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Measuring of rocks residual water saturation by laboratory methods

Authors: Kuzmin V.A. (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)

Key words: carbonate rock, residual water saturation, semipermeable membrane method, centrifugation method, pore volume, centrifuge.

Petrophysic laboratory methods were developed several decades ago. Up-to-date micro-level investigations have shown that methods of rocks residual water saturation measuring are first not enough theoretically founded, secondly in need of advances for accuracy enhancement. In this article a new samples centrifugation method is proposed for residual water saturation measuring. The method is founded on changing of sample position relative to centrifugal force direction during centrifugation. This allows to displace free water out of complicated configuration pores and as a result to raise residual water saturation measuring accuracy significantly.
References
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Yakovleva O.P., Kuz'min V.A. et al., Fundamental'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza i razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (Fundamental problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry and development of Russian oil and gas complex), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2007, 391 p.
2. Skibitskaya N.A. Yakovleva O.P., K probleme genezisa nefti i gaza v produktivnykh karbonatnykh tolshchakh (On the problem of oil and gas genesis in the productive carbonate sediments), Proceedings of 7th International Conference “Novye idei v geologii nefti i gaza. Aktual'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza” (New ideas in the geology of oil and gas. Actual problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2004, pp. 469–471.
3. Kuz'min V.A., Maksimov V.M., Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., The results of study of carbonate rock microstructural anisotropy obtained in electron microscopy and computer image analysis, Nafta-Gaz. Grudzien, 2011, no. 12, pp. 865–873.
4. Kuzmin V.A., Cathodoluminescence technique for studying the pore
space of rocks using scanning electron microscopy, ISSN 1027-4510, Journal
of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2007,
V. 1, no. 4, pp. 493–496.
5. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov
(The residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1992, 240 p.
6. Gurbatova I.P., Mikhaylov N.N., Masshtabnye i anizotropnye effekty pri
eksperimental'nom opredelenii fizicheskikh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh
kollektorov (Effects of the core scale and anisotropy in the experimental evaluation of the physical properties of the complex-structure reservoirs), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 7, pp. 138–145.
7 Kovalev. A.G., Kuznetsov V.V., Bagrintseva K.I., Pikh N.A., O rezul'tatakh opredeleniya ostatochnoy vodonasyshchennosti pryamym i kosvennym metodami (On the results of determination of residual water using direct and indirect methods), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1986, no. 8, pp. 43–47.
8. Gurbatova I.M., Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na masshtabnyy effekt pri izuchenii fil'tratsionno-emkostnykh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh karbonatnykh kollektorov (Influence of pore space structure on the scale effect in studying permeability storage capacity of complicatedly built carbonate reservoirs), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 74–82.
9. Skibitskaya N.A., Kuz'min V.A., Bol'shakov M.N., Marutyan O.O., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na ostatochnoe neftegazonasyshchenie porod produktivnykh otlozheniy mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (The influence of microstructure parameters of carbonate rocks of productive deposits on the residual oil-and-gas saturation), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 98–101.
10. Kotseruba L.A., O primenenii tsentrifugi dlya opredeleniya soderzhaniya
svyazannoy vody i izmereniya kapillyarnykh davleniy (On the application of
centrifuges for the determination of bound water and capillary pressure
measurement), Proceedings of VNIGNI, V. 90, pp. 193–203.
11. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods of study of oil and gas reservoir rocks), Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1979, 199 p.
12. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous materials, Reinhold, New York, 1961.
13. Lorenz P.B., Donaldson E.C., Thomas R.D., Use of centrifugal measurements of wettability to predict oil recovery, Report 7873, USBM, Bartlasville Energy Technology Center, 1974.
14. Patent no. 2478784 RF, Method for determining residual water saturation in oil-bearing rocks, Inventors: Kuz'min V.A., Kuz'mina I.I., Kamenskaya K.V.

Key words: carbonate rock, residual water saturation, semipermeable membrane method, centrifugation method, pore volume, centrifuge.

Petrophysic laboratory methods were developed several decades ago. Up-to-date micro-level investigations have shown that methods of rocks residual water saturation measuring are first not enough theoretically founded, secondly in need of advances for accuracy enhancement. In this article a new samples centrifugation method is proposed for residual water saturation measuring. The method is founded on changing of sample position relative to centrifugal force direction during centrifugation. This allows to displace free water out of complicated configuration pores and as a result to raise residual water saturation measuring accuracy significantly.
References
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Yakovleva O.P., Kuz'min V.A. et al., Fundamental'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza i razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii (Fundamental problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry and development of Russian oil and gas complex), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2007, 391 p.
2. Skibitskaya N.A. Yakovleva O.P., K probleme genezisa nefti i gaza v produktivnykh karbonatnykh tolshchakh (On the problem of oil and gas genesis in the productive carbonate sediments), Proceedings of 7th International Conference “Novye idei v geologii nefti i gaza. Aktual'nye problemy geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza” (New ideas in the geology of oil and gas. Actual problems of oil and gas geology and geochemistry), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2004, pp. 469–471.
3. Kuz'min V.A., Maksimov V.M., Mikhaylov N.N., Gurbatova I.P., The results of study of carbonate rock microstructural anisotropy obtained in electron microscopy and computer image analysis, Nafta-Gaz. Grudzien, 2011, no. 12, pp. 865–873.
4. Kuzmin V.A., Cathodoluminescence technique for studying the pore
space of rocks using scanning electron microscopy, ISSN 1027-4510, Journal
of Surface Investigation. X-ray, Synchrotron and Neutron Techniques, 2007,
V. 1, no. 4, pp. 493–496.
5. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov
(The residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1992, 240 p.
6. Gurbatova I.P., Mikhaylov N.N., Masshtabnye i anizotropnye effekty pri
eksperimental'nom opredelenii fizicheskikh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh
kollektorov (Effects of the core scale and anisotropy in the experimental evaluation of the physical properties of the complex-structure reservoirs), Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 7, pp. 138–145.
7 Kovalev. A.G., Kuznetsov V.V., Bagrintseva K.I., Pikh N.A., O rezul'tatakh opredeleniya ostatochnoy vodonasyshchennosti pryamym i kosvennym metodami (On the results of determination of residual water using direct and indirect methods), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1986, no. 8, pp. 43–47.
8. Gurbatova I.M., Kuz'min V.A., Mikhaylov N.N., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na masshtabnyy effekt pri izuchenii fil'tratsionno-emkostnykh svoystv slozhnopostroennykh karbonatnykh kollektorov (Influence of pore space structure on the scale effect in studying permeability storage capacity of complicatedly built carbonate reservoirs), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 2, pp. 74–82.
9. Skibitskaya N.A., Kuz'min V.A., Bol'shakov M.N., Marutyan O.O., Vliyanie struktury porovogo prostranstva na ostatochnoe neftegazonasyshchenie porod produktivnykh otlozheniy mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (The influence of microstructure parameters of carbonate rocks of productive deposits on the residual oil-and-gas saturation), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 12, pp. 98–101.
10. Kotseruba L.A., O primenenii tsentrifugi dlya opredeleniya soderzhaniya
svyazannoy vody i izmereniya kapillyarnykh davleniy (On the application of
centrifuges for the determination of bound water and capillary pressure
measurement), Proceedings of VNIGNI, V. 90, pp. 193–203.
11. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods of study of oil and gas reservoir rocks), Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1979, 199 p.
12. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous materials, Reinhold, New York, 1961.
13. Lorenz P.B., Donaldson E.C., Thomas R.D., Use of centrifugal measurements of wettability to predict oil recovery, Report 7873, USBM, Bartlasville Energy Technology Center, 1974.
14. Patent no. 2478784 RF, Method for determining residual water saturation in oil-bearing rocks, Inventors: Kuz'min V.A., Kuz'mina I.I., Kamenskaya K.V.


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