|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
The paper presents information on Tatneft PJSC heavy oil development project underway in the Republic of Tatarstan. The project aims at development of new heavy oil fields and plays that hold much potential. The project provides for a package of new and improved drilling and production technologies, downstream and midstream solutions, customized machinery and equipment. Main results of the project are presented: cumulative oil production, amount of investments, tax payments.
Development of non-conventional hydrocarbon reserves is associated with heavy investments and high operating expenses, so the success of such projects is only possible given the governmental support, in the first place, tax remissions.
The project has been enjoying Federal tax incentives in the form of the zero rate of Mineral Extraction Tax for production of heavy oil and special formula for calculation of heavy oil export tax for 10-years period, and Regional tax incentives – zero rate of property tax, which gives good reasons for the project to be successful.
Technical and economic assessment of development of new heavy oil fields made in 2015 showed that the remaining export tax special formula period is too short to provide for return on investments. With a view to expand the heavy oil project, the Company has offered special formula to calculate export tax for new plays. The offered unification of export tax special formula period has been approved at the governmental level and has been included in the Russian Law on Customs Tariff. The existing tax incentives for heavy oil production hold out hopes that heavy oil development projects would pay back and that regional and federal budgets would get extra income.Federal authorities are currently discussing feasibility of the new model of petroleum industry taxation system, excess profits tax. Possible future impact of the new concept has been assessed.
1. Khisamov R.S. , Abdulmazitov R.G., Zaripov A.T., Ibatullina S.I., Stages of development of bitumen pools in the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.) Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 7, pp. 43–45.
2. Takhautdinov Sh.F., Sabirov R.K., Ibragimov N.G. et al., Sozdanie i promyshlennoe vnedrenie kompleksa tekhnologiy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkikh neftey (The creation and implementation of technology complex for heavy oil deposits development), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2011, 142 p.
3. Maganov N.U., Ibragimov N.G., Khisamov R.S. et al., Problems of Tatneft OAO heavy oil project development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 7, pp. 21–23.
4. Mekheev E.V., Khisamov R.S., Zaripov A.T., Motina L.I., Ekonomicheskie aspekty razvitiya proekta osvoeniya mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkoy nefti v Respublike Tatarstan (Economic aspects of the super-viscous oil deposits development o in the Republic of Tatarstan), Collected papers “Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov” (Features of exploration and development of non-traditional hydrocarbons deposits), Proceedings of International Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan', 2–3 September 2015, Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2015, pp. 202–204.
5. Ibatullin R.R., Ibragimov N.G., Khisamov R.S., Zaripov A.T. , Problems and solutions for shallow heavy oil production, SPE 161998, 2012.
6. Takhautdinov Sh., Ibragimov N., Khisamov R. et al., Modern SAGD technology – From modeling to field monitoring, World Heavy Oil Congress, 5-7 March 2014, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, WHOC 14–257.
7. Osnovnye napravleniya nalogovoy reformy neftyanoy otrasli (The main directions of the tax reform of the oil industry), URL: http://vygon.consulting/upload/ iblock/fc5/vygon_consulting_tax_reform_2017.pdf
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
The Domanic pay zones can be compared with the shale plays in the USA. In the geologic section of the Volga-Ural oil-and-gas basin, they occur from the Sargaevskian through the Zavolzhskian age. The Domanic sediments are represented by siliceous-argillaceous-carbonate varieties enriched with organic matter and other dissipated oil components. These sediments with rather low-quality reservoir properties are the main source rock.
The Domanic sediments on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan and the adjoining territories of the Volga-Ural oil-and-gas province were proved to be oil-bearing.
To-date (as of January 1, 2017), eight fields with pay zones confined to the Domanic sediments have been booked in the State Reserves Register of the Republic of Tatarstan. All these fields are found within the South-Tatarian Arch. Oil accumulations were found in the Domanic sediments of the Sargaevskian, Eletskian, Dankovo-Lebedyanskian, and Zavolzhskian formations.
Tatneft PJSC has been carrying out Domanic exploration projects in its license areas in the Republic of Tatarstan, Samara and Orenburg regions, the Nenets Autonomous Area, and the Republic of Kalmykia.
In Samara and Orenburg regions, oil accumulations in the Zavolzhskian and Dankovo-Lebedyanskian formations were found, also, core analyses revealed slight oil shows in the Dankovo-Lebedyanskian, Eletskian, Zadonskian, Evlanovskian-Livenskian, Voronezhskian, Mendymskian, Semilukskian, and Sargaevskian formations. However, conventional flow tests in the intervals of the Dankovo-Lebedyanskian, Eletskian Evlanovskian-Livenskian, and Voronezhskian formations produced water. Obviously, non-conventional novel approaches are needed to drill and test Domanic sediments, which can be rather costly.
High exploration potential is associated with the Republic of Udmurtia. At present, six fields with pay zones confined to the Domanic sediments in the Frasnian, Famennian, and Zavolzhskian formations have been booked in the State Reserves Register of the Republic of Udmurtia; besides, oil accumulations not yet booked have been found in the Zavolzhskian formations. In Udmurtia, conventional exploration methods were applied implying search for oil in the Domanic plays based on presence of bioherm buildups. However, our experience shows that the Domanic sediments are characterized by areal extent and are not controlled by structural factors. It should also be borne in mind that the Domanic pay zones are classified as nonconventional tight reservoirs with rather high TOC. Available data is not yet sufficient to assess hydrocarbon potential in the Republic of Udmurtia, however, consistent and detailed study of Domanic plays might make them a promising production target.
Generally, hydrocarbon potential of the Domanic sediments is rather high, and the territory of the Volga-Ural oil-and-gas province may serve as a unique testing site to study Domanic plays and to test novel production methods that are able to provide return on investments.
1. Tolkachev V.M., Shale revolution in USA and perspectives in commissioning the unconventional oil and gas resources in Russia (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, 4, pp. 95-98.
2. Zuev A., Nashi slantsy – samye bogatye v mire (Our shale rocks are the richest in the world), URL: http://www.cdu.ru/catalog/mintop/infograf/032014/3. Savel'ev V.A., Neftegazonosnost' i perspektivy osvoeniya resursov nefti Udmurtskoy Respubliki (Oil and gas potential and prospects of development of oil resources of the Udmurt Republic), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2003, 287 p.
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The majority of researchers believe that formation of heavy oil traps in Permian deposits of Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya area is attributed to Devonian and Carboniferous oil reservoirs which resulted fr om vertical migration of hydrocarbons through natural fractures and faults. Heavy oil traps are originally related to coastal-marine sands of Late Ufimian basin wh ere coastal sand bars formed due to geodynamic processes.
To analyze heavy oil traps genesis in Cheremshano-Bastrykskaya area, neotectonic investigations were carried out on top of Asselian deposits and the topographical relief. Identifying the base of Sheshminskian anticlinal structures in Lower Permian deposits has been attempted, involving studies of 73 heavy oil traps.
Correlation of Sheshminskian anticlines horizontal location with neotectonic genesis of Asselian deposits showed that most of these structures have no base in the underlying Permian deposits and can be classified as non-tectonic structures. Coincidence of sand unit top and overburden rock structural geometries is attributed to irregular compaction of lithologically different rocks, rather than to tectonic processes.
The initial stage of Permian deposits topography formation is associated with enveloping the core of reef carboniferous structures with younger rocks; or it may attributed to some other sedimentary processes or to the buried paleogeomorphic features reflected on the ground surface.
Suspending heavy-oil production will entail changes in oil traps location. Recommencing of production will require identifying their horizontal location, and this data can be provided by neotectonic investigations.
1. Akishev I.M., Usloviya zaleganiya, osnovnye zakonomernosti rasprostraneniya i osobennosti stroeniya skopleniy bitumov v permskikh otlozheniyakh Tatarskoy ASSR (The occurrence conditions, the main regularities of distribution and the peculiarities of the structure of bitumen accumulations in the Permian deposits of the Tatar ASSR), Collected papers “Geologiya bitumov i bitumovmeshchayushchikh porod” (Geology of bitumens and bituminous substrata), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, pp. 59–67.
2. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': GART Publ., 2008, 347 p.
3. Uspenskiy B.V., Borovskiy M.Ya., Vafin R.F., Petrov S.I., Geologicheskie kriterii i geofizicheskie metody podgotovki mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov k osvoeniyu (Geological criteria and geophysical methods for the preparation of natural bitumen deposits to development), Collected papers “Osobennosti razvedki i razrabotki mestorozhdeniy netraditsionnykh uglevodorodov” (Features of exploration and development of non-traditional hydrocarbons deposits), Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference, Kazan', 2–3 September 2015, Kazan': Ikhlas, 2015, pp. 294–296.4. Mingazov M.N., Otsenka perspektiv neftenosnosti osadochnoy tolshchi Tatarstana na osnove neotektonicheskikh issledovaniy (Estimation of oil-bearing prospects of sedimentary thickness of Tatarstan on the basis of neotectonic studies), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2005, 160 p.
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The most topical and challenging issues related to study of heavy oil reserves are discussed. The scope of the project includes laboratory studies, core macro description, reserves estimate parameters based on geophysical survey results. The aim of the project is to update geological structure and to estimate reserves of the Sheshminskian formation with increased focus on potential determination of porosity and oil saturation using well logging data. To determine the porosity factor, data on neutron gamma logging, compensated neutron logging, and density logging were used. Corrections for compensated neutron logging results were used, including corrections for borehole effect and effect of shaliness. Also, reproducibility of porosity factors determined by well logging and laboratory-based core studies was analyzed. The most reliable methods to determine reserves estimate parameters were identified. Particular attention is given to selection of reference beds to calculate correction for shaliness. The authors address the issues related to calculation of formation volume factor for two reservoir types, clay and non-clay; the procedure to convert weight to volume oil saturation estimates is described. Well logging data can also be used to locate gas accumulations in target intervals. The above methods and procedures make it possible to understand how permeability and porosity change in area and in thickness, and to assess the extent of rock saturation with heavy oil providing, thus, a reliable estimate of reserves and an efficient reservoir management program.
1. Voytovich S.E., Akhmanova T.P., Akchurina N.V., Basic principles of calculation of ultra-viscous oil reserves of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesursy, 2013, no. 1, pp. 13–16.
2. Merkulov V.P., Posysoev A.A., Operativnyy analiz karotazhnykh diagramm (Operational log analysis), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2014, 176 p.
3. Uspenskiy B.V. Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': GART Publ., 2008, 347 p.
Khalimov E.M, Akishev I.M., Zhabreva P.S., Mestorozhdeniya prirodnykh bitumov (Deposits of natural bitumen), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 191 p.4. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Sharogorodskiy I.E. et al., Geologiya i osvoenie zalezhey prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology and development of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2007, 295 p.
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A new tendency in Tatarstan’s oil industry involves reserves growth due to heavy oil, as well as heavy oil production. Development of heavy-oil reservoirs requires knowledge of oil reservoir geology and water-saturated zones (water lenses) which significantly affect wellstream watercut. Reservoir development is complicated by the fact that these water lenses are isolated fr om each other.
The paper studies the problem of water zones presence in heavy oil reservoirs.
This paper analyzes basic aquifer systems confined to heavy oil accumulations in Sheshminskian horizon and discusses water zones distribution. It also presents well test data, well logging data, and core analyses data to confirm water presence in heavy oil reservoirs. Hydro-chemical analysis has been conducted to define the degree of aquifer impact on heavy-oil reservoirs in Sheshminsky horizon.
Appraisal wells drilled in some anticline structures including Polyanskoye, Mikhailovskoye, Melnichnoye, Chumachkinskoye, and others, demonstrate gas shows depending on caprock (Lingula clays) stability. In those areas wh ere Lingul clays are not so stable, i.e. prone to fracturing, reservoirs contain degassed oil. Voids in the reservoirs with no gas shows are most likely filled with water.
This paper discusses areal extent of heavy-oil reservoirs with gas shows, and presents gas elemental composition.
1. Khisamov R.S., Gatiyatullin N.S., Shargorodskiy I.E., Voytovich E.D., Voytovich S.E., Geologiya i osvoenie zalezhey prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology and development of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2007, 295 p.2. Kanalin V.G., Vagin S.B., Tokarev M.A. et al., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya i gidrogeologiya (Oil-and-gas-field geology and hydrogeology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1997, 366 p.
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Analysis and study of the Sheshminskian horizon dated to the Ufimian age is very important considering that commercial accumulations of heavy oil on the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan are confined to the Permian formations, in that number, to the Sheshminskian sand sequences. The Sheshminskian horizon consists of the upper sand sequence P1ss2 and the lower sand/clay sequence P1ss1. Heavy oil accumulations are confined to the increased thickness intervals, which form subparallel, mostly, northwest trending bar-like structures. Frequent and inhomogeneous interbedding of unconsolidated sandstones and tight rocks complicates correlation of pay intervals, tight sands, and shale breaks adding to exploration and production challenges.
The authors concentrated on study of the geologic cross-section of heavy oil accumulations and classification of geologic cross-sections types of the Sheshminskian sand sequences. Different approaches to classification of geologic cross-section types were considered, including those based on grain-size distribution, number of productive interlayers in the cross-section, combined analysis of SP curves and detailed core description, lithological characteristics and PVT analysis.
Finally, we developed a method providing for a combined analysis of logging data, calculated reservoir properties, lithological core description, and laboratory core analysis. This method can be used for complex-geology sediments represented by inhomogeneous interbedding of permeable interlayers differing in thickness with tight lithofacies.
The sand sequence was divided into two parts, the first part represented by sandstone with similar lithological and reservoir properties through the thickness, and the second part represented by tight sand, or intercalation of tight and unconsolidated sand. In terms of proportion of homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts, four types of cross-sections were recognized: I, II, III, and IV, which in case of occurrence of shaled out sandstones and thin shale interlayers were subdivided, in turn, into four subtypes – Ia, IIa, IIIa, and IVa.
Well logging data were used for analysis. On the territory under study, the sand sequence within the heavy oil pool boundary can be represented by all types of geological cross-sections, or one or two types can prevail. The prevailing type of cross-section is controlled by a number of factors: structural framework, tectonics, cycles of oil generation, oil migration behavior.
The results obtained can be used to estimate oil reserves, to plan reservoir engineering programs, and to assess oil and gas potential of the territory.
1. Shalin P.A., Geologicheskoe stroenie ufimskikh otlozheniy Yuzhno-Tatarskogo svoda v svyazi s poiskom i razvedkoy skopleniy prirodnykh bitumov (Geological structure of the Ufa deposits of the South Tatar arch in connection with the search and exploration of natural bitumen accumulations): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Bugul'ma, 1984.
2. Petrov G.A., Litologo-fatsial'nyy analiz bitumonosnykh kompleksov verkhnepermskikh otlozheniy v svyazi s otsenkoy resursov bitumov na territorii Tatarstana (Lithological and facies analysis of bitumen-bearing complexes of Upper Permian sediments in connection with the bitumen resources evaluation in the Tatarstan): thesis of candidate of geological and mineralogical science, Kazan', 2000.
3. Uspenskiy B.V., Valeeva I.F., Geologiya mestorozhdeniy prirodnykh bitumov Respubliki Tatarstan (Geology of natural bitumen deposits of the Republic of Tatarstan), Kazan': Gart Publ., 2008, 347 p.
4. Ezhova A.V., Litologiya (Lithology), Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2009, 351 p.
5. Chernova O.S., Zhilina E.N., Types of productive strata cuts (and Yu14 Yu13) Luginetskoe gas-condensate-oil field (Tomsk region) (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta = Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2011, V. 319, no. 1, pp. 131–136.
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Establishing correlations between well logging data and geomechanical parameters is a top priority task. In future, this will enable determination of geomechanical parameters directly from well logs, thus resulting in improved fracture treatment designs.
Problems associated with generation of synthetic well logs have been considered together with available solutions. Criteria for generalization of regression equations have been evaluated. The research has relied on heuristic approach which is an expert based analysis that has been used to select and generalize equations for characterization of a group of wells located within some production area. The equations have been selected for value averaging when correlation coefficients have been high enough compared to general values observed, while the cross-plot has exhibited no shape anomalies.
This research has involved analysis of distortions observed on variable density and full waveform sonic logs as well as their effects. A method to adjust sonic log curves based on gamma ray log readings is proposed. Recommendations for adjustment of formation density logs are provided. Formulas for estimation of synthetic curves for P- and S-waves interval transit times versus other geophysical parameters have been obtained. The need for geophysical data quality control is highlighted.
Cross plots have been created, regression equations between Young’s modulus and geophysical data have been solved. Summary equations for Young’s modulus and well log data for Tatarstan oil fields have been obtained. It has been demonstrated that synthetic well logs are required for estimation of Poisson’s ratio. Absence of correlation between gamma-ray data and Poison’s ratio has suggested that geomechanical cross-sections constructed without account of full waveform sonic log data and with consideration of full waveform sonic log data differ substantially. Recommendations for application of the resulting petrophysical relationships to design efficient fracture treatments are provided.
1. Salimov O.V., Postroenie geomekhanicheskikh modeley v simulyatorakh GRP (Construction of geomechanical models in hydraulic fracturing simulators), Collected papers “Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya” (Mechanics of rocks in the development of hydrocarbon deposits), Proceedings of 1st International Scientific and Technical Conference, St. Petersburg, 26-27 May 2015, Perm': Publ. of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 2015, pp. 35–36.
2. Mavko G, Mukerji T, Dvorkin J., The rock physics handbook. tools for seismic analysis of porous media, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2009, 511 p.
3. Gardner G.H.F., Gardner L.W., Gregory A.R., Formation velocity and density – the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps, Geophysics, 1974, V. 39, no. 6, pp. 770–780.
4. Komarov V.L., Petrofizicheskie osnovy povysheniya effektivnosti geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin na neftyanykh mestorozhdeniyakh vostochnoy okrainy Russkoy platformy (Petrophysical basis for improving the effectiveness of well logging in the oil fields of the Russian platform eastern suburbs): thesis of doctor of technical science, Moscow, 1971.5. Sokolova T.F., Popravko A.A., Problemy modelirovaniya uprugikh svoystv porod po dannym geofizicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin dlya tseley seysmicheskikh inversiy (Problems of simulation of elastic rock properties using geophysical well data for seismic inversion purposes), Proceedings of UkrSGRI, 2012, no. 4, pp. 139–157.
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Conventional oil or gas well design involves multiple casing strings because of alternation of zones in the cross-section characterized by various reservoirs properties and, consequently having different geological settings and geomechanical conditions. To drill a well deeper into formation such zones are generally isolated by intermediate casing strings run from wellhead to drilled depth, drilling is continued with a smaller-diameter bit. This results in higher material consumption (cement, casing strings) and increases cost of well casing.
Available expandable tubular technologies offer a viable solution to these challenges enabling selective isolation of trouble zones without loss of wellbore diameter. Total weight of casing strings in wells of up to 3500 m TD may be reduced by 100-300 tons. Oil-well cement requirements are cut down respectively.
Production wells at Tatneft’s oil fields are not provided with intermediate casing strings. To date, expandable profile liners for local casing have been successfully installed in more than 1,700 wells. Equipment for local well casing expandable profile liners are available in eight sizes intended for five various applications. Considerable work is underway in Tatneft to improve the expandable tubular technology for adjusting it to complex geological conditions encountered in oil production regions outside the Republic of Tatarstan.
1. Abdrakhmanov G.S., Kreplenie skvazhin ekspandiruemymi trubami (Well casing by expandable pipes), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2014, 267 p.
2. Patent no. 2483190 RF, MPK E 21 B 33/10, E 21 V 43/10, Method and device for isolation of troublesome zones when drilling wells with shaped shutter with cylindrical sections, Inventors: Abdrakhmanov G.S., Khamit'yanov N.Kh., Kirshin A.V., Yagafarov A.S., Filippov V.P.
3. Patent no. 2521241 RF, MPK E 21 B 29/10, Hydraulic jack for installation of shutter in well, Inventors: Abdrakhmanov G.S., Zalyatov M.M., Khamit'yanov N.Kh., Starov V.A., Timkin N.Ya., Vil'danov N.N., Bagnyuk S.L.4. Patent no. 2516119 RF, MPK E 21 B 23/04, Anchor for fixation of downhole equipment, Inventors: Abdrakhmanov G.S., Khamit'yanov N.Kh., Kirshin A.V., Yagafarov A.S., Pronin V.E.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Main parameters characterizing water flooded reservoir performance are displaced recoverable oil reserves and composite water-oil ratio, and these must be considered for a justified estimate of base oil production. In practice, to estimate displaced recoverable oil reserves, oil-displacement-by-water characteristics based on mathematical relationships are used.
In this work, the authors demonstrate how to use a widely known empirical method of oil displacement characteristics for interval and probabilistic estimates of displaced recoverable oil reserves. The objective was to create a simple, easy-to-understand, reliable, and computerizable tool to estimate displaced recoverable oil reserves by wells, and to forecast oil production in mid- and long-term.
It is well known that oil and fluid production, and water cut may fluctuate in different periods. This complicates building mathematical relationships and decreases reliability of estimates. The paper discloses some of the factors that may contribute to these fluctuations: change of wells’ operation conditions, seasonal changes (well performance in warm and cold seasons), oil enhancement operations in the well under consideration or in neighboring production and injection wells, increase of water cut resulting from oil drainage process, downhole failures, etc.
It should be noted that most of Tatneft assets have entered closing stage of development, and sustained oil production is only possible due to a large number of different EOR/IOR jobs. This is the reason why the curve characterizing the oil displacement process is not strictly linear.
To smooth data in these cases, yearly well performance data rather than monthly well performance are used, which usually results in data roughening and, consequently, decreases reliability of well performance estimates.
To be able to forecast well performance in the long term, one must estimate displaced oil reserves performance for the recent period and for a lengthier period (1-3 years).
To do this, the authors suggest using a probabilistic method providing for an interval estimate of change of displaced oil reserves, and for a statistic estimate of probable displaced reserves (Ð90/Ð50/Ð10 estimates).
The authors offer three basic approaches to select probable displaced oil reserves to be used for further forecast of base oil production: to be limited to the most probable (Ð90), less probable (Ð50), or the least probable (Ð10) scenario; to be guided by the largest value of displaced oil reserves distribution density in the interval under consideration, and to combine both approaches.
1. Kazakov A.A., Forecasting the indicators of field development on the characteristics of oil displacement by water (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1976, no. 8, pp. 5–7.
2. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Etyudy o modelirovanii slozhnykh sistem neftegazodobychi. Nelineynost', neravnovesnost', neodnorodnost' (Etudes on the modeling of complex oil and gas production systems. Nonlinearity, disequilibrium, heterogeneity), Ufa: Gilem Publ., 1999, 462 p.
3. P'yankov V.N., Algorithms for identifying parameters of the Buckley-Leverett model in oil production forecasting problems (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 10, pp. 62–65.
4. Mingazov M.N., Kubarev P.N., Antonov G.P. et al., Nekotorye rezul'taty prakticheskogo primeneniya materialov issledovaniya fil'tratsionnykh svoystv kollektorov s ispol'zovaniem neskol'kikh “trasserov” (Some results of the practical application of filtration properties of reservoirs using several "tracers"), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2012, V. 80, pp. 326–333.
5. Kambarov G.S., Almamedov D.G., Makhmudova T.Yu., Determining the initial recoverable reserves of oilfield (In Russ.), Azerbaydzhanskoe neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 1974, no. 3, pp. 22–24.6. Lysenko V.D., Mukharskiy E.D., Proektirovanie intensivnykh sistem razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Design of intensive oil field development systems), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 176 p.
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The paper describes applications of LAZURIT automated workstation software package for geological and reservoir modeling and well intervention planning for Tatneft’s producing field. The main advantages of LAZURIT models are presented. The progress in the development of 3D reservoir simulation software package is outlined.
The scope of this study includes the analysis of models derived from LAZURIT package for production targets of the Romashkinskoye field and small fields in the Republic of Tatarstan. This research aims to assess geological risks associated with well intervention targets, increase well intervention efficiency, and assess geological risks related to planned wells. The research resulted in construction of 139 geological and reservoir models. Geological risks were assessed for wells selected as targets for well intervention jobs in 2016-2017 as well as for planned wells that would be drilled in 2016-2010.
TatNIPIneft’s engineers have developed LAZURIT automated workstation software package for oil fields development analysis and planning. It has found wide application in the Institute. Its advantages include very fast results, and accurate history matching, so that the resultant estimates of the remaining oil reserves of ageing and mature production assets agree with real field data.
Since 2012, LAZURIT models have been created for most of Tatneft’s producing fields. These models are permanently updated and extensively used for well intervention planning.
The main screening criteria while well intervention planning are residual oil reserves. LAZURIT workstation contains software packages to assess residual reserves of drilled and planned wells that enable: 1) online determination of the geometry of the affected well element for well intervention targets; 2) online estimation of the extent to which the bypassed oil can be mobilized following well intervention jobs; 3) automatic assessment of initial and remaining recoverable reserves of well intervention targets.
Work is underway on the creation of 3D reservoir simulation packages for LAZURIT workstation.
1. Muslimov R.Kh., Khisamov R.S., Suleymanov E.I. et al., Development of constantly functioning models of Romashkinskoye and Novo-Elhovskoye fields on the basis of geologists' ARM LAZURIT and Landmark (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1998, no. 7, pp. 63–67.
2. Khisamov R.S., Farkhutdinov G.N., Khisamutdinov A.I. et al., Automated selection of problematic areas for oil recovery improvement methods to be used (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2003, no. 10, pp. 74–77.
3. Khisamov R.S., Ibatullin R.R., Abdulmazitov R.G. et al., Use of information technologies for perfection of system of Tatneft OAO deposits development and development control (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 10, pp. 46–49.
4. Nasybullin A.V., Latifullin F.M., Razzhivin D.A. et al., Creation and commercial introduction of methods of oil deposits development management on the basis of computer-aided design technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 7, pp. 88–91.
5. Abdulmazitov R.G., Nasybullin A.V., Sattarov Rav.Z. et al., Development of technologies of special geological oilfield maps construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 44–46.
6. Sultanov A.S., Latifullin F.M., Nasybullin A.V., Computer-aided selection of candidate wells for frac-jobs using LAZURIT workstation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp 48–51.7. Nikiforov A.I., Nasybullin A.V., Latifullin F.M., Smirnov S.V. et al., Sozdanie simulyatora ARM «LAZURIT» dlya gidrodinamicheskikh raschetov (Creation of LASURIT automated workstation simulator for hydrodynamic calculations), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / Tatneft', 2015, V. 83, pp. 137–142.
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Brown fields developed by water flooding have a large number of flushed zones and the injected water tends to move along more permeable layers making, thus, oil sweeping process ineffective. Considering that water flooding is the most effective and economical method of secondary production, it is critical to ensure efficient operation of the formation pressure maintenance system. Production enhancement resulting from optimization of water flooding process is only possible if there is reliable and accurate information about the existing system of flow channels in a reservoir. This information will make it possible to improve water flooding system and will allow targeted application of enhanced oil recovery techniques to solve concrete problems. Besides, monitoring of the process of permeable channels’ formation will allow making necessary corrections in the field development plan as the field ages with time. Tracer survey is a direct method to study interwell space. It is a reliable tool to obtain information about the existing system of flow channels in a reservoir, their distribution and permeability, prevailing direction of fluid flows, and their contribution to water production. This information helps operators to determine permeability variations in zones under survey and to localize by-passed zones with potential residual oil reserves, and, eventually, to maximize water flooding capabilities and to enhance production.
1. Zakiev B.F., Issledovanie i obosnovanie metodov regulirovaniya rezhimov raboty skvazhin na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya (Research and justification of methods for regulating well operation modes at the late stage of oil field development): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2015.
2. Kubarev P.N., Khisametdinov M.R., Kamyshnikov A.G. et al., Tracer studies of fluid flow processes following EOR applications (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 7, pp. 33–35.
3. Antonov O.G., Nasybullin A.V., Lifant'ev A.V., Rakhmanov A.R., Use of tracer survey data for building a permanently updated geological and reservoir model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 7, pp. 40–42.4. Trofimov A.S., Berdnikov S.V., Krivova N.R. et al., Generalization of indicator (tracer) studies in the fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2006, no. 12, pp. 72–77.
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Microgel polymer flooding is one of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods. Polymer systems are injected through injection wells. Main active agents in the polymer systems are microgel particles resulting from the reaction of gelling agents (aluminates) with polyacrylamide solution. These microgel particles are crossed-linked polymer globules from 0.4 to 5 μm in diameter. Microgel systems have better shear degradation resistance than conventional polymer solutions. Enhanced oil recovery is achieved through plugging of high-permeability formation zones and improvement of reservoir sweep.
The advantages of microgel-based EOR techniques are the following: high efficiency even with low concentrations of polyacrylamide and cross-linker, lower cost because domestic environmentally-friendly cross-linkers are used; besides, water mineralization does not matter, neither does weather environment or season.
The primary targets of microgel polymer flooding are sandstone reservoirs with permeability more than 0.1 μm2 developed by contour water flooding.
The paper presents Tatneft PJSC experience of application of microgel polymer systems in the Company’s fields. Well logging confirmed that microgel systems can effectively be used to control conformance and to improve displacement efficiency.
Microgel polymer systems are effective in water-producing and non-uniform permeable multi-zone reservoirs. This technology proved to be particularly effective in the commingled production zones of the Kynovian and the Pashian horizons, as well as in the Bobrikovskian and the Kynovian development targets. It should be noted that the amount of displaced oil differs significantly from one producing well to another, and this is the subject of further study.
1. Ibatullin R.R., Ibragimov N.G., Takhautdinov Sh.F., Khisamov R.S., Uvelichenie nefteotdachi na pozdney stadii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy. Teoriya. Metody. Praktika (Enhanced oil recovery at a late stage of field development. Theory. Methods. Practice), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, 292 p.
2. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee (optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future (production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2014, 570 p.
3. Shvetsov I.A., Manyrin V.N., Fiziko-khimicheskie metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov. Analiz i proektirovanie (Physico-chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery. Analysis and design), Samara: Publ. of Samara University, 2000, 336 p.
4. Rafikova K.R., Sabakhova G.I., Khisametdinov M.R., Application of micro-gel polymer systems at the fields of PJSC "Tatneft" (In Russ.), Oborudovanie i tekhnologii dlya neftegazovogo kompleksa, 2015, no. 5, pp. 43–46.
5. Khisametdinov M.R., Ganeeva Z.M., Gaffarov Sh.K., Tatneft innovative physical/chemical enhanced oil recovery technology (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2013, no. 8, pp. 32–34.
6. Lake L.W., Johns R., Rossen B., Pope G., Fundamentals of enhanced oil recovery, USA, Richardson: Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2014, 489 p.
7. Varlamova E.I., Khisametdinov M.R., O vliyanii destruktivnykh faktorov na svoystva mikrogelevoy sistemy, prednaznachennoy dlya uvelicheniya nefteotdachi iz terrigennykh plastov (On the influence of destructive factors on the properties of the microgel system, designed to enhance oil recovery from terrigenous reservoirs), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2012, V. 80, pp. 143–147.
8. Ibatullin R.R., Gaffarov Sh.K., Khisametdinov M.R., Varlamova E.I., O mekhanizme uvelicheniya nefteizvlecheniya iz terrigennykh plastov s pomoshch'yu zakachki mikrogelevogo polimernogo sostava s PAV (Mechanism of increase oil recovery from clastic reservoirs using injection of microgel polymeric composition with surfactant), Collected papers “Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov” (Theory and practice of enhanced oil recovery methods), Proceedings of IV International Scientific Symposium, 18–19 September 2013, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2013, Part 2, pp. 24–29.9. Gaffarov Sh.K., Khisametdinov M.R., Varlamova E.I., Novaya tekhnologiya dobychi ostatochnoy nefti s pomoshch'yu zakachki geleobrazuyushchikh i mikrogelevykh sostavov (New technology of residual oil production by injection of gel-forming and micro-gel compositions), Collected papers “Innovatsii v razvedke i razrabotke neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy” (Innovation in the exploration and development of oil and gas fields), Proceedings of International scientific and practical conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Shashin V.D., 7–8 September 2016, Kazan': Ikhlas Publ., 2016, Part 1, pp. 281–283.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
The paper presents one of the methods for the development of carbonate reservoirs of TATNEFT’s oil fields associated with low expected oil recovery. This method enables higher recovery factors and provides for infill drilling. The critical factor for drilling infill wells is economic viability, which depends on the costs of construction, completion and operation of infill wells, as well as the resultant oil production rates.
Tatneft has adopted a program of infill drilling targeting several low-productivity carbonate reservoirs. To improve the performance of infill drilling, a decision has been made to use such technologies as slim hole drilling, dual completion technology for simultaneous production from multiple intervals, application of sucker rod pump units for lifting wellstream through production casing (without the use of tubing) and others. One of the objectives of infill drilling program is reduction of well construction costs by means of slim hole drilling (102 and 114-mm). For operation of slim holes, a dual completion system has been designed enabling commingled production from several production zones. This system is based on single-tubing-string dual completion approach extensively used in Tatneft. Dual completion system with segregated lift of production fluids has also been developed for slim holes. This system enables determination of production rates and water cut of each production zone. Production fluid from one production zone is lifted to the surface through the tubing string while fluids from the other zone flow through production string. For the above production casing sizes simple and cost-effective packer elements have been developed. These are sleeve nipples and cup packer.
The systems described in this article have proved efficient and have been recommended for implementation at Tatneft’s fields.
1. Patent no. 2197602 RF, MPK E 21 V 43/14, Design of multiple zone well, Inventors: Takhautdinov Sh.F., Garifov K.M., Zherebtsov E.P., Valovskiy V.M., Yusupov I.G., Kadyrov A.Kh.
2. Patent no. 2377395 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/14, Equipment for simultaneous-separate process of two reservoirs of single well, Inventors: Garifov K.M., Ibragimov N.G., Fadeev V.G., Akhmetvaliev R.N., Kadyrov A.Kh., Rakhmanov I.N., Glukhoded A.V., Balboshin V.A.
3. Patent no. 2578093 RF, MPK E 21 B 43/14, F 04 B 47/02, Plant for simultaneous separate operation of two formations, Inventors: Garifov K.M., Ibragimov N.G., Fadeev V.G., Zabbarov R.G., Kadyrov A.Kh., Artyukhov A.V., Glukhoded A.V., Balboshin V.A., Rakhmanov I.N.
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
In this work the authors have focused on analysis of causes for scale formation on pumps and downhole equipment in wells producing heavy oil. Thirty-three scale samples recovered from wells with downhole pumps failures have been analyzed. Various factors can contribute to emergency situations: carbonate salts may precipitate because of high mineralization of produced formation water and high temperature at the inlet of downhole pumps, or because of clogging of pump parts with formation particles, or solids. So, the problem must be addressed differently in each case.
The first step is to determine why certain scale is formed on downhole equipment of SAGD-wells. To do this, pump inlet must provide for temperature sensors and solids sensors to detect solids content in produced water. Also, produced water quality must continuously be analyzed for physicochemical properties and composition. Then, parameters that characterize produced water saturation with carbonate salts are calculated. If these parameters are critical, salting inhibitors are injected into downhole equipment and bottomhole formation zone.
If scale source is formation rocks, which is the case in unconsolidated rock, formation fines will enter the wellbore even at low differential pressure. In this case, gravel packs can be a useful tool to control scale formation. Also, this problem can be addressed by injecting polymer or hydrophobic systems into formation bottomhole zone, or at least, the well can be circulated with large volumes of aerated fluid. Of course, all these methods come at a cost; however, workover operations because of electric submersible pumps failure and the resultant well shutdown are translated eventually in much higher loss of profits.
1. Kamaletdinov R.S., Lazarev A.B., Review of existing methods of controlling mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2010, no. 2, pp. 6-13.
2. Non-plugging exploitation: complication control of mechanical impurities (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2010, no. 4, pp. 43-54.
3. Musin R.R., Povyshenie effektivnosti ekspluatatsii skvazhin v oslozhnennykh geologo-promyslovykh usloviyakh (na primere OAO “Var'eganneftegaz”) (Increasing the efficiency of well operation in complicated field geological conditions (for example, Varioganneftegaz)): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2014.4. Kashchavtsev V.E., Mishchenko I.T., Soleobrazovanie pri dobyche nefti (Salt formation during oil production), Moscow: Orbita Publ., 2004, 432 p.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
The paper presents available process solutions aimed at improving the efficiency of nonchemical hydrogen sulphide removal from stock tank oil. Based on the results of comparative performance analysis of chemical and physical methods, a number of approaches are proposed to enhance the efficiency of oil desorption during hot stage separation and inside stripping columns.
Chemicals-aided crude oil scavenging, oil treatments in stripping column, and catalytic liquid-phase oxidation with atmospheric oxygen have been found to be the most efficient technologies for removal of hydrogen sulphide. Application of chemical scavengers is the simplest process and does not require large capital investments. Physical hydrogen sulphide stripping method is also not associated with substantial material costs and does not affect oil quality. Improved performance of nonchemical processes is one of top-priority tasks, and successful solution of this task enables reduction of oil treatment costs. To reduce chemical consumption hot vacuum separation technology is proposed. It ensures improved desorption of hydrogen sulphide from oil into gas through application of liquid-ring pumps to create vacuum inside gas boots. Hydrogen sulphide stripping technology with hydrocarbon gases exhibits the highest performance as a physical hydrogen sulphide removal method at Tatnneft’s facilities. The key parameters of the desorption process are pressure, temperature, flow rate and composition of the stripping gas. Changes in the composition of crude oil upstream of the stripping column at the return of condensate or the entire gas volume downstream of the compressor station into liquid stream upstream of the separation stage ensure significant reduction of chemical consumption and increase efficiency of the process.
Under conditions of restricted gas pipeline capacity or lack of Devonian gas, feeding the gas stream from the first-stage separator can provide reduction of material costs without compromising the efficiency of the process given that molar concentration of hydrogen sulphide is below the equilibrium (primarily, not more than 1.6%).
1. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Shatalov A.N., Garifullin R.M. et al., Technologies of an oil cleaning from hydrogen sulphide (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 7, pp. 82–85.
2. Shipilov D.D., Shatalov A.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Issledovaniya goryachey vakuumnoy separatsii dlya snizheniya davleniya nasyshchennykh parov i kontsentratsii serovodoroda v nefti (Studies of hot vacuum separation to reduce the saturated vapor pressure and the concentration of hydrogen sulphide in oil), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / Tatneft', 2016, V. 84, pp. 182–188.
3. Shipilov D.D., Shatalov A.N., Sakhabutdinov R.Z. et al., Optimization of technology of oil purification from hydrogen sulfide by means of blowing in resorbtion column (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 11, pp. 53–57.
4. Shipilov D.D., Shatalov A.N., Gas composition impact on choice of basic parameters of hydrogen sulfide removal out of odlin a strffper tower (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2011, no. 11, pp. 43–46.
5. Ibragimov N.G., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Shatalov A.N. et al., Povyshenie effektivnosti desorbtsionnoy ochistki nefti ot serovodoroda (Increasing the efficiency of desorption treatment of oil from hydrogen sulphide), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft' / Tatneft', 2016, V. 84, pp. 166–173.
6. Shatalov A.N., Shipilov D.D., Tronov V.P., Performance criterion of hydrogen sulfide stripping in the stripping column (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4, pp. 131–133.
7. Patent no. 2586157 RF, MPK B 01 D 19/00, B 01 D 53/52, Method of preparing oil containing hydrogen sulphide, Inventors: Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Shipilov D.D., Shatalov A.N., Garifullin R.M.
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Development and application of pipes with polymer lining and coating in the system of in-field flow lines rated for 4 MPa max pressure has been one of the most successful anti-corrosion projects of Tatneft PJSC. Collars with ring gaskets are used to protect non-lined weld junction against corrosive environment. For 12 years of operation, no failures from internal corrosion have been registered, so, the Company considered application of these pipes in the formation pressure maintenance system with 21 MPa max pressure. Calculations and tests showed that the pipe design would not provide a reliable anti-corrosion protection of weld junctions at high pressure, so, efforts were made to improve the pipe’s weld junction design. Bench tests of pipes under 27 MPa pressure demonstrated good results, and currently pipes are tested in field conditions. Since pipe ends have been cold-worked to expand them, the diameter loss because of protective collars is negligible. Protective collars are placed in expanded pipe-end sections and are further fixed in place by welded spigots, which protects them against axial displacement while scraper-pig injection or other operations. Other advantages include absence of human-mistake factor while fitting and assembly of pipes in field, ease of assembly of pipe joints with the help of a screw jack, reliable anti-corrosion protection.
1. Shammasov R.M., Shakirov F.Sh., Knyazev S.Yu., Experience in the anticorrosion protection of the welded joints of pipes with internal polymer coating in Tatneft PJSC (In Russ.), Korroziya territorii “Neftegaz”, 2016, no. 1, pp. 52–55.
2. Dautov F.I., Shammasov R.M., Knyazev S.Yu., New method enables weld zones corrosion protection applied to oilfield pipes with inner polymer coating (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 12, pp. 125–127.
3. Makarov G.V., Uplotnitel'nye ustroystva (Sealing devices), Leningrad: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1973, 232 ð.
4. Golubev A.I., Kondakov L.A., Uplotneniya i uplotnitel'naya tekhnika (Seals and sealing machinery), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986, 464 ð.
5. Valovskiy V.M., Valovskiy K.V., Tekhnika i tekhnologiya svabirovaniya skvazhin (Technique and technology of swabbing wells), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2003, 395 ð.
6. Ivanov M.N., Detali mashin (Machine parts), Moscow: Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1967, 399 ð.
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|MANAGEMENT, ECONOMY, LAW|
This article discusses fundamental expertise essential for specialist of cost engineering.
After successful results of pilot project in 2013, development of cost engineering has been being started in Gazprom Neft PJSC. The first challenge faced by Company during the project implementation was the lack of professional competences in terms of cost engineering capable of meeting requirements. This situation is due to the initial stage of development trends in other oil and gas companies and most of universities’ programs focus on core competences such as “Economics” or “Management”. Thus, special programs in Russian universities do not provide necessary knowledge and skills of cost engineering. In the article highlights the main requirements for the specialist at all stages of investment projects, as well as the necessary competence in the multidisciplinary team in cost engineering. Gazprom Neft experience of comprehensive program implementation for the development of specialists of this area showed that cost engineering can significantly increase the effectiveness of development projects and many of competence and cost-engineering tools required substantial development and centralization. We present the basic criteria, skills and knowledge standards to cost engineers. We also demonstrate a framework that conceptualizes professional engagement and interaction of cost engineering team.
1. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Ushmaev O.S. et al., Development of cost engineering in Gazprom Neft JSC (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 14–16.
2. Skills & knowledge of cost engineering: edited by Amos S.J., AACE International, Morgantown, West Virginia, 2004, p. 471.
3. Total cost management framework: A process for applying the skills and knowledge of cost engineering: edited by Hollmann J.K., AACE International, Morgantown WV, 2006.
4. Khasanov M.M., Sugaipov D.A., Zhagrin A.V. et al., Improvement of CAPEX estimation accuracy during early project stages (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 22–27.
5. Ismagilov R.R., Kudryavtsev I.A., Maksimov Yu.V., Phases of conceptual design for field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 12, pp. 66–70.6. AACE International recommended practice no. 11R-88, Required skills and knowledge of a cost engineer, 2000, ð. 14.
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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
At the early stage of the stress-strain state in the Krasnoleninskij swell the character of hydrothermal transformation of the sedimentary strata in the Talinskoye field and Palyanovskaya area used to differ. In the former case, large-scale acid leaching of the Tyumen formation rocks has been recorded, with large amounts of dissolution products being carried outside the Talinskoye field. The early activation stage took place under sharp pulsating stress at elevated temperatures. That was conductive to intermittent release of interlayer water from smectites within the Upper Jurassic – Lower Cretaceous beds in the process of their illitization. Blocks of major accumulations of montmorillonite clays (the Early Cretaceous Frolovian series), that have been affected by convective heat and mass transfer during tectonic activation, acted as sources of avalanche inflow of petrogenic water into the general balance of the artesian system or into the Sherkalian formation rocks within the Tyumen formation. The water in question made the basis for the resulting hydrothermal solutions peculiar for high dissolving capacity. Eventually, the entire complex of unstable terrigenous minerals from the Sherkalian formation has been subjected to almost complete leaching. That has resulted in generation of numerous secondary cavities and expansion of macro and micro fractures. They are generally interconnected through a system of fractures. As a consequence, sandstones and gravelites in the Talinskoye field have acquired super-reservoir properties and reservoirs of the Tyumen formation in the Palyanovsky block have been converted to secondary screens.
At the late activation stage, with noticeable relaxation of the stress-deformed state of the cover in the Talinskoye field, intense leaching was replaced by mineral formation and oil inflow into the hydrothermal system. Considering the hydrodynamic connection between the Bazhenov and the Tyumen formations in the zones of faults and branching fracturing, one may state that oil from the Bazhenov beds at that time has been totally or substantially redistributed by means of natural tectonic pumping; super-reservoirs of the Sherkalian formation were among the destination places. Thus, the Sherkalian formation makes the principal productive horizon within the Talinskoye field, while no oil occurs in the Bazhenov formation of the field, which is substantiated by the data acquired. In the adjacent Palyanovsky block, the bulk of the syngenetic oil remained in the rocks of the Bazhenov-Abalak complex.
1. Zubkov M.Yu., Reservoirs in the Bazheno-Abalak complex of the Western Siberia and methods of forecasting its spread (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2014, no. 5, pp. 58–72.
2. Belkin V.I., Efremov E.P., Kaptelinin N.D., The structure and oil and gas potential of the Bazhenov reservoir (In Russ.), Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye, 1985, no. 2, pp. 108–123.
3. Korobov A.D., Korobova L.A., Morozov V.P., The role of petrogenic water in the hydrothermal process and oil migration in the structures of tectonic activation in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 16–19.
4. Gramberg I.S., Goryainov I.N., Smekalov A.S. et al., The experience of studying the stress-strain state of the Krasnolenin arch (Western Siberia) (In Russ.), Doklady RAN = Doklady Earth Sciences, 1995, V. 345, no. 2, pp. 227–230.
5. Matusevich V.M., Ryl'kov A.V., Ushatinskiy I.N., Geoflyuidnye sistemy i problemy neftegazonosnosti Zapadno-Sibirskogo megabasseyna (Geofluid systems and oil and gas potential of the West Siberian megabasin), Tyumen': Publ. of TyumGNGU, 2005, 225 p.
6. Kleshchev K.A., Sheyn V.S., Neftyanye i gazovye mestorozhdeniya Rossii (Oil and gas fields of Russia), Part 2: Aziatskaya chast' Rossii (Asian part of Russia), Moscow: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2010, 720 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
A new adaptive approach is proposed to the creation of geological and hydrodynamic models of the fields and reservoirs with long production history, taking into account the limited amount and large uncertainty of the available initial data. In the adaptive geological model, the number of layers of its grid does not exceed the number of layers identified by the results of detailed correlation, while all model parameters are constructed depending on seismic data. The grid of the adaptive hydrodynamic model completely coincides with the geological grid without any upscaling. In the adaptive hydrodynamic model, the system of differential equations describing the filtration process is solved according to the rules of the theory of percolation and cellular automata. Since at the entrance of the adaptive hydrodynamic model, there are not the flow rates of fluids, but the volumes of oil and water produced, as well as the volumes of injection, such model is always history matched. Calculation of the adaptive hydrodynamic model allows generating the distribution of current oil reserves and reservoir pressure in the field or the reservoir at any time. Using the adaptive hydrodynamic model, it is also possible to predict the state of further development of the field or the reservoir, using the iterative fuzzy-logical method to determine the oil decline rates first, and then to solve the system of equations for the interference of the wells. The proposed adaptive geological-hydrodynamic model is not simplified, it is complex and requires practically the same estimated time as the deterministic model. However, the adaptive model is easier for users, since it does not require any manual work and is always adjusted to the fact, so it turns out to be cheaper and faster than its deterministic analogue.
1. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Etyudy o modelirovanii slozhnykh system neftedobychi. Nelineynost’, neravnovesnost’, neodnorodnost’ (Essays on modeling of complex oil production systems. The nonlinearity, disequilibrium, heterogeneity), Ufa: Gilem Publ., 1999, 464 p.
2. Lysenko V.D., Innovatsionnaya razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The innovative development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 516 p.
3. Yudin E.V., Modelirovanie fil'tratsii zhidkosti v neodnorodnykh sredakh dlya analiza i planirovaniya razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Modeling of fluid filtration in heterogeneous environments for the analysis and planning of oilfield development): candidate of physical and mathematical sciences, Moscow, 2014.
4. Gutman I.S., Saakyan M.I., Ursegov S.O. et al., Metodicheskie rekomendatsii k korrelyatsii razrezov skvazhin (Methodological recommendations for the correlation of well sections): edited by Gutman I.S., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2013, 112 p.
5. Kadet V.V., Metody teorii perkolyatsii v podzemnoy gidromekhanike (Methods of percolation theory in underground hydromechanics), Moscow: TsentrLitNefteGaz Publ., 2008, 94 p.
6. Stal'gorova E., Babadagli T., Modeling miscible injection in fractured porous media using non-classical simulation approaches (In Russ.), SPE 135903, 2010.
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The major oil-fields depletion level is increases every year and production levels maintaining becomes one of the main license holder objectives. Localization of zones with the highest concentration of non-mobile stocks, which are confined to highly heterogeneous reservoirs, is the main means of oil production levels maintaining at the final development stage. Qualitative and reliable identification of promising areas and their subsequent active involving into oilfield development will justify the further field operations profitability and also will allow avoiding the oil production losses, which are connected with inefficient geological and technical operations planning.
Currently three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are the main tool for making operational decision on development control. Such models require a significant amount of time and high engineer qualifications, especially when modeling large objects with a long development history.
Geological and technical operations planning should be implemented by the new high-tech approaches involvement, including analytical techniques, which shows high efficiency on the long-developed fields. Analytical techniques also allow determining the actual initial recoverable oil reserves, to establish the reasons for their difference from the officially approved ones and to reveal the possibility of their significant increase.
Software techniques implementation, which is represented in article, allowed carrying out an oil-field current state development operational analysis on the final development stage. As a result the waterflooding coefficient and coverage ratio coefficient grids were plotted and oil recovery coefficient map was proposed. All results were used in the oilfield development documentation of Surgutneftegas OJSC.
1. Ababkov K.V., Postroenie kart geologo-geofizicheskikh parametrov i geometrizatsiya zalezhey nefti i gaza (Construction of maps of geological and geophysical parameters and the geometrization of oil and gas deposits), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2008, 289 p.
2. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza ob’emnym metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS (Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging): edited by Petersil’e V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow –Tver: Publ. of VNIGNI, 2003. 261 p.
3. Lysenko V.D., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Effektivnye metody (Development of oil fields. Effective methods), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr, 2009, 552 p.
4. Lysenko V.D., Grayfer V.I., Ratsional'naya razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Rational development of oil fields), Moscow Nedra-Biznestsentr, 2005, 607 p.
5. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, SPE Textbook Series, 1986.
6. Dake L.P., Fundamentals of reservoir engineering, Elsevier (USA), 2003, 570 p.
7. Amelin I.D., Surguchev M.L., Davydov A.V., Prognoz razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey na pozdney stadii (The forecast of oil deposits development at a late stage), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1994, 308 p.
8. Medvedskiy R.I., Sevast'yanov A.A., Otsenka izvlekaemykh zapasov nefti i prognoz urovney dobychi po promyslovym dannym (Estimation of recoverable oil reserves and forecast of production levels from field data), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 192 p.
9. Sazonov B.F., Ponomarev A.G., Opyt sovershenstvovaniya sistem razrabotki neftyanykh zalezhey v pozdney stadii (Experience in improving oil field development systems in the late stage), Proceedings of Nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy pamyati N.N. Lisovskogo, Nedra-XXI Publ., 2011, pp. 151–153.
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The article describes laboratory studies aimed at researching various mechanisms of oil extraction at the fields of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province. The results of the study of the influence of the heat-transfer medium temperature (water and steam) on the filtration properties of impermeable rocks of the Yaregskoye field are presented. The results of experiments indicate the effect of temperature on permeability.
The results of determining the relative permeability by unsteady-state method under various temperature regimes for the conditions of the Yaregskoye field are briefly described. It is shown that the relative permeability curves have a convex shape, which is associated with the peculiarities of filtration of high-viscosity oil. Comparative experiments on the displacement of three different surfactant solutions for three deposits in the Timan-Pechora province are described. By comparing the displacement coefficients, the most effective surfactant solution is determined for each deposit.
The authors present the results of experiments on the evaluation of the effectiveness of acid compositions for acid fracturing on core samples of the deposits of the Timan-Pechora oil and gas province. Based on the results of the filtration experiments, it was concluded that new approaches should be used to evaluate the effectiveness of formulations for acid fracturing.
1. Gavura A.V., Vlasov S.A., Krasnopevtseva N.V., Novye podkhody k probleme uvelicheniya nefteotdachi iz zalezhey nefti s karbonatnymi kollektorami (New approaches to the problem of increasing oil recovery from oil deposits with carbonate reservoirs), Proceedings of IV International Scientific Symposium “Teoriya i praktika primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi plastov” (Theory and practice of applying enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow, 18-19 September 2013, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2013.
2. Johnson E.F., Bossler D.P., Naumann V.O., Calculation of relative permeability from displacement experiments, Trans. AIME, 1959, V. 216, pp. 61-63.
3. Jones S.C., Roszelle W.O., Graphical techniques for determining relative permeability from displacement experiments, Journal of Petroleum Technology, 1978, V. 30, pp. 807-817, DOI: 10.2118/6045-PA.
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The authors carried out laboratory study to assess the optimal composition of injection gas to achieve oil and gas miscibility under the conditions of one of the oil-gas-condensate fields in Eastern Siberia. The oil of this field is light, of low-viscosity, sweet and low-resinousness. Initial stage of reservoir development is considered.
We carried out physical simulation of oil displacement by four type of gas. Slime-tube reservoir model saturated by recombine oil. Gases models were prepared as mixture of individual components of hydrocarbon gas and associated wet gas (propane-butane fraction). Gases models had 10% differences by sum of C3+ components.
As far as formation oil volume factor changes during gas dissolution in oil standard volumetric method gives seems to be inaccurate for oil displacement coefficient estimation. That is why we developed a method for oil displacement coefficient estimation by mass irrespective of formation oil volume factor. Tests results showed that differences in oil displacement coefficient assess can achieve 0.03.
We fixed several gas displacement drives. Displacement conditions changed from partially-miscible to miscible according to wet gas content. Beginning with gas composition No.2 multiple contact process started. Formed multiple contact fluid represented hydrocarbon mixture of modified composition; it differed from original oil by colour. Further increase in content of wet components (to 30%) in injection gas was not result in noticeable growth in oil displacement factor.
Gas composition No.3 (content of Ñ3+ components is 20.5%) was optimal for minimum miscibility enrichment under conditions of regarded oil reservoir. Increase in wet components to 30% resulted in all injection gas spend to oil enrichment and exclusion of gas intrusion. Research was carried out to the accuracy 1-2% using specially designed and tested methods. The results may be applied for mathematical model matching.
1. Sabanchin I.V., Afrakov A.N., Laperdin A.N. et al., Features of the geological structure of the Yarakta oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Gornye vedomosti, 2015, no. 4, pp. 48–54.
2. Sabanchin I.V., Afrakov A.N., Mulyavin S.F., Kravtsova M.V., Features of development of the Yarakta oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Gornye vedomosti, 2015, no. 9, pp. 78–84.
3. Rozenberg M.D., Kundin S.A., Mnogofaznaya mnogokomponentnaya fil'tratsiya pri dobyche nefti i gaza (Multiphase multicomponent filtration in oil and gas production), Moscow: Nedra, 1976, 335 p.
4. Petrakov A.M., Egorov Yu.A., Nenartovich T.L. et al., Gas and WAG methods for oil recovery. Methodological principals of the laboratory study (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 60–63.5. Stepanova G.S., Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po primeneniyu gazovykh i vodogazovykh metodov vozdeystviya na neftyanye plasty (Methodological guidance on the use of gas and water-gas methods of influence in oil reservoirs), Moscow: Publ. of Minneftegazprom, 1990, 243 p.
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Achievement of effective development of the field in combination with high safety parameters is the basic goal in designing any mining enterprises. The production growth at the mining company requires to produce a full reconstruction of all production facilities and to build new ones. Oil mine is unique object and new approaches when designing a multiple development is necessary. This problem arose due to the presence of gaps in normative and technical base of the Russian Federation and the lack of relationship between the regulations of the oil and mining industries for this type of mining enterprises.
The need for a joint approach to the development of the oil mines identified a close relationship between oil production and manufacturing facilities utilities mining enterprise, otherwise will suffer the industrial safety.
The article describes the current system development. Formed mining and petroleum development concept for the reconstruction of the oil mines in the existing conditions of works. The implementation of the development of the oil mines from the point of view of mining as shown in the multivariate performance to ensure that ventilation: a deserted oil recovery method with the closure of mines evade blocks, the application of the classical mining methods, the use of thermal method of conditioning air-distribution through the insulating ducts. We conducted valuation analysis and the shortcomings of the above methods.
Introduced the concept of "the overall efficiency of the oil mine", consisting of the generalized indicators of efficiency of oil production and opportunities of the engineering systems of the mine to assess the development of mining enterprises. It is shown the need for an integrated approach. The scope of the results: the method for the preparation of technical specifications and tasks for design on reconstruction of oil mines Yaregskoye field and design a new one.
1. Krivoshchekov S.N., Sednev D.Yu., Separation of pumps on purpose groups in gradient excavations for oilmines of Jarega oil deposit (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2013, V. 12, no. 7, pp. 96–106.
2. Nikolaev A.V., Postnikova M.Yu., Mokhirev N.N., Comparative analysis of and heat and energy resources consumption by mine air heater units (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2010, V. 9, no. 5, pp. 95–102.
3. Nikolaev A.V., Concept of air conditioning systems in shallow underground mining workings (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2014, V. 13, no. 13, pp. 93–98.
4. Nikolaev A.V., Faynburg G.Z., On energy and resource-saving of underground oil mine workings (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2015, V. 14, no. 14, pp. 92–98.
5. Nikolaev A.V., Method of the separate ventilation of oil mine`s gradient excavations and underground mine drifts (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Geology. Oil & Gas Engineering & Mining, 2016, V. 15, no. 20, pp. 293–300.
7. Mokhirev N.N., Rad'ko V.V., Inzhenernye raschety ventilyatsii shakht. Stroitel'stvo. Rekonstruktsiya. Ekspluatatsiya (Engineering calculations of mine ventilation. Building. Reconstruction. Exploitation), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr, 2007, 324 p.
8. Tekhnologicheskiy reglament po organizatsii provetrivaniya rudnikov OAO “Uralkaliy” (Technological regulations for the organization of mines ventilation in Uralkali OJSC), Perm'-Berezniki-Solikamsk, 2013, 211 p.
9. Rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu ventilyatsii ugol'nykh shakht (A guide to designing coal mine ventilation), Makeevka-Donbass: Ministerstvo ugol'noy promyshlennosti SSSR, 1989, 320 p.10. Sednev D.Yu., Krivoshchekov S.N., Ways of improving the development efficiency of Yaregskoye field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 34–36.
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Problematic issues of application of SAGD technology in the foreign and domestic practice are considered. Hydrodynamic model of the Yaregskoye oilfield is built. Technological development indicators are calculated. The authors have found that the injection of steam is uneven along the horizontal well length of 1000 m. The authors have developed a new technology based on a phased work of horizontal wells sectors.DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-6-101-103
The technology includes the drilling of horizontal injection and production wells. The production wells have two wellheads. Horizontal sections of wells arranged in parallel one above the other. Well design provides for an independent steam injection and fluid production through each section. Wells divided into two sections of special technical means. Section of the injection well is located directly above a section of the production well. Sections work simultaneously and independently of each other. This technology allows to regulate and control the process of pumping the coolant into a horizontal well. The technology promotes uniform spread of the steam chamber. The technology allows to increase the oil recovery factor due to these factors. So for the test site oil recovery factor increased to 12.7 % compared to the classical technology. The value of increase also depends on the number of sections.
1. US Patent 4344485 A, Method for continuously producing viscous hydrocarbons by gravity drainage while injecting heated fluids, Inventor: Butler R.M.
2. Ruzin L.M., Chuprov I.F., Morozyuk O.A., Durkin S.M., Tekhnologicheskie printsipy razrabotki zalezhey anomal'no vyazkikh neftey i bitumov (Technological principles of development of deposits of abnormally viscous oil and bitumen), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2015, 476 p.
3. Maganov N.U. et al., Experience of development of shallow heavy oil accumulations (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2015, no. 5, pp. 60–63.
4. Zaripov A.T. et al., Tekhnologii dobychi SVN i otsenka effektivnosti ikh primeneniya dlya usloviy mestorozhdeniy SVN PAO “Tatneft'” (Technologies for extraction of ultra-viscous oils and evaluation of their application efficiency for the conditions of super-viscous oil fields of PJSC Tatneft), Proceedings of Scientific and technical conference dedicated to the 60th anniversary of TatNIPIneft, Naberezhnye Chelny: Publ. of Ekspozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2016, pp. 191–196.
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Nowaday multilayer objects are usually developed using unified well spacing. In this case target reserves recovery is provided by implementation of dual completion technology. When net oil thickness is significant and there are a number of oil-bearing layers in a well profile implementation of this technology has severat limits.
Based on original method of well production forecast the authors explored a possibility and limits of dual completion technology application. Cases when it is necessary to implement alternative technology also are regarded.
As an object of research we choose terrigenous reservoirs of one of the fields in South-East Asia. Regarded commingled production zone included complex system of blocks (areas). Each block was characterizied by its own number of oil-bearing layers; layers had different hydrodynamic forces and reservoir energy. We carried out representative sampling of wells. Analysis of the sample allowed to devide wells into four groups. Well production in these groups depended on thickness and properties of layers along borehole profile. In groups characterisied as better lythotipes (sum of reservoir beds) dual completion technology is convient for enhancing wells production. In groups characterisied as worse lythotipes performance capability of this technology decreases. To develop this type of reserves hydrofracturing should be used. Hydrofracturing in this case provides with mild but stable incremental oil rate.
The results of analysis show it is necessary to use a complex of well production enhancement methods and to take into account geological features of local sites of development object.
1. Khisamov R.S., Nasybullina S.V., Latifullin F.M., Estimate of dual completion effect on field production rate and recovery factor by example of the Romashkinskoye oil field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 3, pp. 50–53.
2. Yanin A.N., Baryshnikov A.V., Kofanov O.A., Trukhan A.Ya., Evaluation of dual completion mass application effect on the oil recovery factor of a multilayer low-permeability formation (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2011, no. 5, pp. 46–49.
3. Yanin A.N., The design principles of ultra-low permeability reservoirs (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2016, no. 11, pp. 22–24.
4. Fomkin A.V., Fursov A.Ya., Khakhulina M.V., Issledovanie usloviy povysheniya effektivnosti razrabotki mnogoplastovykh ob"ektov (Study of conditions for increasing the efficiency of multi-layered objects development), Collected papers “Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi zapasami nefti” (Increasing the efficiency of hard-to-recover oil reserves development), 2015, V. 153, pp. 6–26.
5. Fomkin A.V., Fursov A.Ya., Khakhulina M.V., Otsenka potentsiala skvazhin, ekspluatiruyushchikh mnogoplastovye ob"ekty (Evaluation of the potential of wells exploiting multilayer objects), Collected papers “Issledovaniya tekhnologiy razrabotki trudnoizvlekaemykh zapasov nefti” (Studies of technologies for the development of hard-to-recover oil reserves), 2016, V. 154, pp. 5–19.
6. Fomkin A.V., Fursov A.Ya., Rationale for selection of consolidated blocks of multilayer and multideposit formations for development analysis (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 11, pp. 110–114.
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|OIL TRANSPORTATION & TREATMENT|
A new composite demulsifier KNTU-14 was developed to destroy the oil-water emulsions. The comparative study of the effectiveness of industrial demulsifiers (Dissolvan 4795 and 4908, Randem-2208) with KNTU-14 was implemented. The basic properties of oil-water emulsions of Botakhan oilfield were identified. Analysis of group composition of the oil phase of investigated oil-water emulsions were carried out. It is shown that asphaltenes are the primary stabilizers of oil-water emulsions of Botakhan oilfield. It was found that the products of tested wells - highly watered, formation water is highly mineralized of calcium chloride type; pH of the aqueous phase increases the stability of the test water emulsions.
According to the generalized results of the group composition of oil and properties of water it is assumed that the water-oil emulsion from the well number 150 is more stable than from the well number 121.
For the analysis of the raw water- oil emulsions in the presence of dispersed water, as well as for analysis of oil after the demulsification of oil-water emulsions to confirm the effectiveness of their destruction by reagent KNTU-14 was brought diferentsialno-thermal analysis (DTA). It has been shown that using demulsifier KNTU-14 as in a thermochemical or chemical demulsification it was obtained oil of first category of water content.
1. Nebogina N.A., Prozorova I.V., Yudina N.V., The process of stabilization and sludging of water-oil systems (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2007, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Nebogina/Nebogina_1.pdf.
2. Akhiyarov R.Zh., Gogolev D.A., Laptev A.B., Bugay D.E., Increase in the efficiency of water-oil environments demulsification by their magnetohydrodynamic processing (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2006, URL: http://ogbus.ru/ authors/Ahiyarov/Ahiyarov_1.pdf.
3. Yasakov E.A., Investigation of the properties of the known (PC-H) and developed demulsifiers for dehydration and desalting of water-oil emulsions (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2010, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Yasakov/ Yasakov_1.pdf.
4. Pozdnyshev G.N., Stabilizatsiya i razrushenie neftyanykh emul'siy (Stabilization and destruction of oil emulsions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 221 p.
5. Innovative patent no. 24256 KZ, Sposob obezvozhivaniya i obessolivaniya nefti (Method of dehydration and desalting of oil), Inventors: Boyko G.I., Lyubchenko N.P., Maymakov T.P., Shaykhutdinov E.M., Orazbekuly E., Zhunusov A.E., Zhermolenko E.A., Nursultanov M.E., Sabdalieva M.K.
6. Baykov N.M., Pozdnyshev G.N., Mansurov R.I., Sbor i promyslovaya podgotovka nefti, gaza i vody (Gathering and field preparation of oil, gas and water), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1981.
7. Ermakov S.A., Mordvinov A.A., On the effect of asphaltenes on the stability of water-oil emulsions (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2007, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Ermakov/Ermakov_1.pdf.
8. Vody neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy SSSR (Waters of oil and gas fields of the USSR): edited by Zor'kin L.M., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 27 p.9. Orazbekuly E., Modifitsirovannyy sopolimer maleinovogo angidrida i ego model'nye soedineniya - novye khimicheskie reagenty dlya podgotovki neftey k transportirovke i pererabotke (Modified copolymer of maleic anhydride and its model compounds are new chemical reagents for the oil treatment to transportation and processing): thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Almaty, 2013, URL: http://kazntu.kz/sites/default/files/kazntu.kz_131213_ND_Orazbekuly.pdf
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|Pipeline transport of oil|
This present study includes analysis of absolute pipeline sizes (length, width, well thickness) relevance for pipelines calculation of strength and durability, and analysis of effect the pipeline sizes on resistance to failure. There was considered statistical and energetically aspects of the size-scale effect and obtained results of calculation. Evidence from these calculation suggests that strength properties (tensile and yield strength) decreases by 10 – 30 % with increasing in absolute sizes of present pipe sections.
The obtained results of calculations are confirmed by results of experiments performed at different times, and correlate with the statistics of failures on main oil and product pipelines of Transneft PJSC. Comparison of results of definition of mechanical properties according to the results of calculations based on the scale factor and evaluation of the effect of scale factor in accordance with current regulatory documentation (construction rules and regulations SNiP 2.05.06-85*) indicates a high degree of correlation of the results of the calculations and expert estimates, which were obtained on the basis of years of experience of operating pipelines (suggested by the leading experts in the field of reliability of building structures, the dependence of fracture resistance in a dangerous section of the volume of metal in the development of SNiP 2.05.06-85* has been reflected in an implicit form using the reliability coefficient by appointment).
According to the results of the calculations determined the coefficient values of the strength reduction for main sizes of pipes of main oil and product pipelines, and proposed approaches to the estimation of scale factor for pipeline structures, as well as its use in the revised calculations of durability, reliability and survivability of the piping at the stage of designing and exploitation.
1. Mazur I.I., Ivantsov O.M., Bezopasnost' truboprovodnykh sistem (Safety of pipeline systems), Moscow: ELIMA Publ., 2004, 1104 p.
2. Ponomarev S.D., Biderman V.L., Likharev K.K. et al., Raschety na prochnost' v mashinostroenii (Calculations on strength in engineering), Moscow: Mashgiz Publ., 1956, 884 p.
3. Bezopasnost' Rossii. Bezopasnost' truboprovodnogo transporta (Security of Russia. Safety of pipeline transport), Moscow: Znanie, 2002, 752 p.
4. Streletskiy N.S., Geniev A.N., Belenya E.I., Metallicheskie konstruktsii (Metal constructions), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ, 1961, 776 p.
5. Zinevich A.M., To the complex quality management system of the construction for the main oil and gas pipelines (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo truboprovodov, 1991, no. 11, pp. 8–13.
6. Kharionovskiy V.V., Kurganova I.N., Nadezhnost' truboprovodnykh konstruktsiy: teoriya i tekhnicheskie resheniya (Reliability of pipeline constructions: theory and technical solutions), Moscow: Publ. of INEI RAN, Energotsentr, 1995, 125 p.
7. Zinevich A.M., Development of scientific bases of pipeline reliability (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo truboprovodov, 1992, no. 2, pp. 15–18.
8. Collected papers “Issledovaniya napryazheniy i prochnosti korpusa reaktora” (Studies of the stress and the strength of the reactor vessel), Moscow: Atomizdat Publ., 1968, 280 p.
9. Issledovanie napryazheniy prochnosti yadernykh reaktorov (Studies of the strength of nuclear reactors), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987–2008.
10. Makhutov N.A., Prochnost' i bezopasnost': fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya (Strength and safety: fundamental and applied research), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2008, 528 p.
11. Makhutov N.A., Permyakov V.N., Resurs bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii sosudov i truboprovodov (Resource of safe operation of vessels and pipelines), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 2005, 516 p.
12. Radionova S.G., Lisin Yu.V., Makhutov N.A. et al., Scientific-technical, socio-economic and legal aspects of oil and oil products transport reliability (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2016, no. 5, pp. 20–31.
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Based on the analysis of the current normative and technical documentation for the design and repair of vertical steel tanks, as well as scientific studies of domestic and foreign authors, were found that at present there is no method that would allow to determine with sufficient accuracy the stress-strain state of a tank that has imperfections geometric form of the wall. Available techniques do not take into account the real rigidity of the metal structure, in particular, the roof, and when setting the boundary conditions, various restrictions are placed on the movement of the upper and lower edges of the wall. In the article, the authors on a real tank have shown that the use of certain design schemes can lead to the occurrence of large errors and, accordingly, to obtain unreliable results. Obviously, such a design scheme cannot be used when choosing real repair technologies. For this purpose, based on the developed finite element model of the RVS-5000 tank with a conical roof, the calculations of the tank withdrawn in repair were carried out in three variants in accordance with the procedure of Transneft PJSC: I - without pinching the upper edge of the wall; II - with pinching of the upper edge of the wall; III - the version proposed by the authors of the article, the most detailed model of metal structures taking into account the real rigidity of the roof. The approach proposed by the authors of the article was developed for the analysis of the stress-strain state of a tank having geometric deviations of the wall shape. Based on the results of the work, it is proposed to supplement the methodology of Appendix A "Method for calculating the stress-strain state of the tank wall during repair by raising the reservoir and replacing the metal wall structures" of the current normative document by requiring mandatory registration of the real rigidity of the entire structure and the roof of the tank when calculating the construction stress-strain state.
1. Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Guan' Yu., Performance evaluation of large tank RVSPK-100000 in development of differential settlement area (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 4, pp. 134–136.
2. Slepnev I.V., Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe uprugo-plasticheskoe sostoyanie stal’nykh vertikal’nykh tsilindricheskikh rezervuarov pri neravnomernykh osadkakh osnovaniy (Stress-strain elastic-plastic state of steel vertical cylindrical tanks with development of differential settlement outdoor circuit bottom): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1988.
3. Vasil'ev G.G., Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Yukhay G., Seismic analysis of vertical steel tanks RVSPK-50000 using a linear-spectral method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 120–123.
4. Tarasenko A.A., Chepur P.V., Chirkov S.V., Theoretical and experimental justification of full lift method of tank 20000 m2 for repair its base and foundation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 123–125.
5. Guan Y., Tarasenko A.A., Huang S., Chepur P.V., Zhang R., Influence of laminated rubber bearings parameters on the seismic response of large LNG storage tanks, World Information on Earthquake Engineering, 2016, V. 32 (1), pp. 219–227.6. Korobkov G.E., Zaripov R.M., Shammazov I.A., Chislennoe modelirovanie napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya i ustoychivosti truboprovodov i rezervuarov v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh ekspluatatsii (Numerical modeling of the stress-strain state and stability of pipelines and reservoirs in complicated operating conditions), St. Petersburg: Nedra Publ., 2009, 410 p.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
Early detection of oil and petroleum products in the water bodies is of great ecological significance. Monitoring of oil spills at underwater crossings of trunk pipelines and in water areas of oil ports allows quick response and start of containment and elimination, thereby reducing the damage to the water body. This paper reviews methods of early detection and monitoring of oil and petroleum product spills on the water surface and associated instruments with the purpose of assessing the possibility of using them at oil transport and loading facilities (underwater crossings of oil and petroleum product pipelines and water areas of oil ports). The article is based on the research materials of basic physical and chemical processes, occurring when oil or petroleum product enters the water, the results of a comparative analysis of the methods of monitoring and testing of instruments, including full-scale open water tests in the marine waters of the Ajax Bay in the Peter the Great Gulf. The possibility of detection was checked at the oil product simulator. Based on the results of the study conclusions were drawn on the possibility of using the instruments and methods at oil (petroleum product) transport and loading facilities as well as on the promising direction of technology development in the area of monitoring and early detection of oil spills in water bodies.
1. Polyakov V.A., Shestakov R.A., To the question of ensuring the accuracy of measurements in oil pipeline leak detection system (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2015, no. 4 (20), pp. 76–79.
2. Rekhalov S.A., The introduction of a leak detection and activity monitoring system at the ssecurity field entrance of cleanup and diagnostic facilityof of trunk line submerged crossing Surgut-Polotsk crossing through the Klyazma river (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2011, no. 3, pp. 28–29.
3. Avandeeva O.P., Metodicheskie aspekty monitoringa kachestva vod dlya zon povyshennogo ekologicheskogo riska neftegennykh zagryazneniy (na primere Cheboksarskogo vodokhranilishcha) (Methodological aspects of water quality monitoring for zones of increased ecological risk of oil pollution (on the example of the Cheboksary reservoir)): thesis of candidate of geological science, Moscow, 2015.
4. ITOPF. Technical information document no. 2 "Behavior of marine oil spills", 2011.
6. Al'khimenko A.I., Avariynye razlivy nefti v more i bor'ba s nimi (Emergency oil spills in the sea and the fight against them), St. Petersburg: OM-Press, 2004, 113 p.
7. Izmaylova A.V., Voda dlya bol'shogo goroda (Water for a big city), URL: https://rg.ru/2009/04/07/pitervoda.html.
Polovkov S.A., Shestakov R.Yu., Aysmatullin I.R., Slepnev V.N., System conception in the development of measures on prevention and localization of accident consequences on oil pipelines in the arctic zone of Russian Federation (In Russ.), Nauka i tekhnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov, 2017, no. 1 (28), pp. 20–28.
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