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December 2013




The oil and gas companies


Yu.V. Shuliev, Managerial board director of Oil and Gas production Gazprom Neft JSC
Systematic implementation of new technologies in Gazprom Neft JSC

Key words: innovative development, production potential, unconventional resources, advanced and new technologies, research and development activities, pilot projects.

The accumulated cutting edge IOCs experience is being adapted and deployed by Russian national oil companies what creates a solid fundamental technology base for own approach to exploit oil resources.

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A.G. Komkov, head of Department prospective development & capital construction Gazprom Neft JSC
Organising effective asset management: Gazprom Neft JSC approach

Key words: company assets, performance management, management system, planning.

Transition from the ‘resource management’ definition use towards the asset management definition use is due to the increasing importance of integrated management system development, which would be focused on the organizational effectiveness growth as organization management quality results into the overall performance of a company and its strategic goals completion. It is necessary to optimize the management structure constantly along with the enhancement of process management and integration of newly acquired assets in order to increase the organizational effectiveness.
References
1. Bogdanov B.L., Sistema upravleniya aktivami neftegazovykh kompaniy v
sovremennykh rossiyskikh ekonomicheskikh usloviyakh (Asset management system of oil and gas companies in modern Russian economic conditions),
Moscow: NOTABENE Media Trade Co., 2002, 248 p.
2. Kornilov D.A., Yashin S.N., Ekonomicheskiy analiz: teoriya i praktika - The economic analysis: the theory and practice, 2005, no. 16, pp. 2-8.
3. Kryukov Ya.V., Neft' Rossii – Oil of Russia, 2004, no. 5, pp. 7679.

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A.G. Komkov, N.A. Gavrilov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.R. Kaybyshev, V.R. Filimonova, A.V. Shushkov, M.I. Kuzmin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Organizing innovation activity: example of JSC Gazprom Neft approach

Key words: R&D, innovation development, knowledge management, technological management, centers of excellence, motivation, system.

In order to maintain long-term competitive advantage Gazprom Neft JSC places a big emphasis on implementing innovative technology solutions and realizing organizational and process improvements. A structured innovation management plan, which is aimed at further improving Company’s technological level, has been developed and is currently being implemented with the following key components: technology management system, knowledge management system, regional centers of excellence, professional development center, innovation motivation system. All these efforts are the part of Gazprom Neft JSC Innovation development program and are aligned with Gazprom Neft JCS Strategy.


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Economy, management, the legal right


M.M. Khasanov, D.A. Sugaipov, O.S. Ushmaev, R.R. Bakhitov, R.R. Ismagilov, S.M. Kurkov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft JSC

Key words: cost engineering, cost estimation, cost control, cost data.

The paper describes results of the development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft. Analysis of the global experience reveals best practices of cost engineering in areas of cost estimation, cost control and cost data management. Approbation of the best practices in Gazprom Neft key assets has shown significant potential for further developing cost engineering in Gazprom Neft. As a result a road map of development of cost engineering was formed. It includes organizational change, improving cost estimating, cost control procedures and creating of cost data management.

References
1. Rawanpura J., Jergeas G., Why cost and schedule overruns on mega oil
sands projects?, Cost Engineering, 2010, V. 52, no. 1, pp. 24-27.
2. Khasanov M., Ushmaev O., Nekhaev S., Karamutdinova D., The optimal parameters for oil field development, SPE 162089, 2012.
3. Khasanov M., Bakhitov R., Sitnikov A., Ushmaev O., Dmitruk D., Nekhaev S.,
Optimization of production capacity for oil field in the Russian Arctic, SPE 166905. – 2013.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


V.V. Litvin (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.V. Mikhailova, O.A. Zaharova, N.V. Nadeznitskaya (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Oil prospects of Achimov Formation in central part of Noyabrsk region, Western Siberia

Key words: Achimov formation, clinoform complex, fondoform, depocenter

The authors consider the structure of Achimov deposits in regional, zonal and local plan, based on 2D and 3D seismic in the central part of Noyabrsk region. Regional criteria are defined for the location of Achimov reservoirs by stratigraphical, paleobathymetrical and morphological criteria. Made analysis indicates a complex structure and relatively high oil and gas potencial of Achimov reservoirs.
References
1. Kucheryavenko D.S., Potryasov A.A., Saprykina A.Yu.,
Skachek K.G., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas
Geology, 2006, no. 4, pp. 22-30.
2. Nezhdanov A.A., Ponomarev V.A., Turenkov N.A., Gorbunov
S.A., Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' achimovskoy tolshchi Zapadnoy
Sibiri (Geology and oil and gas potential of Achimov
formation of Western Siberia), Moscow: Academy of Sciences
Publishing, 2000, 247 p.
3. Trushkova L.Ya., Igoshkin V.P., Khafizov F.Z., Klinoformy neokoma
unikal'nyy tip neftegazonosnykh rezervuarov Zapadnoy
Sibiri (Clinoform of the Neocomian - a unique type of oil and
gas reservoirs in Western Siberia), Publ. of VNIGRI, 2011, 152 p.
4. Payton C. E., Seismic Stratigraphy - Applications to Hydrocarbon
Exploration, 1977, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, 516 p.

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Yu. V. Filippovich, O.A. Zaharova, R.R. Murzin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), A.N. Obukhov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Geodynamic specifics of the Mezozoic sedimentation of Yamal-Gydan syneclise

Key words: Yamal-Gydan syneclise, Enisei-Khatangsky rift, Nurminskiy megaswell, Neocomian, petroleum potential.

In this paper authors present a relatively new conceptual view on the geological structure and evolution of the northern territories of Yamal, including the Kara Sea. In fact – this is the stage of the formulation of the problem, or definition of directions of study and geological modeling of the region.
References
1. Aplonov S.V., Geodinamika rannemezozoyskogo Obskogo okeana (Geodynamics of Early Mesozoic Ob Ocean), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 95 p.
2. Blyuman B.A., Zemnaya kora kontinentov i okeanov (The crust of continents
and oceans), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VSEGEI, 1998, 176 p.
3. Voronov V.N., Korkunov V.K., Geologiya i geofizika - Russian Geology and
Geophysics, 2003, V. 44, no. 1-2, pp.40-48.
4. Egorov A.S., Chistyakov D.N., Geologiya i geofizika - Russian Geology and
Geophysics, 2003, V. 44, no. 1-2, pp.101-119.
5. Kleshchev K.A., Shein V.S., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2002, no. 4, pp. 2-9.
6. Markevich V.P., Istoriya geologicheskogo razvitiya i neftegazonosnost' Zapadno-Sibirskoy nizmennosti (History of geological development and petroleum
potential of the West Siberian lowland), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1966, 247 p.
7. Natal'in B.A., Shenger A.M.D., Proceedings of scientific and practical geological
conference “Geologicheskaya sluzhba i mineral'no-syr'evaya
baza Rossii na poroge XXI veka” (Geological service and mineral resources
of Russia at the beginning of XXI century), St. Petersburg: Publ. of VSEGEI,
2000, pp.178-179.
8. Nezhdanov A.A., Seysmogeologicheskiy analiz neftegazonosnykh otlozheniy
Zapadnoy Sibiri dlya tseley prognoza i kartirovaniya neantiklinal'nykh
lovushek i zalezhey UV (Seismological analysis of oil and gas deposits in West
Siberia for forecast and mapping of non-anticlinal traps and hydrocarbon deposits):
Thesis of the doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Tyumen',
2004.
9. Puchkov V.N., Geologiya i geofizika - Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2003,
V. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 28-39.
10. Sobornov K.O., Yakubchuk A.S., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and
Gas Geology, 2006, no. 2, pp. 9-12.
11. Starosel'tsev V.S., Collected papers Tektonika i geodinamika kontinental'noy
litosfery (Tectonics and geodynamics of the continental lithosphere),
Proceedings of XXXVI Tectonic Meeting, V. 2, Moscow: GEOS Publ., pp.213-216.
12. Filippovich Yu.V., Geologiya nefti i gaza - The journal Oil and Gas Geology,
2001, no. 5, pp. 51-62.

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K.V. Strizhnev (Gazpromneft-Angara LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.A. Cherevko (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, Khanty-Mansiysk), A.N. Sitnikov, D.E. Zagranovskaya, V.V. Zhukov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Geological characterization of Bazhenov-Abalak formation on the example of Paliynovskoye area of Krasnoleninskoye oil field

Key words: the Bazhenov formation, Jurassic complex, active folds in geodynamic plane, faults of shear nature, SubUral package of power meridians.

Well productivity in the sediments of the Bazhenov Formation varies considerably, but this process is independent of the lithotypes of the Bazhenov Formation. In the conceptual model of the Palyanovskoye deposit, oil reserves are associated with the major active folds in geodynamic plane and controlled by geodynamic active diagonally oriented, relatively young faults of shear nature of the main North-East-trending and also North-West-trending.

References
1. Alekseev A.D., Nemova V.D., Koloskov V.N., Gavrilov S.S., Geologiya nefti
i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2009, no. 2, pp. 27-33.
2. Glukhmanchuk E.D., Vasilevskiy A.N., Zakonomernosti struktur
razrusheniya (treshchinovatosti) evolyutsii tektonicheskikh deformatsiy na
mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Regularities of fracture structures
(fracture) of tectonic deformation evolution in Western Siberia), Khanty-
Mansiysk, 2005, pp. 67-76.
3. Gogonenkov G.N., Lavrik A.S., El'manovich S.S., Geofizika, 2002, no. 1,
pp. 54-61.
4. Gogonenkov G.N., Kashik A.S., Timurziev A.I., Geologiya nefti i gaza The
journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2007, no. 3, pp. 3-11.
5. Fedorova T.A. Bochko R.A., Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and
Gas Geology, 1991, no. 2, pp. 23-26.
6. Chinarov A.S., Zagranovskaya D.E., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry,
2010, no. 12, pp. 12-15.
7. Korobova L.A., Korobov A.D., Geologiya, geografiya i global'naya energiya,
2010, no. 3, pp. 27-31.
8. Moskvin V.I., Danilova V.P., Kostyreva E.A. et al., Geologiya i geofizika Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2004, V. 45, no. 6, pp. 730-741.
9. Atlas “Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo
okruga” (Atlas "Geology and oil and gas potential of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug"), Ekaterinburg: Nauka Publ., 2004, 148 p.

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G.M. Shestakova, O.A. Zakharova (Gazpromneft NTC LLC) Volkov G.V. (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Reservoir identification according to the stochastic and deterministic inversion in Neocomian complex (Western Siberia)

Key words: seismic inversion, neocomian lenses, Western Siberia.

This work is devoted to the seismic model construction of sand lenses in Neocomian complex (Western Siberia) made by seismic inversion. An integrated approach of defining sand body’s geometry is presented by combining data from different inversions.


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E.V. Stremichev, B.V. Belozerov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), E.V. Zagrebelniy (Gazpromneft-Orenburg CJSC, RF, Orenburg), R.R. Bakhitov, A.A. Artamonov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie CJSC, RF, Moscow)
The problems of reservoirs separation in Dkt strata of Tsarichanskoye field according to well survey data

Key words: reservoir, well survey, reservoir properties, reservoir criteria, the structure of the pore space.

Cross section of tsarichanskoye field in the gross interval of the Dkt productive strata refers to the complex type. This is associated with abnormal rock radioactivity, complex material composition, strong lateral variability of the section, the presence of mixed-layers clay in the section. The combination of all these factors creates a serious problem in the interpretation of the lithological composition of the rocks, forming the strata, reservoirs separation according to well survey data. To solve this problem the well survey materials, laboratory core studies, field-geophysical studies and also the experience of experts, studying the given problem, were used.

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Drilling of chinks


V.. Karsakov, S.V. Tretiakov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.S. Devyatyarov (Gazpromneft Novy Port LLC, RF, Tyumen), A.G. Pasynkov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC Branch Messoyakha, RF, Tyumen)
Drilling cost optimization during conceptual project phase of field development

Key words: well engineering, placing oil bushes, integrated design, conceptual design, complex design.

The article presents the experience of using complexity solution to conceptual engineering for development Messoyahskoye and Novoportovskoye fields at Gazprom Neft. Highlighted the importance of well construction phase and justified its significance growing due to technology development, increasing volume of "difficult reservoirs", high risks and etc.

References
1. Nekipelov Yu.V., Latkin K.E., Ismagilov P.P. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 8, pp. 6-9.
2. Khasanov M.M., Surgaev V.N., Tarasov P.A. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2008, no. 11, pp. 71 75.
3. Khanov K.M., Slagaemye effektivnosti stroitel'stva skvazhin (Summands of efficiency of well construction), Tyumen': Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1986.
4. Sheshukova G.N., Povyshenie effektivnosti kustovogo metoda razburivaniya
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri (Improving the efficiency of cluster
drill method for oil fields in Western Siberia): Thesis of the candidate of technical
sciences, Tyumen', 1997.
5. Kharlamov A.K., Sovershenstvovanie metodiki proektirovaniya kustov i profiley
skvazhin na mestorozhdeniyakh so slozhnymi skhemami razrabotki (Improving
design methods of well cluster and profiles wells in the fields with complex development schemes), Thesis of the candidate of technical sciences, Tyumen'.
6. Abdikadyrov B.A., Modeli ratsional'nogo razmeshcheniya skvazhin na
gazovykh zalezhakh slozhnogo geologicheskogo stroeniya (Model of rational
well placement in gas reservoirs with complex geological structure): Thesis of the
candidate of technical sciences, Moscow, 2009.
7. URL: http://www.gazprom-neft.ru/sibneft-online/arhive/2012-september/
666166/
8. URL: http://www.gazprom-neft.ru/sibneft-online/arhive/2013-june/1095117/

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


A.V. Bilinchuk, A.N. Govzich (Gazprom Neft JSC), S.A. Doktor (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC), I.G. Fayzulin, A.S. Sherekin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC ), R.A. Gimaletdinov (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas OJSC, RF, Noyabrsk)
Gazprom Neft JSC - history and implementation experience of multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The development of advanced technological control system

Key words: hard to recover oil reserves, new technologies, increase in efficiency, involvement in the development, horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, reduction of risks.

Implementation of new technologies is a key to involve ultralow permeability hydrocarbon reserves. One of the most economically effective techniques is to drill horizontal wells with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Currently Gazprom Neft is actively implementing this technology, over 130 multi-stage jobs performed, resulting practical experience can effectively replicate the technology on all subsidiary divisions.


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M.M. Khasanov, O.Yu. Melchaeva, A.N. Sitnikov, A.P. Roschektaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Dynamics of hydraulically fractured wells production for economically optimal development systems

Key words: hydraulic fracturing, deformation of wellbore patterns, field development system selection

In this paper we propose a new semi-analytical approach to the description of flow to a vertical well with hydraulic fracturing in field development system with pressure maintenance. We take into account different flow regimes, which is especially important in the development of low permeability reservoirs.
References
1. Dietz D.N., Determination of average reservoir pressure from build-up surveys,
Journal Petroleum Technology, 1965, August, pp. 955-959.
2. Earlougher R.C.Jr., Advances in well test analysis, Monograph series, SPE,
1977.
3. Haryanto E., New shape factor for vertically fractured well produced at
constant pressure, SPE 99282, 2005.
4. Khasanov M.M., Krasnov V.A., Musabirov T.R., Mukhamedshin R.K., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2009, no. 9, pp. 92-96.
5. Azari M., Soliman M.Y., Wooden W.O., Performance prediction for finiteconductivity vertical fractures, SPE 22659, 1991.
6. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Nekhaev S.A., Karamutdinova D.M.,
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 26-31.

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M.M. Khasanov, O.S. Ushmayev, D.A. Samolovov, V.V. Ovcharov, D.N. Dmitruk, T.N. Timofeyeva, Ts.V. Andzhukayev (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Estimation of cost effective oil thickness of oil rims developed with horizontal wells

Key words: oil rims, critical production rate, horizontal wells, optimal well spacing.

The paper describes the novel method to estimate cost effective oil thickness for oil rims and oil reservoirs with gas cap. The method is bases on analytic solutions for critical well oil production rate (critical – without production of breakthrough gas) during early regime of vertical displacement and late regime of gravity drainage. Based on the analytic solution, we propose a dimensionless technic and economic parameters that determine optimal, that maximize Net Present Value, well spacing. The dimensionless parameters include oil thickness, permeability, oil density, initial and residual oil saturations, well costs, oil prices. Given optimal well spacing, we propose an analytic criterion of estimation of cost-effective thickness.

References
1. Giger F., Low permeability reservoirs development using horizontal wells,
SPE/DOE 16406, 1987.
2. Masoudi R., How to make a magic change and get the most out of your oil
rim reservoirs, 2011. http://www.spe.org/dl/docs/2012/masoudi.pdf
3. Sobocinski D., Cornelius P., A correlation for predicting water coning time,
JPT, 1963, pp. 594-600.
4. Kuo M., Des-Brisay. A simplified method for water coning predictions,
SPE 12067, 1983.
5. Wheatley M., An approximate theory of oil/water coning, SPE 14210, 1985.
6. Chaperon I., Theoretical study of coning toward horizontal and vertical
wells in anisotropic formations: subcritical and critical rates, SPE 15377, 1986.
7. Giger F., Analytic two-dimensional models of water cresting before breakthroughfor horizontal wells, SPE, 1989, pp. 409-416.
8. Dikken B., Pressure drop in horizontal wells and effect on production performance, JPT, 1990, pp. 1426-1433.
9. Suprunowicz R., Butler R., Vertical confined water drive to horizonsl well-
Part1: water and oil of equal densities, Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology,
1992, no. 3, pp. 39-47.
10. Khasanov M.M. , Ushmaev O.S., Samolovov D.A. et. al. A Method To Determine Optimum Well Spacing for Oil Rims Gas-Oil Zones. SPE 166898. 2013.

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E.O. Belyakov , S.E. Frantsuzov, Sh.V. Mukhidinov , E.V. Stremichev , D.M. Makukhov (Gazpromneft NT LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Probabilistic model of the distribution of rocks pore space fluid saturation as a base of specification of petrophysical models of reservoir properties

Key words: reservoir properties, the percolation theory, percolating cluster, connectivity factor, percolation threshold.

The principles of obtaining basic petrophysical models of reservoir properties present in the article. The reservoir is represented as a percolation lattice with a random elements reflecting connectedness of pore space in rocks.

The formalization of the system model, reflecting pores connectivity, is made. Previously obtained computer simulation materials in order to obtain simple universal mathematical laws, on the base of which it is possible to create generalized petrophysical models of reservoir properties, are reviewed. Scaling of model elements is carried out.
References
1. Efros A.L., Fizika i geometriya besporyadka (Physics and geometry of disorder), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1981, 264 p.
2. Shklovskiy B.I., Efros A.L., Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk – Physics-Uspekhi, 1975, V. 117, no. 3, pp. 401-434.
3. Mal'shakov A.V., Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal Journal of Engineering
Physics and Thermophysics, 1991, V. 61, no. 4, pp. 405-410.
4. Mal'shakov A.V., Efimov V.A., Kuz'min Yu.A., Borshchev V.V., Proceedings of 3rd “Puti realizatsii neftegazovogo potentsiala KhMAOE” (Ways to implement
the oil and gas potential KhMAO), Khanty-Mansiysk, 2000.
5. Belyakov E.O., Teploukhov V.M., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2010,
no. 12, pp. 34-38.

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A.V. Bilinchuk (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), R.A. Oshmarin, A.S. Bochkov, E.G. Akhmetvaliev, M.A. Butorina (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), L.G. Petrov, N.A. Glushchenko (Gazprom neft Orenburg CJSC, RF, Orenburg)
Optimization of development Eastern section of the Orenburg oil and gas condensate field

Key words: complexly constructed carbonate field, development optimization, the conceptual model, fracturing, bituminosity.

A multidisciplinary approach to the creation of the conceptual geological model of the Eastern section of the Orenburg oil and gas condensate field, on the basis of which the optimization of the field development was carried out, is presented. Thanks to successful implementation of the newest technologies the researches, allowing to make important conclusions about the structure of the field, were executed.
References
1. Cosentino L., Integrated reservoir studies, Paris: TECHNIP ed., 2001, 400 p.
2. Geologicheskoe stroenie i neftegazonosnost' Orenburgskoy oblasti (Geological
structure and oil and gas potential of the Orenburg region): edited by
Panteleev A.S., Orenburg, 1997, 270 p.

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R.R. Bakhitov, R.R. Ismagilov (Gazpromneft-Razvitie LLC), Belozerov, A.S. Bochkov, A.N. Sitnikov, O.S. Ushmaev, M.V. Fedorov (Gazpromneft NTC LLC,RF,Saint-Petersburg)
Metodology of field development plan by the example of Vostochno-Messoykhskoye field

Key words: hierarchy of geological and simulation models, integrated modeling, conceptual model, optimization calculations, calculation of the optimal development pattern design.

The huge volume of analyzed data, as well as a wide range of uncertainties in geology, engineering, developing, and the economy makes it difficult multivariate calculation of simulation models for large fields. It should be remembered that the mapping of geological heterogeneity is a fundamental aspect in predicting the behavior of the productive intervals. The paper presents the methodology of defining the concept of field development, maximizing economic benefits. In the first stage, a preliminary feasibility study for the possible development systems was made, which showed that the greatest economic potential have a horizontal wells development pattern. In the second stage key parameters row system development were identified. At the third stage priority zones were delineated that are involved in the development in the first place. At the fourth step optimal profile and oil based fluids is determined taking into account infrastructure limitations.

References
1. Weber K.J., Influence of common sedimentary structures on fluid flow in
reservoir models, SPE 9247, 1982.
2. Ogunyemi T., Montaggioni Ph., Boubakeur I. et al., Sedimentary facies
computation and stratigraphic analyses using well logs, borehole images
and cores in Triassic fluvial sandstones of the Algerian Sahara, SPE 121945. –
2009.
3. Deschamps R., Guy N., Preux C., Lerat O., Impact of upscaling on 3-D modelling of SAGD in a meander belt, SPE 147035, 2011.
4. Begg S.H., Gustason E.R., Deacon M.W., Characterization of a fluvial-dominated delta: zone 1 of the Prudhoe Bay field, SPE 24698, 1992.
5. Hongmei Li, Jef Caers., Hierarchic modeling and history matching of multiscale
flow barriers in channelized reservoirs, SPE 109252, 2007.
6. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Nekhaev S.A., Karamutdinova D.M., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 26-31.

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A.A. Borodkin , M.Ya. Evseeva (Gazpromneft NTC, LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Ya.E. Volokitin, M.Yu. Shuster, I.N. Koltsov (Salym Petroleum Development N.V., RF, Moscow), A.V. Sidelnikov (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa)
Investigation of adsorption mechanisms in static conditions in order to reduce risks for the project of alkaline -surfactant - polymer flooding for conditions of West-Salymskoye field

Key words: chemical advanced recovery methods, alkaline -surfactant - polymer flooding, anionic surfactants , adsorption , phase transitions, adsorption isotherms.

Complex technology of alkaline- surfactant - polymer flooding is currently one of the most effective chemical advanced recovery methods. The losses of surfactant due to adsorption processes are related to significant risks in the commercial realization of this technology. Proper setting of experiments, the qualitative interpretation of their results, followed by modeling is one of the most important tasks at the design and optimization of alkaline- surfactant - polymer flooding for specific field conditions. A complex of experiments aimed at studying the adsorption processes in a given range of concentrations of surfactants on the sand packed tube, prepared from crushed core material of AC11 reservoir of West Salymskoye field, is carried out. The main current tasks are statistical material exploratory work on the adsorption of surfactants on the rock, determination of the shape of the adsorption isotherms at different concentrations of salt, soda and polymer, search reagents to reduce the adsorption processes in the rock, interpreting the results by mathematical modeling methods.
References
1. Holmberg K., Jnsson B. et al., Surfactants and polymers in aqueous solution,
Wiley; 2 edition, 2002, 562 p.
2. Zhou W. et al., Experimental investigation of surfactant adsorption
on sand and oil-water interface in heavy oil/water/sand systems,
Canadian International Petroleum Conference, 2005. –
http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servlet/onepetropreview?id=PETSOC-
2005-192&soc=PETSOC
3. Azam M.R. et al., Static adsorption of anionic surfactant onto crushed
Berea sandstone, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology,
2013, pp. 1-7.
4. Limousin G. et al., Sorption isotherms: a review on physical bases, modeling
and measurement, Applied Geochemistry, 2007, V. 22, no. 2, pp. 249-275
5. W. Lv et al., Static and dynamic adsorption of anionic and amphoteric surfactants with and without the presence of alkali, Journal of Petroleum Science
and Engineering, 2011, V. 77, no. 2, pp. 209-218.
6. ShamsiJazeyi H., Hirasaki G., Verduzco R., Sacrificial agent for reducing adsorption of anionic surfactants, SPE 164061, 2013.
7. Schmitt T.M., Analysis of surfactants, CRC Press, 2001, V. 96, 638 p.
8. Kravchenko I.I., Babalyan G.A., Adsorbtsiya PAV v protsessakh dobychi nefti
(Adsorption of surfactant in the oil production process), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1971, 160 p.
9. Mustafin G.G., Vinokurova L.Ya., Proceedings of TatNINneft`, 1989, V. 41,
pp. 119-125.
10. Ogadzhanyants V.G., Dmitriev A.S., Polishchuk A.M., Surkova E.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 1984, no. 4, pp. 52-56.
11. Lenchenkova L.E., Povyshenie nefteotdachi plastov fiziko-khimicheskimi
metodami (EOR by physicochemical methods), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1998,
394 p.
12. K voprosu o vybore PAV dlya zavodneniya karbonatnykh zalezhey nefti
(On the selection of surfactant for flooding of carbonate oil reservoirs),
Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1972, V. 31.

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


I.A. Zhdanov, A.S. Margarit, M.I. Kuzmin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), S.A. Shadymuhamedov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Development of the algorithm for prevention of hydrate formation in the underground equipment during oil production

Key words: hydrate, well extraction, complications, underground equipment, algorithm.

The developed algorithm allows to calculate the depth of hydrate flowing wells according to the well design, reservoir characteristics, mode of operation of the well and the physical and chemical properties, as well as the depth of hydrate mechanized wells into account the characteristics of ESP.
References
1. Ostergaard K.K., Tohidi B., Danesh A. et al. A General Correlation for Predicting the Hydrate-Free Zone of Reservoir Fluids//SPE Prod. & Facilities, Vol. 15, No. 4, November 2000. – pp. 228-233.
2. Ostergaard K.K., Tohidi B., Proceedings. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Gas Hydrates
(ICGH4), Yokohama, Japan, 19-23 May 2002, pp. 384-387.
3. Instruktsiya po kompleksnomu issledovaniyu gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh
plastov i skvazhin (Instructions to complex research of gas and gas condensate
reservoirs and wells): edited by Zotov G.A., Aliev Z.S., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1980, 301 p.
4. Margarit A.S., Zhdanov I.A., Roshchektaev A.P., Gimaletdinov R.A., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2012, no.12, pp. 62-65.
5. Kuptsov S. M., Teplofizicheskie svoystva plastovykh zhidkostey i gornykh porod
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Thermophysical properties of reservoir fluids and
rocks of oil fields), Moscow: OOO “Nedra-Biznestsentr” Publ., 2008, 205 p.

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Power supply


A.A. Shushakov, S.G. Natalyin (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), N.M. Katrich, R.R. Kaybyshev, A.L. Figurin (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.V. Chikin, I.F. Boychuk (Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegas OJSC, RF, Noyabrsk)
Implementation of energy management system according to ISO 50001:2011 in vertically organized oil companies: JSC Gazprom neft approach

Key words: Energy Management System, energy performance, energy policy, energy planning, energy review.

For further developing energy efficiency program and taking long-term competitive advantage Gazprom Neft (upstream) needs in building energy management system according to ISO 5001:2011. Energy management through a well-structured ‘energy management system’ (EnMS) ensures that energy issues are properly taken into consideration in all aspects of the industrys activities. There are the following elements: energy policy, energy planning, Implementation and operation, Checking. EnMS helps Gazprom Neft in taking new quality level of developing energy efficiency.


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Information technology


S.A. Doktor, D.M. Korolev (Gazpromneft-Khantos LLC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), N.P. Sarapulov, R.R. Gilmanov, N.. Katrich (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), .. Shushakov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), V.S. Zelentsov (Gazpromneft-Muravlenko branch of Gazpromneft-Noyabrskneftegaz JSC, RF Muravlenko)
Organising artificial lifting management: example of Electronic Fields Development project

Key words: artificial lift, system development assets management, automation, business processes.

The article presents an integrated solutions generator for the further well operations (optimization, lift method shift, EOR intensification, use of chemicals, transfer to another well stock) based on the ongoing well operation analysis, equipment and field production studies. The system provides solutions to increase production and reduce costs by which management is still ready to endorse a conclusion. The development strategy of Gazprom Neft as one of the leaders of the oil industry has set a rather ambitious task, which in turn puts forward specific requirements on the terms and quality of automation of the most actual goals of Upstream. Introduction of ready-made IT solutions that have shown to be effective in other oil companies is justified in the initial period, at the moment does not provide the proper rate of development of IT architecture, up to dynamics of company development. Accordingly, it is essential to aware how the key business objectives of the Company are supported by the available units of IT solutions and how information flows between used IT solutions support the existing business regulations.
References
1. Henriquez A., Fjrtoft I., Johnsen C. et al., Enablers for successful implementations of Intelligent Energy: The Statoil case, SPE 111470-MS, 2008.
2. Otto G., Foreman R., Verra G., Field of the future digital infrastructure and IT
architecture, SPE 112149-MS, 2008.
3. Edwards T., Mydland ., Henriquez A., The Art of Intelligent Energy (iE)-insights and lessons learned from the application of iE, SPE 128669-MS, 2010.

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Economy, management, the legal right


A.V. Abramov, A.N. Vinokurov, V.Kh. Mukhametshin (RN-UfaNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.R. Atnagulov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF Ufa), R.R. Ismagilov (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow), R.V. Miroshnichenko (RN-Yuganskneftegaz LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk)
Sensitivity analysis to the shape of production profile

Key words: sensitivity analysis, production profile, interpolation scheme

The work presented in the paper is on business planning and economics of oil and gas fields development projects. A method of formal description of a production profile and a method of sensitivity analysis of economic performance factors and technological parameters to the shape of the profile are developed. The shape of the profile is described by a simple analytical function depending on three parameters characterizing production growth and decline, peak production. This analytical description provides an ability to systematically change the shape of the profile and thus an ability to calculate economic parameters such as the net present value or technological parameters for shape changed profiles. The calculated set of economic and technological parameters paves a way to simplified computations of these parameters for production profiles of more or less arbitrary shapes which were not included in the initial set of profiles. Alternatively the methods presented in the paper allow one to choose the shape of the production profile which would generate given economic performance. The methods could be used to improve quality of business planning and to reduce its cost.


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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


R.S. Khisamov, R.Sh. Dinmukhamedov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk) , V.G. Bazarevskaya, T.I. Tarasova, N.A. Badurtdinova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
On the efficiency of geological survey works to find local deposits in the eastern regions of the Republic of Tatarstan

Key words: resources, reserves, wells, geological survey works, increment, deposit, efficiency, integrated geological and geophysical analysis.

The stages of prospecting and exploration of oil deposits at the territory of eastern regions of the Republic of Tatarstan and the efficiency of geological survey works are considered. At the present stage to solve the problem of further petroleum reserves increment low-cost "light" geophysical and geochemical methods and integrated geological and geophysical analysis data are involved. As a result, the efficiency of exploration drilling is significantly improved, a significant increase of reserves of industrial category 1, the estimated category 2 and resources 3 is obtained.


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S.R. Bembel (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Exploration of local hydrocarbons deposits based on their relationship to the geodynamics in the Middle Ob

Key words: oil and gas reservoir, seismic, pockets of geodynamics, faults, destruction zone, fracture, fractal.

The features of the geological structure of separate deposits Frolovskaya oil and gas field in Western Siberia. Based on a complex analysis of seismic, well testing data and core descriptions proposed fractal model of prolific areas related to the activity of local areas of geodynamics. The main way of exploration of such hydrocarbon deposits is a 3D-seismic survey in conjunction with the field and core research.

References
1. Bembel' S.R., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology,
2010, no. 4, pp. 8-12.
2. Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Khanty-Mansiyskogo okruga (Geology and
oil and gas of Khanty-Mansiysk region), Ekaterinburg: IzdatNaukaServis Publ.,
2004, 146 p.
3. Valyaev B.M., Astaf'ev D.A., Kuzin A.M. et al., Georesursy. Geoenergetika.
Geopolitika, 2012, V. 2(6), URL: http://oilgasjournal.ru/vol_6/valyaev.html.
4. Muslimov R.Kh., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2007, no. 3, pp. 24-29.
5. Petrov A.I., Shein V.S., Geologiya nefti i gaza The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2001, no. 3, pp. 6-13.
6. Tveritinova T.Yu., Kurdin N.N., Proceedings of scientific conference
“Lomonosovskie chteniya”, 2005, URL:
http://geo.web.ru/db/msg.html?mid=1172760.
7. Shein V.S., Geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Rossii (Geology and oil and gas
of Russia), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2012, 848 p.
8. Sherman S.I., Tektonika i geodinamika: obshchie i regional'nye aspekty
(Tectonics and geodynamics: general and regional aspects), Part 2,

Moscow: GEOS Publ., 1998, pp. 274-276.


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A.R. Kudayarova (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Sedimentation and petrophysical model of deposits STkz1 of Volkovskoe field

Key words: carbonate deposits, lithotype, collector, correlation.

This paper examines the impact of lithologic and sedimentary structure of the carbonate reservoir at its permeability and reservoir properties. On the basis of lithological and petrographic descriptions the author selected two lithological types that differ in structure and character of the carbonate grains of the hollow space. It is also an assessment of the lithotypes allocated using geophysical data.

References
1. Shutikhin V.I., Issledovanie kollektorskikh i petrofizicheskikh svoystv produktivnykh porod po kernam razvedochnykh ploshchadey Respubliki Bashkortostan dlya podscheta zapasov i interpretatsii materialov GIS (Research of
reservoir and petrophysical properties of productive rocks by core samples of
prospecting areas of Bashkortostan for counting reserves and interpretation
of well logging data), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 1995, 183 p.
2. Syundyukov A.Z., Litologiya fatsii i neftegazonosnost' karbonatnykh otlozheniy
zapadnoy Bashkirii (Lithology of facies and oil and gas potential of
carbonate deposits of western Bashkiria), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 167 p.
3. Fluegel E., Microfacies analysis of limestones. analysys, interpretation, and
application, Berlin: Springer, 2010, 984 p.
4. Lucia F.J., Carbonate reservoir characterization: an integrated approach, Springer, 2007, 336 p.

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T.S. Baranov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Approaches for geological object detailed description

Key words: detailed correlation, facies, HFU, geomodel.

The authors analized four methods for describing reservoir based on tasks and data set available. Studies could include detailed correlation, petrophysics and necessary assumptions.

References
1. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh litologicheskikh
lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand lithologic oil and
gas traps), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 259 p.
2. Kirsanov N.N., Trenin Yu.A., Vestnik nedropol'zovatelya KhMAO, 2007, no. 17.
3. Grigor'eva M.P., Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK Rosneft'”, 2012,
no. 1, pp. 7-9.
4. Belozerov B.V., Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta – Bulletin
of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2010, T. 317, no. 1, pp. 110-116.
5. Gunter G.W. at al., Early determination of reservoir flow units using an Integrated petrophysical method, SPE, 1997.
6. Sultanova E.N., Proceedings of 3rd Scientific and Technical Conference of
young specialists, Ufa 3-10 March 2009, Ufa: RN-UfaNIPIneft', 2009, pp. 10-12.
7. Sultanova E.N., Tulaev R.V., Mukminov I.R., Baranov T.S., Proceedings of IX
Scientific and Practical Conference Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy
s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami (Geology and development of fields with hard-to-recover reserves), Nebug, 2009.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


V.Yu. Alekperov, V.I. Grayfer, N.M. Nikolaev (OAO LUKOIL, RF, Moscow), V.B. Karpov, V.I. Kokorev, R.G. Nurgaliev, A.P. Paliy (RITEK JSC, RF, Moscow), A.A. Bokserman, V.A. Klinchev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), A.V. Fomkin (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow)
New Russian oil-recovery method for exploiting the Bazhenov Formations deposits

Key words: Bazhenov Formation, thermal-gas treatment, oxygen-containing mixture injection, kerogen, miscible drive, enhanced oil recovery.

In this paper we present new Russian oil-recovery method for exploiting the Bazhenov Formation’s deposits, which is based on the integration of the thermal and gas reservoir treatment. This method is carried out by the injection of the oxygen-containing mixture and its spontaneous exothermic oxidation reactions in situ. Based on the aggregation of long-term research it was established that such complex treatment, firstly, allows to increase dramatically oil recovery from the drained carbonate hydrophobic interlayers due to the effective displacing agents generation, and secondly, provides bringing into development the non-drained argillaceous-kerogenic interlayers due to their controlled heating from the drained interlayers, and at last thirdly, provides additional hydrocarbon recovery from the kerogen due to its cracking and pyrolysis. The results of the first phase of field tests in the pilot of the Sredne-Nazymskoye field (Bazhenov Formation) not only proved in principle the possibility of the new technologys field implementation, but also confirmed main science-based positive effects of the thermal-gas treatment of the Bazhenov Formations deposits. It is established that this new technology is able to provide the value of oil recovery an order of magnitude greater than the depletion drive.

References
1. Sonich V.P., Baturin Yu.E., Malyshev A.G. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo V Oil Industry, 2001, no. 9, pp. 36-68.
2. Baykov N.M., Baykova E.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo V Oil Industry, 2013,
no. 5, pp. 120-123, no. 7, pp. 131-134.
3. 3. Baturin Yu.E., Sonich V.P., Malyshev A.G. et al., Interval, 2002, V. 36, no. 1, pp. 17V32.
4. Sonich V.P., Collected papers §Osobennosti podscheta zapasov nefti v
bazhenovskikh otlozheniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Features of calculation of oil
reserves in Western Siberia Bazhenov deposits), Tyumen': Publ. of SibNIINP,
1985, pp. 73-77.
5. Nesterov I.I., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh
mestorozhdeniy, 2004, no. 1, pp. 78-{89.
6. Karnyushina E.E., Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seriya 4. Geologiya -
Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2003, no. 6, pp. 19{-27.
7. Slavkin V.S., Alekseev A.D., Koloskov V.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo V Oil Industry, 2007, no. 8, pp. 100-{104.
8. Zubkov M.Yu., Geologiya i geofizika V Russian Geology and Geophysics,
1999, V. 40, no. 12, pp. 1821{-1836.
9. Bokserman A.A., Collected papers Teplovye metody vozdeystviya na
plast (Thermal methods of reservoir stimulation), Proceedings of industry
workshop, October 5-8, 1971, Ukhta, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1971,
pp. 10-16.
10. Lopatin N.V., Emets T.P., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy, 1999, no. 7, pp. 2{-17.
11. Vol'f A.A., Petrov A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo V Oil Industry, 2006, no. 4,
pp. 56{-58.
12. Bokserman A.A., Vlasov V.N., Plynin V.V. et al., Neftepromyslovoe delo,
2011, no. 2, pp. 12-15.
13. Kokorev V.I., Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 6, pp. 29-32.
14. Bokserman A.A., Grayfer V.I., Kokorev V.I., Chubanov O.V., Interval, 2008,
no. 7, pp. 26-33.
15. Alvarado V, Mandrik E., Metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov.
Planirovanie i strategii primeneniya (EOR methods. Planning and implementation
strategy), Moscow: Premium inzhiniring, 2011, 244 p.
16. Obzor proektov primeneniya MUN v mire (Overview of EOR projects in the world), Oil & Gas Journal, 2004, no. 4; 2008, no. 4; 2010, no. 4; 2012, no. 4.

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R.F. Yakupov (Oil and Gas Department Tuymazaneft, RF, Oktyabrsky), V.Sh. Mukhametshin (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Problem of efficiency of low-productivity carbonate reservoir development on example of Turnaisian stage of Tuymazinskoye field

Key words: carbonate reservoir, spot waterflooding, permeability, recovery, hydrodynamic interaction, acid treatment, near-wellbore zone, well re-perforation, diversion to injection.

The authors analyzed efficiency of reserves development and identified peak value residue stock zones. Estimated potential of put into production for approx. 500 transition wells never exploited for Turnaisian layers. Through thorough analysis of result of well tests current injection zones and injection test area determined effects of injection wells on production wells which is 350m away. The article identifies most efficient treatment technique: acid treatments, re-perforation combined with acid and polymer reservoir isolation treatment. On the basis of idle wells the authors formed program of well diversion onto production and injection well stock.

References
1. Baymukhametov K.S., Enikeev V.R., A.Sh. Syrtlanov, F.M. Yakupov, Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka Tuymazinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Geological
structure and development of Tuimazy field), Ufa: Kitap Publ., 1993, 280 p.
2. Baymukhametov K.S., Viktorov P.S., Gaynullin K.Kh., Syrtlanov A.Sh., Geologicheskoe stroenie i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy
Bashkortostana (Geological structure and development of oil and gas fields in
Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of RITs ANK “Bashneft'”, 1997, 424 p.
3. Muslimov R.Kh., Ramazanov R.G., Abdulmazitov R.G., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
– Oil Industry, 1987, no. 10, pp. 14-18.
4. Mukhametshin V.Sh., Povyshenie effektivnosti zavodneniya slozhnopostroenykh
nizkoproduktivnykh zalezhey nefti (Improving the efficiency of
flooding of low productivity complex oil deposits), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2005, 77 p.
5. Zeygman Yu.V., Mukhametshin V.V., Obobshchenie opyta zavodneniya zalezhey vysokovyazkoy nefti v karbonatnykh kollektorakh s tsel'yu povysheniya
effektivnosti vozdeystviya na plast (Summarizing the experience of flooding of
viscous oil deposits in carbonate reservoirs in order to increase the effectiveness
reservoir stimulation), Ufa: Publ. of USPTU, 2009, 138 p.
6. Mukhametshin V.Sh., Neftegazovoe delo Oil and Gas Business, 2011, V.9, no. 4, pp. 47-50.

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S.V. Stepanov, D.N. Glumov (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Impact evaluation of various approaches for justification of initial distribution of fluids and their mobility on the results of reservoir simulation modeling

Key words: relative phase permeability, capillary pressure curve, Leverett function, connate water saturation, critical water saturation, residual oil saturation, transition zone, reservoir simulation.

The article reviews the application of various methods to assign initial distribution of water and oil and their end points. A new method to justify capillary pressure curves is proposed for reservoir simulation modeling. It is demonstrated that the application of different methods to justify initial distribution of fluids and their mobility has a significant impact on calculation of development parameters.
References
1. Stepanov S.V., Shabarov A.B., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie – Mathematical Models and Computer Simulations, 2003, V. 15, no. 9, pp. 8898.
2. Stepanov S.V., Efimov P.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2006, no.
7, pp. 84-86.
3. Stepanov S.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Oil Industry, 2008, no. 8, pp. 72-74.
4. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous material, Reinhold, New York, 1961.
5. Pentland C.H., Itsekiri E., Mansoori S.Al, Iglauer S., Meauserment of nonwettingphase trapping in sandpacks, SPE 115697, 2010.
6. Byrnes A, Bhattacharya S., Influence of initial and residual oil saturation and
relative permeability on recovery from transition zone reservoirs in shallow
shelf carbonates, SPE 99736, 2006.
7. OST 39-235-89, Neft'. Metod opredeleniya fazovykh pronitsaemostey v laboratornykh usloviyakh pri sovmestnoy statsionarnoy fil'tratsii (Oil. Method for
determination of phase permeability in the laboratory at the joint stationary
filtration), Moscow, Minnefteprom, 1989. 35 s.
8. Doroginitskaya L.M., Nenakhov Yu.Ya., Anashkin A.R. et al., Proceedings of
School-Seminar “Fizika neftyanogo plasta” (Physics of the oil reservoir), 20-24
May 2002, pp. 75-80.
9. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu geologicheskikh zapasov
nefti i gaza ob"emnym metodom (Guidelines on the calculation of geological
reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method): edited by Petersil'e V.I.,
Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow - Tver': Publ. of VNIGNI, NPTs Tver'geofizika, 2003, 270 p.

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A.A. Zlobin (Perm National Research Technical University, RF, Perm)
Influence of water on the formation wettability productive rocks

Key words: statistical analysis core, surface wettability, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, disjoining pressure, ion activity.

On a representative statistical material the author analyzed the influence of formation waters chemical composition on the wettability of the productive rocks. Wettability of the cores was determined by the productive objects OST 39-180-85. To explain the experimental evidence used coagulation DLVO theory. Wettability alteration in the hydrophobic side is due to the destruction of the water film. Stability of the film depends on salinity, pH and the specific activity of positive and negative ions. Found that divalent metal ions and non-chlorine and bromine reduced stability of the water film and the ions are anions may manifest itself as stabilizers, and water layer destructors.

References
1. Buckley J.S., Takamura K, Morrow N.R., Influence of electrical surface
charges on the wetting properties of crude oils, SPE Reservoir Engineering,
1989, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 332-340.
2. Tiab D., Donaldson E.C., Theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock
and fluid transport properties, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2004, 880 p.
3. Zlobin A.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2013, no. 4, pp. 20-24.
4. Deryagin B.V., Churaev N.V., Muller V.M., Poverkhnostnye sily (The surface
forces), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1985, 300 p.
5. Verwey E.J.W., Overbeek J.Th.G., Theory of the stability of lyophobic colloids, New York Amsterdam: Elsevier Publ., 1948, 205 p.

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V.A. Mashorin (NAC AKI-OTYR OJSC, RF, Khanty-Mansiysk), O.V. Fominykh (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, RF, Tyumen)
Studies of the effect of injected water salinity on the reservoir permeability

Key words: salinity, permeability, core, injection water, water compatibility, reservoir pressure maintenance.

In the development of deposits of carbon materials with maintaining reservoir pressure, killing the well with the current and capital repairs of water solutions necessary to study the effect of salinity of the water used on the permeability of the reservoir. In this regard, the paper presents the results of these studies on the example of the core samples of Verhne- Shapshinkoye deposit.


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The oil-field equipment


R.N. Bakhtizin, K.R. Urazakov, R.R. Rizvanov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
New calculation method of admissible brought stress values

Key words: sucker rods, fatigue, brought stress by A.S. Virnovsky, modified Goodman diagram.

The subject of this work is a fast method of calculations of the admissible brought stress values by A.S. Virnovsky (the sucker rod strength unit by the GOST R 51161 standard) for sucker rods of sucker rod pumping units. The results are equation solvings to determine requisite value. This method is reasonable to use at the calculations of the admissible brought stress for new sucker rods instead of long term field trials. Due to this described method it has first got the admissible brought stress values for sucker rods of Ochersky machine-building factory. Those values are recommended for oil field practice. It has developed crossplatform software implementing described calculation method.

References
1. Kruman B.B., Glubinnonasosnye shtangi (Pumping rod),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 181 p.
2. American Petroleum Institute. Recommended practice for care
and handling of sucker rods, API RP 11BR, 7th edition, Dallas, Texas:
API, 1986.
3. Bakhtizin R.N., Urazakov K.R., Rizvanov R.R., Elektronnyy nauchnyy
zhurnal "Neftegazovoe delo" - The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2011, no. 4, pp. 66-73.

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V.V. Sushkov (Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, RF, Tyumen), M.K. Veliev (Giprotyumenneftegaz OAO, HMC Group, RF, Tyumen)
Procedure for determination of the optimum structure of operating pump units at WEll pad pump stations

Key words: well pad pump station (WPPS), specific energy consumption decrease, determination of the optimum structure of pump units, lower intrinsic curve method.

Maintenance of reservoir pressure is one of the most power-consuming processes in petroleum engineering, where the main consumers are pump units at well pad pump stations. The article specifies a procedure to determine the optimum structure of WPPS pump units to ensure the optimum structure and the priority for switch pumps on/off at minimum energy consumption to water pumping, if the scheduled assignment volume is updated.

References
1. Frayshteter V.P., Nissenbaum I.A., Veliev M.K., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil
Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 86-88.
2. Frolov V.P., Vorob'ev V.V., Diagnostika i energosberezhenie v neftedobyche
(Diagnostics and energy saving in oil extraction), Tyumen': Publ. of SibNIIENG
OAO, 2002, 472 p.
3. Onishchenko G.B., Yun'kov M.G., Elektroprivod turbomekhanizmov (Electric
drive of turbomechanisms), Moscow: Energiya Publ., 1972, 240 p.
4. Paulauskas M.A., Rashkinnis A.V., Stanenis K.L., Sharkshnis G.A., Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of the Lithuanian SSR, Ser. B, 1975, V. 5(90), pp. 145-151.
5. Venikov V.A., Zhuravlev V.G., Filippova T.A., Optimizatsiya rezhimov elektrostantsiy i energosistem (Optimization of power plants and power systems),
Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1990, 352 p.
6. Patent no. 2493361 RF, MPK E21B43/20, Method for controlling multimachine
complex of reservoir pressure maintenance system, Inventors: Veliev M.K., Sushkov V.V.

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Information technology


I.S. Korovin, M.V. Khisamutdinov, M.G. Tkachenko (Sientific-Research Institute of Multirpocessor Computer Systems, Southern Federal University, RF, Taganrog)
Forecasting of oilfield equipment work conditions with the application of evolutionary algorithms and artificial neural networks

Key words: data mining, diagnostics, forecasting, oilfield equipment, neural networks, genetic algorithms.

The article describes an evolutionary approach to artificial neural network (NN) training, which is used to determine the state of oil-production equipment. A new artificial NN weight coefficient coding method using multi-chromosomes is proposed. The genetic operators of crossingover and mutation applied to multi-chromosomes are examined. A genetic algorithm structure of artificial NN training is proposed based on the developed genetic operators. A comparison of the proposed approach to NN training with existing ones has been carried out.

References
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– Oil Industry, 2012, no. 9, pp. 116-118.
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Tekhnicheskie nauki - Izvestiya SFedU. Engineering Sciences,
2010, no. 12, pp. 172-178.
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extraction from ann with gp Ju.R. Rabunal, Lecture Notes in Computer
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pp. 103-109.
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using multithreaded and multicore CPUs, Lecture Notes in Computer
Science, Springer-Verlag Gmb., 2011, T. 6593 LNCS, no. PART 1, pp. 70-79.

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I.S. Reshetnikov (Gazprom Centrremont LLC, RF, Moscow)
Automated control system repairs engineering preparation in Gazprom Centrremont LLC

Key words: automatization, repair, repair unit, oil, gaz, software.

The automated control system repairs engineering preparation was designed for Gazprom Centrremont LLC. Today, the system collects the final versions of the documents , encodes it provides coordination and leads card documentation for a single form . Server at the same time set up to work as a data source for external systems when opened in supervisory control system maintenance and repair. The system makes it possible to associate the technical documentation and objects (units, subassemblies, parts and so on) from different directories. It is provided through business process Gazenergoservis.


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Oil refining


Ya.I. Vaysman, V.N. Korotaev, Yu.V. Kulikova, N.N. Slyusar, T.G. Filkin (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Prospects for processing of asphaltene, resin and paraffine wastes

Key words: deposits of asphaltenes, resins, and paraffins; asphaltene, resin and paraffine wastes (ARPW); disposal of ARPW; oil slurry treatment.

Study is devoted to the analysis the ways of asphaltene, resin and paraffine wastes (ARPW) disposal. It is shown that there are two main approaches to the disposal of ARPW – their neutralization and recycling. Neutralization of ARPW (which is usually performed by the means of biotechnologies or thermal treatment of waste) is less preferred since valuable hydrocarbon component of ARPW, which could be used as a secondary raw material, is lost during this approach. It was found that there is a number of technologies for processing ARPW, allowing the use of their resource potential, the most promising of which include: production of bitumen , waterproofing coatings, lubricants, fuel briquettes, liquid fuels, technical deasphalted oils and waxes, as well as the use of ARPW in the function of the co-fuel.

The algorithm of study and choice of processing technology to produce ARPW commercial products, including a number of interrelated steps, was created. The algorithm was tested on a sample of one of oil producing companies in the Perm region.

References
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vovlecheniem v pererabotku neftesoderzhashchikh otkhodov (Increasing
the amount of hydrocarbon resources by involvement in the
processing of oily waste): the thesis of the candidate of technical sciences,
Novokuybyshevsk, 2002.
2. Ruchkinova O.I., Razrabotka resursosberegayushchikh tekhnologiy
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of resource saving technologies for safe disposal of solid waste of oil
production): the thesis of the doctor of technical sciences, Perm',
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Sovremennye metody pererabotki nefteshlamov (Modern methods of
oil sludge processing), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 2010, 190 p.
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but rich in potential, Oilfield Review, Summer 2007, V. 19, Issue
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coating), Inventors: Vaysman Ya.I., Korotaev V.N., Voronkova T.V., Belozerov
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grease), Inventors: Ruchkinova O.I., Vaysman Ya.I., Korotaev V.N.
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zhurnal “Neftegazovoe delo” - The electronic scientific journal Oil and
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O.M., Shabalina T.N., Zanozina I.I.
13. Patent no. 2237082 RF, Sostav dlya briketirovannogo topliva (Fuel
briquetting composition), Inventors: Ruchkinova O.I., Vaysman Ya.I.,
Korotaev V.N.
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formulation), Inventors: Zakharov Yu.A., Sergeev V.A., Fuss V.A.
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uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Process for treating heavy
asphalthene-containing stock), Inventor: Diderik V.
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