sul'fidov i oksidov v andezitovykh peplakh Karymskogo vulkana, Vulkanologiya i seysmologiya = Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2010, V. 4, no. 3, pp. 164-179.
15. Engalychev S.Yu., Manifestation features of endogenous processes in the
upper devonian deposits in the Northwestem Moscow syneclise and their
mineragenic value (In Russ.), Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya Geologiya, 2013, no. 1, pp. 75-88.

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A.N. Danilenko, A.A. Savelieva (PechorNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Ukhta, RF, Ukhta), N.N. Timonina (Institute of Geology of Komi Science Centre SC UB RAS, RF, Syktyvkar)
Actual increasing of oil and gas reserves in the Republic of Komi

Key words: oil reserves, mineral resources, prospecting works, seismic surveys, state investment.

The Republic of Komi is one of the oldest oil producing regions, most of the fields have already entered the stage of declining production, so the development of measures aimed at increasing the production of crude oil remains relevant at the present stage. The results of monitoring of geological exploration in the region in recent years are presented. There is increasing role of private oil companies in consolidation the resource base of the industry. Concluded that to maintain the achieved level of oil production in the Republic of Komi is necessary to conduct exploration not only by companies, but also due to state investment.

References
1. Kontorovich A.E., Korzhubaev A.G., Livshits V.R., Oil and gas complex
and the future of Russia (In Russ.), Collected papers “Nauka Tyumeni na
rubezhe vekov” (Tyumen science at the turn of the century), Novosibirsk,
1999, pp. 20-42.
2. Prishchepa O.M., Metodologiya i praktika vosproizvodstva zapasov nefti i
gaza (Severo-Zapadnyy region) v sovremennykh usloviyakh (Methodology
and practice of reproduction of oil and gas reserves (Northwest region) in
modern conditions), St. Peterburg, Nedra Publ., 2005, 276 p.
3. Prishchepa O.M., Podol'skiy Yu.V., Current state and forecast of development of mineral resource base and oil production in the period up to 2030 (In Russ.), Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference Vysokovyazkie nefti i prirodnye bitumy: problemy i povyshenie effektivnosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (Highly viscous oil and natural bitumen: problems and improving the efficiency of exploration and development), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2012, pp. 10-14.
4. Orlov V.P., Nazvanie? (In Russ.), Mineral'nye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravlenie, 2009, no. 1, pp. 9-13.
5. Teplov E.L., Kuranov A.V., Nikonov N.I. et al., Raw mineral base of hydrocarbon raw materials of the Komi Republic: current status and prospects
(In Russ.) Proceedings of Kompleksnoe izuchenie i osvoenie syr'evoy bazy
nefti i gaza severa Evropeyskoy chasti Rossii (Comprehensive study and development of raw material base of oil and gas of North of European Russia), 4-7 of June 2012, St. Peterburg: Publ. of VNIGRI, 2012, pp. 106-116.

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Drilling of chinks


A.G. Protosenya (National Mineral Resources University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Limit state of fluid saturated rocks and stability assessment of oil and gas boreholes

Key words: strength, damage, fluid, oil and gas borehole.

The work is dedicated to research of strength and damage of fluid saturated rocks and has a practical application in petroleum and gas related rock mechanics. In order to understand the influence of fluids on the limit state of rock, triaxial laboratory tests on saturated rocks were conducted. The Mohr Coloumb strength theory is used to describe limit state of fluid saturated rocks. The results of stress distribution around vertical boreholes located in fluid saturated rocks based on the elastoplasticity theory are given. Prediction of limit state zone around vertical borehole shows that if initial stress state is non-hydrostaticthe shape of limit state zone is elliptical. The presents of fluids in the rockswill magnify the size of limit state zone. The assessment of probability of crack formation during hydro fracturing of borehole due to significant fluid and mud pressure is done.

References
1. Zheltov Yu.P., Mekhanika neftegazonosnogo plasta (Mechanics of oil and
gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 216 p.
2. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Basniev K.S., Gorbunov A.T., Zotov G.A., Mekhanika
nasyshchennykh poristykh sred (Mechanics of saturated porous media),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 335 p.
3. Nikolaevskiy V.N., Mekhanika poristykh i treshchinovatykh sred (The mechanics of porous and fractured media), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 232 p. 4. Chernykh V.A., Gidrogeomekhanika neftegazodobychi (Hydrogeomechanics oil and gas extraction), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIGAZ, 2001, 277 p.
5. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rock mechanics in the development of hydrocarbon deposits), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2007, 467 p.
6. Collected papers “Mekhanika gornykh porod primenitel'no k problemam
razvedki i dobychi nefti” (Rock mechanics as applied to the problems of oil
exploration and production): translation from English and Frenchb edited by
Mori V., Furmentro D., Moscow: Mir Publ., 1994, 416 p.
7. Stavrogin A.N., Protosenya A.G., Prochnost' gornykh porod i ustoychivost'
vyrabotok na bol'shikh glubinakh (Rock strength and stability of the mine
workings at great depths), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 271 p.
8. Stavrogin A.N., Protosenya A.G., Mekhanika deformirovaniya i razrusheniy gornykh porod (Mechanics of deformation and fracture of rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1992, 224 p.
9. Stavrogin A.N., Tarasov B.G., Eksperimental'naya fizika i mekhanika gornykh porod (Experimental physics and rock mechanics), St. Petersburg: Nauka Publ., 2001, 343 p.

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K.M. Minaev, V.M. Gorbenko (National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, RF, Tomsk)
Lightweight cement slurries based n vermiculite

Key words: lightweight grouting mortar, vermiculite, well cementing.

Selection of vermiculite-containing mixture based on cement brands PCT-I-G-CC-1 and PCT-1-100 were conducted in the framework of this research. This mixture provides lower density of grouting mortar while other parameters are provided in accordance with GOST 1581-96 "Grouting portland cement. Standard". Performance capabilities of grouting mortar were studied before and after polymeric reagents adding.

References
1. Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Chegodaev F.A., Sharafutdinova R.Z., Burovye i tamponazhnye rastvory. Teoriya i praktika: spravochnik (Drilling and grouting solutions. Theory and Practice: A handbook), St. Peterburg: Professional Publ., 2007, 416 p.
2. Bol'shaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya (Great Soviet Encyclopedia): edited
by Prokhorov A.M., 3rd ed., Moscow: Sovetskaya entsiklopediya Publ., Part 4, 1971, 500 p.
3. Klyusov A.A., Razrabotka i issledovanie tsementnykh tamponazhnykh kompozitsiy, tverdeyushchikh pri ponizhennykh temperaturakh (Development
and research of cement grouting composition hardening at low temperatures):
Thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 1993.
4. Certificate of authorship no. 884367 SSSR, MKI3 E 21 V 33/138, Oblegchennyy tamponazhnyy rastvor dlya nizkotemperaturnykh skvazhin (Lightweight cement slurries for low-temperature wells), Author: Klyusov A.A.
5. Certificate of authorship no. 1339233 SSSR, MKI3 E 21 V 33/138, Tamponazhnyy rastvor (Cement slurries), Authors: Klyusov A.A., Kuznetsova T.V., Shalyapin M.M., Danyukin N.A., Nanivskiy E.M., Zakharov Yu.F.
6. Klyusov A.A., For efficient use of low-density cement slurry (In Russ.), Geologiya, burenie i razrabotka gazovykh i morskikh neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy, 1985, no. 10, pp. 9-11.
7. Gorskiy A.T., Batalov D.M., Shvetsov V.D., Application of vermiculite-cement slurries for well cementing (In Russ.), Proceedings of ZapSibNIGNI, 1983, V. 66, pp. 54-59.
8. Patent no. RU2243358 C1, Lightened cementing mixture, Inventors: Ippolitov V.V., Podshibyakin V.V., Beley I.I., Konovalov V.S., Vyalov V.V.
9. Beley I.I., Shtol' V.F., Shcherbich N.E., Types of applied lightweight cement slurries for fixing wells in gas-condensate fields in northern Tyumen Region (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2005, no. 3, pp. 30-32.
10. Danyushevskiy V.S., Aliev R.M., Tolstykh I.F., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po tamponazhnym materialam (Reference manual for plugging materials), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 372 p.

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I.R. Vasilenko, M.V. Chertenkov (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), K.Yu. Shepel (VNIPIvzryvgeofizika JSC, RF, Ramenskoye)
Bench tests of the models of well casing during the perforation by cumulative perforators

Key words: well casing, cement stone, cumulative perforation, perforating channel, casing perforation, cracks formation, adhesion.

The basis of the effective completion of the production wells is the creation of reliable casing, the retention of the drainage characteristics of the near-wellbore zone of productive stratum, averting the overflows of fluids between the interlayers of productive stratum, the retention of cement stone from the cracking in the intervals of perforation. An increase in the permeability of the near-wellbore zone and the stratum structure around the perforating channels in many respects determine the production wells rate. At that the integrity and the reliability of the cement stone after perforation action has not smaller effect on the quality of the obtained production. The results of the experimental studies of the perforation action on the models casing string - cement stone - rock are given.
References
1. Vasilenko I.R., Osobennosti tekhnologii krepleniya ekspluatatsionnykh
kolonn na mnogoplastovykh mestorozhdeniyakh Timano-Pechorskoy
neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Features of mounting technology of production
strings on multilayer deposits of the Timan-Pechora province): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2002.
2. Vasilenko I.R., Balaba V.I., Technology to improve reliability support of wells in difficult geological conditions (In Russ.), Proceedings of International Conference “Molodye uchenye – nauke, tekhnologiyam i professional'nomu
obrazovaniyu dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya: problemy i novye resheniya”
(Young scientists - Science, Technology and Vocational Education for Sustainable Development: Problems and New Solutions), Moscow: Publ. of AMI, 1999, Part 2, pp. 65-66.
3. Vasilenko I.R., Senatov V.V., Improving the quality of well support in complicated conditions of P-C Usinsk deposit (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2010, no. 12, pp. 32-34.
4. Balaba V.I., Vasilenko I.R., Vladimirov A.I. et al., Promyshlennaya bezopasnost' stroitel'stva i rekonstruktsii skvazhin (Industrial safety of construction and reconstruction of wells), Moscow: Publ. of National Institute of Oil and Gas, 2006, 456 p.
5. Likutov A.R., Shepel' K.Yu., Isaev V.I., Safarkhanova L.I., The method and
model of the secondary formation exposing by perforation (In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2012, V. 3, pp. 56-60.
6. Shepel' K.Yu., Isaev V.I., Likutov A.R., Statsenko E.O., Investigation of the structure between the channels of perforation on the universal computer tomograph (In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse,
2013, no. 2, pp. 48-51.
7. Gayvoronskiy I.N., Leonenko G.N., Zamakhaev V.S., Kollektory nefti i gaza Zapadnoy Sibiri. Ikh vskrytie i oprobovanie (Oil and gas reservoirs in Western Siberia. Their opening and sampling), Moscow: Geoinformtsentr Publ., 2003, 364 p.
8. Isaev V.I., Shepel' K.Yu., Investigation of the structure of artificial formation samples before and after the perforation (In Russ.), Proceedings of X All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference Aktual'nye problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (Actual problems of oil and gas complex of Russia), Moscow: Publ. of RSU of oil and gas, 2014, p. 86.
9. Grigoryan N.G., Vskrytie neftegazovykh plastov strelyayushchimi perforatorami (Opening of oil and gas reservoirs by perforating gun), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 263 p.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


V.I. Lesin (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), I.A. Klepikov (Moscow Pedagogical State University, RF, Moscow)
Fractal viscosity theory application to anomalous viscosity dependence on share rate

Key words: nomalous viscosity, oil, fractal structure, colloidal particle, unsteady flow
Viscosity of petroleum dispersed systems has been investigated in the region of ‘anomalous’ dependence of shear stress on shear rate under shear rate increasing is accompanied by diminishing of stress. It was shown that fluid flow could be accompanied by oscillations of fluid expenditure which reduce well and tubing productivity. The ways of physical fields application to overcome those oscillations are given.
References
1. Khil'ko S.L., Titov E.V., Fedoseeva A.A.,On the possibility of using two models of the viscosity superanomaly effect for analyzing the flow curves of structured disperse systems, Kolloidnyy zhurnal = Colloid Journal, 2006, V. 68, no. 1, pp. 106-104.
2. Lesin V.I., Features a non-Newtonian oil viscosity relaxation after exposure
to gradients of velocity and magnetic fields (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe
delo, 2008, no. 1, pp. 43-46.
3. Lesin V.I., Lesin S.V., “Fractal” formula of non-Newtonian fluid viscosity dependence on shear rate (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 3, pp. 46-48.
4. Lesin V.I., Lesin S.V., Fractal theory and experimental research of colloidal
systems viscosity at shear rates close to zero value (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 7, pp. 111-113.
5. Heimer S., Tezak D., Structure of polydispersed colloids characterised by
light scattering and electron microscopy, Advances in Colloid and Interface
Science, 2002, V. 98, pp. 1-23.
6. Huang A.Y., Berg J.C., Aggregate restructuring by polymer solvency effect,
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 2004, V. 279, pp. 440-446.
7. Seto R., Botet R., Auernhammer G.K., Briesen H., Restructuring of colloidal aggregates in shear flow. Coupling interparticle contact models with Stokesian dynamics, The European Physical Journal E., 2012, V. 35, pp. 1-12.
8. Onuma K., Kanzaki N., Multi-angle static and dynamic light scattering investigation of lyzosome association: From crystallization to liquid–liquid phase separation, Journal of Crystal Growth, 2007, V. 304, pp. 452459.
9. Horwatt S.W., Manas-Zloczower I., Feke D.L., Dispersion behaviour of heterogeneous agglomerates at supercritical stresses, Chemical Engineering
Science, 1992, V. 47, no. 8, pp. 1849-1855.
10. Lesin V.I., Lesin S.V., The fractal viscosity formula analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 104-107.
11. Vinokurov V.A., Frolov V.I., Krestovnikov M.P. et al., Investigation of the influence wave influence on oil (In Russ.) Neftepererabotka i neftekhimiya, 2012, no. 8, pp. 3-8.
12. Lesin V.I., Lesin S.V., Physical and chemical mechanism of action of fluid
pressure fluctuations in the filtration properties of oil and porous medium
(In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2003, no. 3, pp. 24-26.
13. Gabdrakhmanov R.A., Lyubetskiy S.V., Shesternina N.V. et al., Analysis of the work of magnetic dewaxer at Leninogorskneft JSC Tatneft (In Russ.) Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 1999, no. 10, pp. 37-40.
14. Persiyantsev M.N., Sazonov Yu.A., Odnoletkov L.S. et al., Analysis of the results of pilot works of magnetic dewaxer in the oil fields of the Orenburg region (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1998, no. 2, pp. 24-26.

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G.A. Nikiforov (Institute of Mechanics and Engineering, Kazan Science Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), T.R. Zakirov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Modelling waterflooding of layered oil reservoirs at nonlinear law movement

Key words: porous media, non-Newtonian fluid, two-phase flow, modeling.

The model of waterflooding of three-layer oil reservoir saturated with oil having non-Newtonian properties is presented. The paper deals with numerical model of oil displacement by water with the law of movement of oil fr om the limiting gradient shift. It is modeled a flow of non-Newtonian fluid in a porous medium in variables ‘velocity – saturation’. There is a comparison with a case when a limiting gradient of oil shear is neglected. It is shown that the final oil recovery factor will be thus essentially predatory.
References
1. Baykov V.A., Davletbaev A.Ya., Ivashchenko D.S., Non-Darcy fluid flow
modeling in low-permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 5458.
2. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Some features of the field development and exploitation of non-Newtonian oils (In Russ.), Izvestiya Natsional'noy akademii nauk Azerbaydzhana. Seriya fiziko-tekhnicheskikh i matematicheskikh nauk. 1967. 34. S.137144.
3. Pan'ko S.V., Certain problems of filtration with lim iting gradient (In Russ.),
Izvestiya AN SSSR. Mekhanika zhidkosti i gaza, 1973, no. 4, pp. 177181.
4. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v
prirodnykh plastakh (The movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 207 p.
5. Nikiforov G.A., On vortex flows of a two-phase fluid in porous media
(In Russ.), Vychislitel'naya mekhanika sploshnykh sred = Computational continuum mechanics, 2014, V. 7, no. 3, pp. 253259.
6. Zakirov T.R., Nikiforov A.I., Simulation of heat treating the oil collector using acid exposure on near-wellbore zone (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 10, pp. 6063.

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Kuzmin V.A. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Measuring of rocks residual water saturation by laboratory methods

Key words: carbonate rock, residual water saturation, semipermeable membrane method, centrifugation method, pore volume, centrifuge.

Petrophysic laboratory methods were developed several decades ago. Up-to-date micro-level investigations have shown that methods of rocks residual water saturation measuring are first not enough theoretically founded, secondly in need of advances for accuracy enhancement. In this article a new samples centrifugation method is proposed for residual water saturation measuring. The method is founded on changing of sample position relative to centrifugal force direction during centrifugation. This allows to displace free water out of complicated configuration pores and as a result to raise residual water saturation measuring accuracy significantly.
References
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Yakovleva O.P., Kuz'min V.A. et al., Fundamental'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza i razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (Fundamental problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry and development of Russian oil and gas complex), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2007, 391 p.
2. Skibitskaya N.A. Yakovleva O.P., K probleme genezisa nefti i gaza v produktivnykh karbonatnykh tolshchakh (On the problem of oil and gas genesis in the productive carbonate sediments), Proceedings of 7th International Conference “Novye idei v geologii nefti i gaza. Aktual'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza” (New ideas in the geology of oil and gas. Actual problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2004, pp. 469–471.
3. Kuz'min V.A., Maksimov V.M., Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., The results of study of carbonate rock microstructural anisotropy obtained in electron microscopy and computer image analysis, Nafta-Gaz. Grudzien, 2011, no. 12, pp. 865873.
4. Kuzmin V.A., Cathodoluminescence technique for studying the pore
space of rocks using scanning electron microscopy, ISSN 1027-4510, Journal
of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2007,
V. 1, no. 4, pp. 493496.
5. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov
(The residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1992, 240 p.
6. Gurbatova I.P., Mikhaylov N.N., Masshtabnye i anizotropnye effekty pri
eksperimental'nom opredelenii fizicheskikh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh
kollektorov (Effects of the core scale and anisotropy in the experimental evaluation of the physical properties of the complex-structure reservoirs), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 7, pp. 138145.
7 Kovalev. A.G., Kuznetsov V.V., Bagrintseva K.I., Pikh N.A., O rezul'tatakh opredeleniya ostatochnoy vodonasyshchennosti pryamym i kosvennym metodami (On the results of determination of residual water using direct and indirect methods), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1986, no. 8, pp. 4347.
8. Gurbatova I.M., Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na masshtabnyy effekt pri izuchenii fil'tratsionno-emkostnykh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh karbonatnykh kollektorov (Influence of pore space structure on the scale effect in studying permeability storage capacity of complicatedly built carbonate reservoirs), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 7482.
9. Skibitskaya N.A., Kuz'min V.A., Bol'shakov M.N., Marutyan O.O., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na ostatochnoe neftegazonasyshchenie porod produktivnykh otlozheniy mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (The influence of microstructure parameters of carbonate rocks of productive deposits on the residual oil-and-gas saturation), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 98101.
10. Kotseruba L.A., O primenenii tsentrifugi dlya opredeleniya soderzhaniya
svyazannoy vody i izmereniya kapillyarnykh davleniy (On the application of
centrifuges for the determination of bound water and capillary pressure
measurement), Proceedings of VNIGNI, V. 90, pp. 193203.
11. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods of study of oil and gas reservoir rocks), Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1979, 199 p.
12. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous materials, Reinhold, New York, 1961.
13. Lorenz P.B., Donaldson E.C., Thomas R.D., Use of centrifugal measurements of wettability to predict oil recovery, Report 7873, USBM, Bartlasville Energy Technology Center, 1974.
14. Patent no. 2478784 RF, Method for determining residual water saturation in oil-bearing rocks, Inventors: Kuz'min V.A., Kuz'mina I.I., Kamenskaya K.V.

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G.M. Panakhov, N.N. Abbasova (Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Azerbaijan Republic, Baku)
Hydrodynamic method of extracting immobile hydrocarbons under the capillary nonuniformity

Key words: porous medium, capillary pressure, hydrodynamic pressure, inhomogenity, oil saturated collector

The paper presents results of research on the optimization of water flooding method by successive periodic increase in hydrodynamic pressure to extract capillary clamped oil. Method provides a consistent accounting, as the displacement conditions and filtration characteristics of fluid-saturated reservoirs. Estimating calculations allow to determine the duration and phasing control of injection pressure as the conditions for achieving the expected in oil recovery increasing.

References
1. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Dinamicheskie protsessy v
neftegazodobyche (Dynamic processes in the oil and gas production),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p.
2. Gubanov B.F., Regulation of injectivity profile of injection wells (In Russ.) Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1981, no. 12, pp. 39-42.
3. Mikhaylov N.N., Kol'chitskaya T.I., Dzhemesyuk A.V., Semenova N.A., Fizikogeologicheskie problemy ostatochnoy neftenasyshchennosti (Physical-geological problems of residual oil saturation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1993, 173 p.
4. Emaletdinov A.K., Baykov I.V., Simulation of optimal speed of oil displacement and minimum oil saturation around the injection wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Orenburgskogo Gosudarstvennogo Universiteta, 2005, no. 2, pp. 159 – 162.
5. Khabibulin M.Ya., Experimental theoretical research of oil displacement by
water with cyclically changing pressure amplitude (In Russ.) Elektronnyy
nauchnyy zhurnal “Neftegazovoe delo” = The electronic scientific journal Oil
and Gas Business, 2012, no. 6, pp. 233 241.
6. Ershov A.P., Dammer A.Ya., Kupershtokh A.L., "Inviscid Finger" Instability in Regular Models of a Porous Medium, Prikladnaya mekhanika i tekhnicheskaya fizika = Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 2001, V. 42, no. 2, pp. 300-309.
7. Surguchev M.L., Zheltov Yu.V., Simkin E.M., Fiziko-khimicheskie mikroprotsessy v neftegazonosnykh plastakh (Physical and chemical microprocesses in
the oil and gas reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 215 p.
8. Entov V.M., Zazovskiy A.F., Gidrodinamika protsessov povysheniya nefteotdachi (Hydrodynamics of enhanced oil recovery processes), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 232 p.
9. Kharin O.N., Derivation of calculation formulas for the approximate evaluation of the effectiveness of the cyclic stimulation (In Russ.), Collected papers Teoriya i praktika razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Theory and practice of oil field development), Proceedings of INGP im. I.M. Gubkina, 1967,
pp. 122 130.
10. Zheltov Yu.N., Mekhanika neftegazonosnogo plasta (Mechanics of oil
and gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 216 p.
11. Shchelkachev V.H., A generalization of the simplest forms of making the
main problems of the theory of unsteady seepage flow field (In Russ.), Collected papers Teoriya i praktika razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Theory and practice of oil field development), Proceedings of INGP im. I.M.
Gubkina, 1967, pp. 96 106.
12. Evdokimova V.A., Kochina I.N., Sbornik zadach po podzemnoy gidravlike (Collection of tasks on underground hydraulics), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 168 p.

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Yu.S. Zamula, L.A. Kovaleva, M.V. Mavletov (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), I.N. Koltsov (Salym Petroleum Development N.V., RF, Tyumen), I.Sh. Akhatov (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow)
Investigation of adsorption processes using atomic force microscopy on samples of terrigenous rocks from Zapadno-Salymskoye field

Key words: adsorption, surfactant, atomic force microscopy.

The purpose of the experimental study is to estimate the thickness of the adsorbed surfactant layer on substrates of different mineral composition using AFM. Two series of experimental studies were set to study the adsorption of surfactant using AFM: 1) formation of surfactant aggregates due to adsorption from solution on a clean substrate, and 2) creating a residual oil layer on a substrate and washing it off using a surfactant. The substrates were selected: natural core and also mica and glass, as they are part of the real oil-bearing core. Both series used the same surfactant in two different concentrations (0.7 and 2.1%). For determination the thickness of the complex constructed adsorbed layer, filled with uniform and non-uniform layers of surfactant molecules a new technique was developed. The essence of this technique is a "scratching" the adsorption layer with subsequent extraction of sectional profile of obtained scan.
References
1. Markhasin I.L., Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika neftyanogo plasta
(Physical and chemical mechanics of oil reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1977, 214 p.
2. Babalyan G.A., Levi B.I., Tumasyan A.B, Khalimov E.M., Razrabotka
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem poverkhnostno-aktivnykh
veshchestv (Development of oil fields using surfactants), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1983, 216 p.
3. Babalyan G.L., Kravchenko I.I., Markhasin I.L., Rudakov G.V., Fizikokhimicheskie
osnovy primeneniya poverkhnostno-aktivnykh veshchestv pri
razrabotke neftyanykh plastov (Physical and chemical basics of using surfactants in the oil reservoirs development), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat
Publ., 1962, 282 p.
4. Ebzeeva O.R., Zlobin A.A., Analysis of properties boundary layers oil after its water flooding (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2012, no. 2, pp. 87-94.
5. Mironov V.L., Osnovy skaniruyushchey zondovoy mikroskopii (Basics of the scanning probe microscopy), Moscow: Tekhnosfera Publ., 2005, 144 p.
6. Ono T., Li X., Miyashita H., Esashi M., Mass sensing of adsorbed molecules in sub-picogram sample with ultrathin silicon resonator, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 2003, V. 3, no. 74., pp. 1240–1243.
7. Liu J.F., Min G., Ducker W.A., AFM study of adsorption of cationic surfactants and cationic polyelectrolytes at the silica-water interface, Langmuir, 2001, V. 17, no. 16, pp. 48954903.
8. Seiedi O. et al., Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation on the surfactant wettability alteration mechanism of aged mica mineral surfaces, Energy Fuels, 2011, no. 25, pp. 183188.
9. Shchukin E.D., Pertsov A.V., Amelina E.A., Kolloidnaya khimiya (Colloid
chemistry), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2004, 445 p.
10. Borodkin A.A., Evseeva M.Ya., Volokitin Ya.E. et al., Investigation of adsorption mechanisms in static conditions in order to reduce risks for the project of alkaline -surfactant - polymer flooding for conditions of West-Salymskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 5861.

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P.A. Grishin, E.V. Zhidkova, E.A. Nikitina, S.I. Tolokonskiy (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
Kinetics of the oxidation processes of the kerogen-containing rocks under the thermal treatment

Key words: low temperature oxidation, high temperature oxidation, thermal gas treatment, drained and non-drained rock, kerogen, activation energy, Bazhenov shale.

The involvement of the nontraditional hydrocarbons reserves in the development becomes recently ever more actual. The strata of Bazhenovskaya suite are characterized by low permeability and porosity, a large quantity of organic matter consisting of the kerogen and the light oil is contained in the stratum rocks. As a result of the strata rocks thermal treatment their general voidage increases, and the undrainable zones are converted into drainable ones, forming in this case the additional inflow of oil. The kinetics of the oxidation of the kerogen-containing rocks is studied experimentally in VNIIneft OAO on the differential scanning calorimeter of high pressure HP DSC1 for the realization of the method of thermal gas treatment of Bazhenovskaya suite rocks. The obtained results show that in the low-temperature range of the oxidation Bazhenov suite rocks have the close values of the activation energies of oil and drainage rocks. This causes subsequently their joint involvement in the oxidation processes.
References
1. Bokserman A.A., Bernshteyn A.M., Khismetov T.V. et al., The method of injection and in situ transformation of air in the light oil fields (In Russ.), Collected papers “Razrabotka neftyanykh i neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniyakh. Sostoyanie,
problemy i puti ikh resheniya” (Development of oil and gas fields. Status,
problems and their solutions), Proceedings of meeting, Al'met'evsk, September, 1995, Moscow, 1995, 120 p.
2. Ursenbach M.G., More R.G., Mehta S.A., Air injection in heavy oil reservoirs – A process whose time has come (again), JCPT, 2010, V. 49, no. 1, pp. 4854.
3. Kostenko O.V., Blocking nature of distribution of high-molecular compounds of bitumoid in pore system of bazhenov formation (West Siberian
Basin), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2014, v. 9, no. 1, pp. 8-9.

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R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk), P.E. Morozov, M.Kh. Khairullin, M.N. Shamsiev, A.I. Abdullin (Institute of Mechanics and Engineering of Kazan Science Center of RAS, RF, Kazan)
The analytical model for development of heavy oil deposit by steam-assisted gravity drainage method

Key words: SAGD, heavy oil, steam chamber, horizontal well, oil rate, analytical model.

In this paper the analytical model to predict the performance of steam-assisted gravity drainage is developed. The model is validated on the experimental data of physical model of the SAGD process. Theoretical oil rate prediction at the steam-assisted gravity drainage for conditions of heavy oil reservoir on the Ashalchinskoye field is presented.

References
1. Butler R.M., Horizontal Wells for the recovery of oil, gas and bitumen, Petroleum Society of CIM, Monograph no. 2, 1994.
2. Butler R.M., Thermal recovery of oil and bitumen, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991, 528 p.
3. Butler R.M., Stephens D.J., The gravity drainage of steam-heated heavy oil
to parallel horizontal wells, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 1981, V. 20, no. 2, pp. 90–96.
4. Chung K.H., Butler R.M., Geometrical effect of steam injection on the formation of emulsions in the steam-assisted gravity drainage process, J. Can.
Pet. Tech., 1988, V. 27, no. 1, pp. 3642.
5. Guo J., Zan C., Ma D.S., Shi L., Oil production rate predictions for steam assisted gravity drainage based on high-pressure experiments, Sci. China. Tech. Sci., 2013, V. 56, no. 2, pp. 324334.
6. Chow L., Butler R.M., Numerical simulation of the steam-assisted gravity
drainage process (SAGD), J. Can. Pet. Tech., 1996, V. 35, no. 6, pp. 5562.
7. Zakirov E.S., Zakirov S.N., Bulaev V.V., The development of high-viscous oil resources of petroleum fields, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2006, V. 407, no. 3,
pp. 349351.
8. Khisamov R.S., Sultanov A.S., Abdulmazitov R.G., Zaripov A.T., Geologicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osobennosti razrabotki zalezhey vysokovyazkikh i sverkhvyazkikh neftey (Geological and technological features of the development of high and heavy oil deposits), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2010, 335 p.
9. Reis J.C., A steam-assisted gravity drainage model for tar sands: linear
geometry, J. Can. Pet. Tech., 1992, V. 31, no. 10, pp. 1420.
10. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Zaripov A.T.,
Gadel'shina I.F., Geological and technological challenges of development
of heavy oil reservoir in Ashalchinskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 7, pp. 3437.
11. Khisamov R.S., Musin M.M., Musin K.M., Fayzullin I.N., Zaripov A.T., Obobshchenie rezul'tatov laboratornykh i opytno-promyshlennykh rabot po
izvlecheniyu sverkhvyazkoy nefti iz plasta (Summary of results of laboratory
and pilot works for extraction the viscous oil from the reservoir), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2013, 232 p.

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B.F. Borisov, O.Yu. Lepeshkina (Giprovostokneft OJSC, RF, Samara), A.M. Kuznetsov (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow)
Generalization of the data on the efficiency of waterflood high-viscosity oil displacement from the layer of the Bashkirian stage of the Samara and Ulyanovsk regions

Key words: residual oil saturation, displacement efficiency, oil viscosity, permeability, porosity, initial oil saturation.

The laboratory data on the residual oil saturation and efficiency of waterflood high-viscosity oil displacement from the 4 layer of Bashkirian stage by the fields of the Samara and Ulyanovsk regions are generalized. The rectified correlation dependences of residual oil saturation and waterflood oil displacement efficiency on the reservoir rock permeability and mobility are proposed on the basis of the analysis of laboratory data and values, accepted in the works on the calculation of the oil and gas reserves and the design documents.

References
1. Galeev R.G., Povyshenie vyrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov
uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Increased production of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves), Moscow: KUbK-a, 1997, 351 p.
2. Valuyskiy A.A., Simonov M.E., Pavlov V.P., Shikhanov V.G., Sostoyanie
resursnoy bazy vysokovyazkikh neftey Rossii i perspektivy ikh osvoeniya
(The state of the resource base of highly viscous oils in Russia and prospects of their development), Krasnodar: Sovetskaya Kuban' Publ., 1999, pp. 12–17.

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.. Kovkhuto, .F. Kibash, .I. Zaitsev, N.N. Yevtushenko (BelNIGRI, the Republic of Belarus, Minsk), N.L. Lobova, .. Lobov (BelNIPIneft, the Republic of Belarus, Gomel)
Features of the influence of man-caused geodynamic stresses on permeability and porosity of complex structure carbonate reservoirs of Pripyat foredeep

Key words: reservoir, effective pressure, deformations, core sample, the development of deposits.

According to the results of analysis of main geodynamic parameters (rock, breakdown, formation pressures, oil and fluid production rates) were calculated the compensation factors of rock pressure, deformation loss, productive capacity for over 23 oil fields, 29 accumulations and more than 600 oil wells in Rechitsko-Vishanskaya area of Pripyat foredeep. The classification of accumulations by stress - strain state was developed for the whole period of well operation. Constant monitoring of changes in stress - strain state of complex structure reservoirs during drilling process, testing, deployment, developing and production of oil will allow us to manage these processes in a timely manner and increase oil recovery.

Reference
1. Lipskiy L.A., Manuylo V.S., Vorob'ev S.N., Effect of elastic-plastic deformations of the formation on the well rate (In Russ.), Collected papers “Poiski i osvoenie neftyanykh resursov Respubliki Belarus'” (Exploration and development of oil resources in the Republic of Belarus), Proceedings of BelNIPIneft', 2010, V. 7, pp. 258-262.
2. Viktorin V.D., Vliyanie osobennostey karbonatnykh kollektorov na effektivnost' razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey (Influence of features of carbonate reservoirs to efficiency of the development of oil deposits), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 150 p.
3. Van Golf-Racht T.D., Fundamentals of fractured reservoir engineering, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 1982.
4. Denk S.O., Problemy treshchinovatykh produktivnykh ob"ektov (Problems
of fractured productive formations), Perm': Elektronnye izdatel'skie sistemy
Publ., 2004, 334 p.
5. Dobrynin V.M., Deformatsiya i izmenenie fizicheskikh svoystv kollektorov
nefti i gaza (Deformation and change of physical properties of oil and gas
reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 182 p.
6. Lobov A.I., Lipskiy L.A., Numerical modeling of the stress state of poroelastic oil reservoir in the fluid filtration (In Russ.), Collected papers Tekhnika i tekhnologiya bureniya razvedochnykh skvazhin v Pripyatskom progibe (Technique and technology of drilling exploratory wells in the Pripyat Trough), Minsk, 1998, pp. 107-111.
7. Lobov A.I., Uprugo-deformatsionnye effekty v devonskikh porodakh-kollektorakh nefti i gaza Pripyatskogo progiba (Elastic-deformation effects in the Pripyat Trough Devonian reservoir rocks of oil and gas): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Minsk, 1994.
8. Lobov A. I., Zaikin N.P., Lipskiy L.A., Management of geodynamic parameters of oil reservoir for optimization of processes of the well tests and field development (In Russ.), Collected papers Problemy osvoeniya resursov nefti i gaza Belarusi i puti ikh resheniya (Problems of development of oil and gas resources of Belarus and their solutions), Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference, 22 – 24 May 2002, Gomel', 2002, pp. 431 436.
9. Mitrofanov V.P., On the influence of the effective pressure on the reservoir
properties of carbonate rocks (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka
neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2005, no. 1, pp. 34-45.
10. Tsalko P.B., Martyntsiv O.F., Pakhol'chuk A.A., Karbonatnye kollektory
neftyanykh zalezhey Pripyatskogo progiba (Carbonate reservoirs of oil deposits of the Pripyat Trough), Minsk, 1986, 180 p.

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.A. Cherevko (Gazpromneft-Khantos, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), K.E. Yanin (Design Bureau TERM LLC, RF, Tyumen)
The first results of the application of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells Priobskoye field

Key words: Priobskoye field, horizontal wells, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, a new technology, low-permeability reservoirs, the multiplicity of growth of oil production.

Horizontal drilling combined with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing is increasingly used in Western Siberia. Focused primarily on the development of stranded oil, these technologies are actively implemented on the Priobskoye field. The authors present the first results of the application of horizontal wells with multi-stage fracturing indicate the high potential of these technologies and their future prospects on the Priobskoye field.

References
1. Cherevko M.A., Yanin A.N., Yanin K.E., Assessment of perspectives of well pattern''s selective densing at Southern license territory of Priobskoe field (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 6, pp. 24-29.
2. Govzich A.N., Bilinchuk A.V., Fayzullin I.G., Gazprom Neft JSC experience of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells (In Russ.), Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference “Problemy i opyt razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov neftegazokondensatnykh
mestorozhdeniy” (Problems and experience in the development hard to
recover reserves of oil and gas fields), October 31 - November 2, 2012, St.
Peterburg, 2013, pp.143-149.
3. Gilaev G.G., Afanas'ev I.S., Timonov A.V. et al., Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing technology adoption in horizontal wells for the development hard to
recover reserves of the heterogeneous reservoirs with low permeability
(In Russ.), Proceedings of Scientific and practical conference dedicated to
the memory of Lisovsky N.N. Sostoyanie i dal'neyshee razvitie osnovnykh
printsipov razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (State and further development of the basic principles of oil field development), 8-9 November 2011, Moscow, 2011, pp. 26-32.

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Shelf development


L.F. Aslanov (Azerbaijan University of Architecture and Construction, Azerbaijan Republic, Baku)
Wave interaction of offshore structure and shelf subgrade through the large cross-section pile with rigid core along the model of semispace

Key words: shelf, stress, ground, wave, oscillations, marine structures, pile foundations.

It is established that the wave strikes, acting on pile foundations, interact with the surface design of offshore structures and offshore ground bases. Here bored or CFA piles with a rigid core are the connecting link between the subsoil and top design of offshore structures. Sea wave banging pile foundations creates vibrations in the pile – foundation - topsides offshore structures and moving piles in subgrade. Displacement piles depend on the strength of the reaction between the structure and subgrade, the intensity of the shock wave in the time that passed through piles for offshore soil. At the same time takes into account the rheological properties of composite models of shelf soil. Formulated and solved the differential equations of time travel collaborative structures with a soil base.
References
1. Baranov V.A., O raschete vynuzhdennykh kolebaniy zaglublennogo fundamenta (On calculation of the forced oscillations of deep foundations),
Collected papers “Voprosy dinamiki i prochnosti” (Issues of dynamics and
strength), 1967, V. 14, pp. 4652.
2. Muravskiy G.B., Harmonic oscillations of stamp on the half-space under
the force applied to the surface of the half-space (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Mekhanika tverdogo tela, 1969, no. 6, pp. 2228.
3. Sretenskiy L.N., Uprugie volny, voznikayushchie ot normal'nykh napryazheniy, prilozhennykh k poverkhnosti poluprostranstva (Elastic waves resulting from the normal stresses applied to the surface of the half-space), Collected papers Problemy mekhaniki sploshnoy sredy (Problems of continuum mechanics), 1961, pp. 1218.
4. Il'ichev V.A., Dinamicheskoe vzaimodeystvie sooruzheniy s osnovaniem i
peredacha kolebaniy cherez grunt. Spravochnik proektirovshchika. Dinamicheskiy raschet sooruzheniy na spetsial'nye vozdeystviya (Dynamic interaction of structures with base and sending vibrations through the ground.
Handbook of designer. Dynamic calculation of structures to special effects),
Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1981, pp. 114 128.
5. Korenev B.G., Il'ichev V.A., Reznikov L.M., Kolebaniya bashneobraznykh
sooruzheniy s uchetom inertsii uprugogo osnovaniya (Fluctuations towering
structures taking into account the inertia of the elastic foundation),
Proceedings of 4th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Santiago,
1969, pp. 6 74.
6. Ogurtsov K.I., Uspenskiy I.N., Ermilova N.I., Nekotorye kolichestvennye issledovaniya po rasprostraneniyu voln v prosteyshikh uprugikh sredakh
(Some quantitative studies on propagation of waves in the simplest elastic
media), Collected papers Voprosy dinamicheskoy teorii rasprostraneniya
seysmicheskikh voln (Issues of dynamic theory of seismic wave propagation), 1957, no. 1, pp. 1622.
7. Samedov A.M., Aslanov L.F., Description of the nonlinear process of consolidation the offshore soils by combined rheological models (In Russ.), Vsnik NTUU KP, ser. Grnitstvo, 2012, V. 22, pp. 3745.
8. Aslanov L.F., Raschet pontona i vsplytiya opornogo bloka pri razlichnykh
glubinakh morya dlya osvoeniya neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Calculation
of the pontoon and surfacing support block at different depths of
the sea for oil and gas development), Proceedings of International Scientific
and Practical Conference, Gelendzhik, 2010, pp. 6772.
9. Aslanov L.F., Complex rheological model to describe the linear elastic
stress state of the shelf (In Bulg.), Proceedings of 6th International Conference
Arkhitektura, stroitel'stvo s"vremennost (Architecture, construction
- Present), 30 May 1 June of 2013, Varna, Bulgaria, pp. 159167.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


A.G. Gazarov, A.N. Nemkov (Uralenergoprom LLC, RF, Ufa)
Design and results of pilot tests of group measuring units UEP-ZU

Key words: automatic group measuring unit, multiposition flow switch, individual flow switch, leakage monitoring.

Considering the advantages and disadvantages of the group measuring units’ development, specialists of Uralenergoprom LLC has developed a unit with individual switches of the wells product flow for measuring. The refusal of the group multiposition switches (GMS) and the transition to individual switch system are driven by the need to increase the measurement accuracy, which is impossible for the GMS due to construction features. Another advantage of the individual switch system is scalability of the measuring units on depend of the changed number of wells at the pad.
References
1. Gumerov A.G., Khaziev N.N. et al., Organizatsiya ucheta i izmereniya
kolichestva neftyanogo gaza na promyslakh (Organization of accounting
and measuring the amount of gas in the oil fields), Ufa: Ufimskiy poligrafkombinat
Publ., 2009, 240 p.
2. Utility patent no. 126757 RF, MPK E 21 V 47/10, Ustroystvo dlya izmereniya debita neftyanykh skvazhin (Device for measuring the flow rate of oil wells), Inventors: Gazarov A.G., Nemkov A.N., Aytiev A.V., Babak S.P.

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A.A. Pereyma (SevKavNIPIgaz JSC, RF, Stavropol)
Scale prevention in oil-and-gas wells using organophosphorous inhibitors

Key words: oil-and-gas wells, scales, phosphonic complexon, crystallization, scale inhibitor.

There are given the results of studies of phosphonic complexons influence on deposition of salts from aqueous solutions comprising deposit generating ions. The possibility of their application as inhibitors of poorly soluble salts crystallization is evaluated. It is established that application of polymer additives together with phosphonic complexons increases the efficiency of scale inhibition. The prospects of chemical scale prevention methods are shown.
References
1. Krabtri M., Eslinger D., Fletcher F. et al., Prevention of salts - removal and prevention of their formation (Transl. to Russ.), Neftegazovoe obozrenie, 2002, Autumn, pp. 52–73.
2. Richardson S.M., McSween H.Y., Geochemistry: pathways and processes,
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1989, . 7281.
3. Lyushin S.Yu., Glazkov A.A., Galeeva G.V. et al., Otlozheniya neorganicheskikh soley v skvazhinakh, prizaboynoy zone plasta i metody ikh predotvrashcheniya (Deposition of inorganic salts in wells, bottomhole formation zone and how to avoid them): overview, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOEG, 1983, V. 11, 100 p.
4. Marinin N.S., Yaryshev G.M., Mikhaylov S.A. et al., Metody bor'by s otlozheniem soley (Methods of prevention the salt deposits): overview, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOEG, 1980. 55 s.
5. Dyatlova N.M., Temkina V.Ya., Popov K.I., Kompleksony i kompleksonaty metallov (Complexones and metal complexonates), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1988, 544 p.
6. Pereyma A.A., Regulirovanie svoystv tamponazhnykh rastvorov kombinirovannymi reagentami na osnove fosfonovykh kompleksonov (Regulation of properties of cement slurries by combined reagents based on phosphonic complexons), Proceedings of VNIIgaz, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIgaz, 1993, pp. 2227.
7. Certificate of authorship no. 1839040 CCCP, MPK6 E 21 V 33/138, Kompleksnyy reagent dlya tamponazhnykh rastvorov na osnove portlandtsementa (Complex reagent for cement slurries based on Portland cement), Authors: Pereyma A.A., Pertseva L.V., Petrakov Yu.I., Il'yasov V.I., Gusmanov R.A., Yakovenko N.A.
8. Certificate of authorship no. 1839039 CCCP, MPK6 E 21 V 33/138. Kompleksnyy reagent dlya tamponazhnykh rastvorov na osnove shlakovykh
vyazhushchikh (Complex reagent for cement slurries based on slag binders),
Author: Pereyma A.A.
9. Pereyma A.A., Gasumov R.A., Tenn R.A. et al., Investigation of the influence of phosphonic complexing on process of crystallization of poorly soluble salts (In Russ.), Proceedings of VNIIgaz, SevKavNIPIgaz, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIgaz, 1999, pp. 8993.
10. Patent no. 2059058 RF, MPK6 E 21 V 33/138, S 04 V 38/02, Gas-cement
compound, Inventors: Pereyma A.A., Tagirov K.M., Il'yaev V.I.
11. Pereyma A.A., Razrabotka tamponazhnykh materialov i tekhnologicheskikh zhidkostey dlya zakanchivaniya i remonta skvazhin v slozhnykh gornogeologicheskikh usloviyakh (Development of cementing materials and technological liquids for completion and workover wells in hard geological conditions): Thesis of doctor of technical science, Krasnodar, 2009.
12. Nancollas G.H., Kazmierczak T.F., Schuttringer E.A., Controlled composition study of calcium carbonate growth: the influence of scale inhibitors, Corrosion, NACE 37, 1981, no. 2, pp. 7681.
13. Powell R.J., Fischer A.R., Gdanski R.D. et al., Encapsulated scale inhibitor for use in fracturing treatments, SPE 30700,1995.

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V.Yu. Fedorenko, M.M. Nigmatullin, A.S. Petuhov, V.V. Gavrilov, M.V. Bespalov, O.L. Afanasev (NPC Intexpromservis JSC, RF, Kazan)
Additives for acid compositions

Key words: acid composition, acid stimulation, additives to acid.

Improving the effectiveness of acid treatment of wells is an important task. One of the trends in this area is the use of selected high quality acid compositions. The main types of additives for preparing acid compositions are demulsifier, corrosion inhibitor, dispersant, stabilizer iron and mutual solvent. Varying concentrations and ratios of reactants can adjust the properties of the acid composition. The dependence of the contact angle and interfacial tension of the content demulsifier compatibility acid composition of the oil on the concentration of iron and the presence of the stabilizer, and studied the changes of reservoir properties rocks exposed on the core material acid composition based additives ITPS. The methodology of testing acid composition in relation to the given conditions is suggested.
References
1. Kudinov V.I., Osnovy neftegazopromyslovogo dela (The basics of oil and
gas business), Moscow: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2005, 720 p.
2. Economides M.J., Reservoir stimulation, 3rd edition, Huston: Wiley, 2002, 856 .
3. Bulgakova G.T., Sharifullin A.R., Kharisov R.Ya. et al., Laboratory and theoretical researches of matrix acid-based carbonates processing (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 5, pp. 75-79.
4. Kharisov R.Ya., Folomeev A.E., Bulgakova G.T., Telin A.G., The complex
approach to the choice of the optimum acid composition for well stimulation
in carbonate (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011,
no. 2, pp. 78-82.
5. Fedorenko V.Yu., Nig"matullin M.M., Petukhov A.S. et al., Acid composition for the treatment of bottomhole formation zone. Optimizing the content of iron stabilizer, for certain oils of the Volga region (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2011, no. 13, pp. 136-140.

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The oil-field equipment


V.V. Egorov (Surgutneftegas OJSC, RF, Surgut)
Development and application of a pump with the batch scheme of stages assembly

Key words: electric centrifugal pump unit, batch scheme of assembly, solid inclusions, mechanized oil production, wear resistance, low-yield stock, unification.

Development and comissioning of immersion oil-production equipment with the increased resistance to the action of abrasive particles, whose construction is maximally standardized with the series oil production equipment, used in Surgutneftegas OJSC, are considered. The developed construction at present passes the procedure of obtaining patent on useful model. The electric centrifugal pumps, manufactured on the developed project, are applied in industry at the fields of Surgutneftegas OJSC. Their time to failure according to the results on November 2014 is by 22- 24% higher than mean time to failure of series equipment, and for the wells, complicated by the increased quantity of solid particles in the formation fluid, an increase in the operating time exceeds 100%.

References
1. Lebedeva S.I., Mikrotverdost' mineralov (The microhardness of minerals),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977.
2. Svidunovich N.A., Okatova G.P., Kuis D.V., Materialovedenie i
tekhnologiya konstruktsionnykh materialov: laboratornyy praktikum s ispol'-
zovaniem metallograficheskogo kompleksa (Materials science and technology
of structural materials: laboratory practice with the use the metallographic complex), Minsk: Publ. of BSTU, 2011, 133 p.

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Rational use of oil gas


O.A. Betinskaya, N.L. Bachev, R.V. Bulbovich (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Three-dimensional model study of the working process in the combustion chamber for utilization of petroleum gas

Key words: petroleum gas, three-dimensional numerical model, the workflow, the combustion chamber.

The authors show a need to develop a special multi-zone combustion chamber, intended for the disposal of petroleum gas and other man-made gases. For parameter optimization of steady-state combustion wet, heterogeneous in composition and tabulation petroleum gas developed three-dimensional numerical model which allows to predict the distribution of parameters in terms of combustion chamber at various circuits of the supply of air and fuel gas in the preliminary design phase. To verify the model, we performed a series of experimental studies of the working process in the combustion zone multi-zone camera. The maximum difference between the calculated and experimental data on the temperature amounted to 0,9 %, which indicates the functionality of the proposed model.
References
1. Lebedinskiy E.V., Kalmykov G.P., Mosolov S.V., Rabochie protsessy v zhidkostnom raketnom dvigatele i ikh modelirovanie (Working processes in liquid rocket engines and their modeling): edited by Koroteev A.S., Moscow:
Mashinostroenie Publ., 2008, 512 p.
2. Bachev N.L., Matyunin O.O., Kozlov A.A., Bacheva N.Yu., Numerical simulation of the working process of liquid rocket engines in the combustion
chamber with staged combustion at supercritical conditions (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo aviatsionnogo instituta, 2011, V. 18, no. 2, pp. 108-116.
3. Yurokina Yu.V., The method of large-scale turbulence on Smagorinsky
model (In Russ.), Matematicheskoe modelirovanie, 1999, V. 11, no. 4,
pp. 83-99.
4. Zueva O.A., Bachev N.L., Bul'bovich R.V., Kleshchevnikov A.M., Choice of geometrical and regime parameters of the combustion chamber for utilization of associated petroleum gas (In Russ.), Vestnik PNIPU. Aerokosmicheskaya tekhnika, 2013, no. 34, pp. 40-51.
5. Zueva O.A., Bachev N.L., Bul'bovich R.V., Kleshchevnikov A.M., The geometrical, regime and thermal parameters of high-resource combustion
chamber for APG utilization (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = Gas Industry of Russia, 2013, no. 11, pp. 94-97.
6. Zueva O.A., Bachev N.L., Bul'bovich R.V., Kleshchevnikov A.M., Development of a gas turbine plant for associated petroleum gas utilization gathering electrical and thermal energy at marginal fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 98-101.
7. Pomerantsev V.V. et al., Osnovy prakticheskoy teorii goreniya (Fundamentals of practical combustion theory), Leningrad: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1986, 309 p.

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Pipeline transport of oil


M.D. Serediuk, S.Ya. Grygorskyi (Ivano- Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas, Ukraine, Ivano- Frankivsk)
The laws of pressure change in pipelines during cessations of pumping units

Key words: transient process, high pressure wave, the damping coefficient of the pressure wave, an abrupt increase in pressure.

There is made a mathematical modeling of unsteady hydrodynamic processes in pipelines using the software package OLGA7. There are made the laws of pressure change in the main oil pipeline during transitional processes caused by cessations of pumping units. There are offered analytical dependences for the damping coefficient of the pressure wave in the pipeline for the cases of cessation of one, two and three sequentially operating pumps in a pumping station. Comparison of simulation results of pressure on the proposed formulas with the data of industrial experiments indicates the reliability of dependencies and their possible use for predicting the parameters of transients in oil pipelines.
Reference
1. Lur'e M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of oil and
gas pipeline transport), Moscow: Neft' i gaz Publ., 2003, 335 p.
2. Adoevskiy A.V., Modelirovanie raboty nefteprovodov, oborudovannykh sistemami sglazhivaniya voln davleniya (Simulation of oil pipelines, equipped with systems of smoothing the pressure waves): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 2011, 170 p.
3. Moroz P.A., Polyanskaya L.V., Non-stationary processes in main oil pipeline when the pumping stations operation mode changes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1965, no. 5, pp. 63–68.
4. Vyazunov E.V., Moroz P.A., On overpressure in unsteady conditions in oil
pipelines operating "from the pump to pump" (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie
nefti i nefteproduktov, 1966, no. 1, pp. 1215.
5. Vyazunov E.V., Golosovker B.I., Golosovker V.I., Study of transient processes in pipeline (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1970, no. 10, pp. 36.
6. Perevoshchikov S.I., Determination of pressure changes in pipelines under
unsteady fluid flow(In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefti i nefteproduktov, 1981, no. 2, pp. 69.
7. Seredyuk M.D., Grigorskiy S.Ya., Experimental studies of transient processes in the main oil pipelines caused by stops of pump units (In Russ.), Nauchnyy vestnik Ivano-Frankovskogo natsional'nogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta nefti i gaza, 2013, no. 2(35), pp. 1629.

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Ecological and industrial safety


G.G. Vasiliev, A.P. Salnikov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Analysis of causes of accident with vertical steel tanks

Key words: analysis of accidents, causes of accident, vertical steel tank, foundation subsidence.

Today vertical steel tanks remain one of the most dangerous industrial objects. The subject of research in this article has been accidents of tanks and the objective is identifying the dominant causes of the destruction of tanks on the basis of statistical data. Differential settlement of tanks presents special interest to the authors, because it is one of the main causes of the destruction of tanks. This is compounded by the fact that today insufficient attention is given to systematic geodetic inspection of tanks. The authors prove the relevance and the need to develop technique of monitoring of the spatial position of the tank.
References
1. Kondrasheva O.G., Nazarova M.N., Causal analysis of accidents of vertical steel tanks (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2004, no. 2, pp. 36–43.
2. Kondakov G.P., Domestic tanks construction problems and possible solutions (In Russ.), Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo, 1998, no. 5.
3. Konovalov P.A., Mangushev R.A., Sotnikov S.N. et al., Fundamenty stal'nykh rezervuarov i deformatsii ikh osnovaniy (Foundations of steel tanks and deformation of their bases), Moscow: Publ. of Association of building schools, 2009, 336 p.
4. Zemlyanskiy A.A., Printsipy konstruirovaniya i eksperimental'no-teoreticheskie issledovaniya krupnogabaritnykh rezervuarov (Principles for design and experimental and theoretical studies of large tanks): Thesis of doctor of technical science, Balakovo, 2006.
5. Tarasenko A.A., Razrabotka nauchnykh osnov metodov remonta vertikal'nykh stal'nykh rezervuarov (Development of the scientific basis of vertical steel tanks repair method): Thesis of doctor of technical science, Tyumen', 1999.
6. Khanukhov Kh.M., Alipov A.V., Normative, technical and organizational
support for the safe operation of tank designs (In Russ.), Collected papers
“Predotvrashchenie avariy zdaniy i sooruzheniy” (Prevention of accidents of
buildings and structures), 2010.
7. Rozenshteyn I.M., Avarii i nadezhnost' stal'nykh rezervuarov (Prevention of
accidents of buildings and structures), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1995, 253 p.
8. Galeev V.B., Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie rezervuarov,
postroennykh na slabykh pereuvlazhnennykh gruntakh (Stress-strain state of
tanks built on weak waterlogged soils): Thesis of doctor of technical science,
Tyumen', 1987.

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From history of development of petroleum industry



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