August 2016

Geology and geologo-prospecting works

A.S. Ablyazov, N.Yu. Sidorov, V.A. Savenko (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), S.V. Arefyev, A.A. Kachkin, V.A. Volostnov (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
The advantages of zonal geological-geophysical model using for long-term planning and monitoring of geological exploration works in the Shaimskiy region

Keywords: Shaimskiy petroleum-bearing region, geological exploration works, seismic surveys, reservoir

Currently the bulk of geological exploration works in the Shaimskiy petroleum-bearing region concentrated in the marginal parts of the fields and areas of their joints that are underexplored or characterized by the presence of contradiction of geological and geophysical information. Advanced for search and for additional exploration objects in these areas can be identified only on the basis of zonal geological and geophysical models, combining groups of fields, that allow to summarize and consider diverse geological and geophysical information on the region.

Zonal geological and geophysical models of Jurassic deposits, in which the contradictions in the indexation and stratification of layers of Jurassic age are eliminated, are prepared for the north-eastern and western parts of the Shaimskiy region. It made possible to refine the morphology of productive strata, the limits of their pinching-out and merge fields area into a single stratigraphically linked zonal geological-geophysical model brought about accepted in Western Siberia formations indexing. Deposits geometrization is made on the basis of all available geological and geophysical information. The regions of the expansion of existing deposits are stated and new ones are predicted. As a result, new prospective sites are identified in an area at a later stage of additional exploration. This has allowed to outline a large amount of geological exploration works in the mid- and long-term.
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of Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments within
the southwestern area of KhMAO), Collected papers
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Yaroslavl State Pedagogical University, 2007, pp. 164169.
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Sibir') (Stratigraphy and paleogeography of the Mesozoic-
Cenozoic sedimentary cover Shaim oil and gas region
(Western Siberia)), edited by Alekseev V.P., Ekaterinburg:
Publ. of Ural State Mining University, 2010, 257 p.

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Yu.V. Titov, N.A. Cherepanova, V.V. Kolpakov, N.V. Kozhevnikova, A.R. Khalikova (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), V.V. Makienko (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Influence of secondary zeolitization of Bolshekhetskaya depression reservoirs on the optimization of the geological and technical measures (by the example of the BU15 formation of Pyakyakhinskoye field)

Keywords: Bolshekhetskaya depression, zeolites, reservoir properties, geological and technological measures

Meaning of zeolites in the formation of the structure of hydrocarbon reservoirs porous-cavernous space is extremely large. Physical and chemical properties of these minerals must be considered as at exploration works carrying out and at fields development. The producing BU15 formation of polar suite of Pyakyakhinskoye oil and gas field is considered as the object of study. The effect of secondary zeolitization on the choice of acid compounds, used for the treatment of bottomhole formation zone, is estimated. Negative impact of rocks zeolitization on the reservoir properties, the results of geophysical research and the processes of wells operation is established experimentally on the basis of comprehensive studies.

The process of transition of zeolite minerals in soluble form is determined by the type and acidity of the medium, temperature, and quantitative content of zeolite in the rock. The results of experiments to assess the effect of different acids on the disintegrated core are given. The content of zeolite in the rock was 18-19%. Exposure temperature corresponded to formation one (81 C). Pyakyakhinskoye field rock exposure to hydrochloric, hydrofluoric and oxalic acids in atmospheric conditions leads to gelation. Sufficiently thick gels are formed in mineral acids medium in a short time (0.5-2 h). The dissolution of zeolites is difficult at interacting with weak acids and the possibility of the reaction products structuring is minimal. Thus, gels formation in a medium of acetic and sulfamic acids has not been recorded for a prolonged period (10 days) at the reservoir temperature. The gelation in oxalic acid solution is achieved in 15-16 h. Rock reaction with the acid is accompanied by loss of core weight, that indicates on dissolution of the individual components, including zeolite-containing ones. The solubility of the core is low, but it is enough to structure of silica gels. The gelation in the pore space by the action of strong mineral acids is confirmed by the experiments on natural cores in thermobaric conditions of the formation.

It was concluded that the interaction of zeolite-containing rocks with inorganic acids, leading to undesirable reaction products gelation, requires innovative approaches to the selection and use of acidic formulations.


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(The zeolite mineralization in Cretaceous sediments of

Bolshekhetskaya depression in the north of Western Siberia (for

example, the formation BT8 of Pyakyakhinskoye field)), Proceedings

of The Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry

of UB of RAS, 2014, V. 161, pp. 120123.

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260 p.

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porod (Features of physical and capacitive

properties of zeolite-containing rocks), Collected papers

Petrofizicheskoe obespechenie podscheta zapasov nefti i

gaza (Petrophysical provision of oil and gas reserves calculations),

Tyumen': Publ. of ZapSibNIGNI, 1989, pp. 51-59.

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O.B. Kuzmichev (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), I.I. Garifullin (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Hardware-methodical complex for research of structurally complicated, including low-resistivity, reservoirs of Western Siberia fields

Keywords: low-resistivity reservoirs, spontaneous potential, static potential, volume humidity, oil and gas saturation index

The problem of estimation of low-resistivity reservoirs volumetric data is considered. Low-resistivity reservoirs are oil and gas saturated ones, which true resistivity is below its critical value at the oil-water interface. During tests it is possible to obtain substantial oil or oil with water inflow from low-resistivity reservoirs, which by the results of well logging materials interpretation are defined as water-saturated.

Bigradient (divergent) method of the spontaneous polarization logging is developed in KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen. The method differs from the existing method of measuring the spontaneous potential by higher sensitivity to the resistance of part of layer, not changed by penetration of drilling fluid, and by higher resolving capacity along the axis of the well (interlayer stratification). Hardware-methodical complex allows to measure spontaneous potential with new scheme, the first and the second differences of the spontaneous potential - with divergent logging method of L.M. Alpin.

The original method of an oil and gas saturation index estimating of structurally complicated, including low-resistivity, reservoirs is developed. Also the variant of oil and gas saturation index estimating according to the standard spontaneous polarization logging in the complex with the electric methods of borehole survey according to proposed method is provided for. The example of interpretation of low-resistivity oil-saturated reservoirs of Jurassic deposits of Maloklyuchevoye field of LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC is given.
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(Determination of calculation parameters on the basis of the joint interpretation
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Drilling of chinks

M.M. Fattakhov, D.L. Bakirov, V.A. Burdyga, E.V. Babushkin, A.Yu. Sentsov, I.S. Sokolov, O.A. Yarmolenko (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), V.N. Kovalev (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Development of technologies of horizontal and multilateral wells completion in LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC

Keywords: multilateral wells, well completion

The history of formation and modern advances in the area of technology of completion of multilateral horizontal and horizontal wells in the fields of LUKOIL-Western Siberia OOO is presented. By mid-2016 more than 40 horizontal wells were drilled with use of depression equipment, more than 70 wells - on the lightweight drilling fluids with density of 920-1040 kg/m3, more than 150 multilateral wells are put into operation. The experience of the construction of horizontal wells with carrying out 10-15-stage fracturing is considered. Such multilateral wells completion methods are described as the inclusion of an oil-swellable packers, separating lateral outlets, to the tail filter packaging arrangement; application of active circulation valves and swellable packers combined with the bypass system for downhole pumping equipment in packaging arrangement; carrying out multistage fracturing. Currently these variants of multilateral wells completion are introduced on a small scale, but their use is planned to expand in prospect. It was noted that the development of multilateral wells completion technologies is a significant focus area in the area of increase of efficiency of LUKOIL-Western Siberia OOO fields digging. For large-scale realization of the presented solutions it is necessary to test and implement of national technical means in order to increase the investment attractiveness of projects on production of hard-to-recover hydrocarbon reserves.


1. Bakirov D.L., Fattakhov M.M., Mnogozaboynye skvazhiny:

prakticheskiy opyt Zapadnoy Sibiri (Multilateral wells: practical

experience of Western Siberia), Tyumen': Tyumenskiy

dom pechati Publ., 2015, 232 p.

2. Bakirov D.L., Fattakhov M.M., Akhmetshin I.K. et al., Planning

and construction of extended-reach multilateral wells

(In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i

gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 9, pp. 4150.

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D.L. Bakirov, E.V. Babushkin, M.M. Fattakhov, D.V. Malyutin (KogalymNIPIneft Branch LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Improving the efficiency of multilateral wells construction by the use of oil-based drilling fluids

Keywords: abnormally low formation pressure, differential sticking, non-productive time, low-permeability reservoir, multilateral well, oil-based drilling fluid

Productive formations with low poroperm properties and often abnormally low formation pressure are the main drilling targets in Western Siberia now. The use of water-based drilling fluids at the completing in such conditions leads to complications and accidents. Alternatively, at multilateral wells drilling with great reservoir driving it is proposed the use of oil-based drilling fluids. Laboratory tests on the cores confirmed that oil-based drilling fluids have a minimum filtration and the highest rates of permeability recovery. This makes it possible to preserve poroperm properties of low-permeability reservoir and contributes to increasing the efficiency of the productive formation development. Industrial experimental works are carried out in the fields of LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC. The results of oil-based drilling fluids application for horizontal multilateral wells completing show the effectiveness of the given technology. The complications, associated with the drilling fluid, are excluded, penetration rate increases to 30%, non-productive time reduces when oil-based drilling fluids are used in conditions of a stratum with abnormally low formation pressure at reservoir driving up to 1200 m. The initial oil production rate has exceeded 20% the same index of the well, drilled with a water-based drilling fluid in similar geological and technical conditions. Oil-based drilling fluids reusing has allowed to reduce the cost of materials by 20%.


1. Bakirov D.L., Babushkin E.V., Fattakhov M.M., Malyutin D.V., Use of drilling

mud of decreased density to enhance the quality of opening of productive

formations with abnormally low formation pressure (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika

i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2014, no. 10,

pp. 3942.

2. Bakirov D.L., Fattakhov M.M., Bondarenko L.S. et al., Technology implementation

efficiency of construction of multilateral wells with horizontal ending

at the fields of "LUKOIL-the Western Siberia, Ltd." (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika

i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2014, no. 10,

pp. 4245.

3. Bakirov D.L., Fattakhov M.M., Malyutin D.V., Babushkin E.V., Some aspects

relating to completion of hor izontal wells with open well bottoms in terrigene

collectors of the Western Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka

neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 9, pp. 5663.

4. Tikhonov E.V., Sokovnin S.A., Dolmatov A.P. et al., Drilling low pressure reservoirs

in Western Siberia: BARADRIL-N/Mineral oil, oil in water emulsion

(In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2013, no. 10, pp. 5052.

5. Kudrin A.A., Arslanbekov A.R., Solov'ev S.G. et al., Influence of drilling fluids

type on reservoir BU8-9 drill in of Yurkharovskoe field (In Russ.), Burenie i neft',

2009, no. 78, pp. 42-47.

6. Arslanbekov A.R., Lutfullin A.A., Medentsev A.V. et al., Drilling in oil-wet reservoirs

with oil based mud systems (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 9,

pp. 2932.

7. Andriadi S., Dontsov E., Sergeev S., Sibagatullin R., The use of oil-based solution

for penetration of the Jurassic deposits on Van Egan field (In Russ.), Novator,

2012, no. 6, pp. 2428.

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A.Yu. Sentsov, O.V. Kramar, I.Yu. Cherkasova, S.A. Timofeeva, O.V. Maslak (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), S.V. Arefyev (LUKOIL-Western Siberia LLL, RF, Kogalym)
Choice of the strategy of an object drilling out on the basis of a probabilistic approach

Keywords: variative model, geological and hydrodynamic uncertainties, rationing in fact, adjustment of the design decisions, drilling out strategy, net present value, internal rate of return
The tasks of assessing and reducing risks, improving the quality of the forecast of oil production at the exploitation drilling organization at new sites are considered. A probabilistic approach to the forming of a strategy of development (drilling out) of asset is suggested. The approach supposes to use for making concrete decisions on drilling new wells in some areas of deposits not approved deterministic model, but multivariant one. Variative models take into account the uncertainty of input parameters by rationing them in fact. Forming of the strategy of the development (drilling out) the asset consists of the next basic steps: 1) object selection and allocation of the most promising sites for drilling; 2) the creation of probabilistic models and  forming of the development variants taking into account geological specialty of sites; 3) the search for the optimal variant by technological and economic criteria. Methodology is tested on the main deposit of YuV1 reservoir of North Pokachevskoye field. Based on probabilistic modeling economically efficient variant of the development of the selected site is recommended. At the same time probable variations in the geological basis are taken into account. The use of the proposed approach at the stage of drill planning allows to find the optimal way to develop the asset, to increase the net present value and internal rate of return of the project.
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field (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i
gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2014, no. 10, pp. 5058.

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D.L. Bakirov, V.A. Burdyga (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), V.N. Kovalev (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym)
Water cross flows appearance preventing with application of self-healing compositions for cementing

Keywords: : water cross flows, self-healing backfill composition

Water cross flows between beds and inter-formational water cross flows behind the casing string are fairly common problem in Western Siberia fields. Self-healing cement compositions are designed to provide durable annulus sealing at wells operation without a repair and insulation work. Self-healing cement stone is generally prepared by the introduction of components, increasing in size under certain conditions, to its composition. The most promising method of self-healing cracks in the cement stone during its contact with water is the introduction of the capillary-active additives of penetrating action to the cement matrix. Self-healing cement compositions, with use of which more than 100 casing strings of wells are cemented, are developed. Field research data have shown that water cross flows are observed in four experimental wells (4% of total number of wells versus 45% at the underlying technology application), and water cross flows between beds are not detected in any of the experimental wells.


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isolation of water inflows in primary cementing wells in bottom water-drive

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novel technology to achieve leak-free wells, SPE 105781, 2007.

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during cementing operations, SPE 106998, 2007.

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8. Lukmanov R.R., Bakirov D.L., Burdyga V.A., Trachev S.M., Forecast method

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i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2005, no. 8, pp. 3842.

9. Patent no. 2542013 RF, MPK S 09 K 8/467, Cement slurry for cementing oil

and gas wells, Inventors: Bakirov D.L., Burdyga V.A., Nafikov R.K.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

S.A. Solyanov , M.G. Mavletdinov, A.V. Zaytsev, D.V. Aptulin (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen)
Innovative solutions for the oil and gas projects of hydrocarbon production at Pyakyakhinskoye field of LUKOIL PJSC (putting on line in 2016)

Keywords: development system, dual complition, multi-stage fracturing, multilateral well

Pyakyakhinskoye oil-gas-condensate field is one of the largest hydrocarbon reserves in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District. The field is located in the area distant from infrastructure. Road network is presented only by winter roads.

Development of the field will be carried out on the basis of the current project document on the inverted seven-spot systemizing horizontal wells. Since most production facilities of the field are combined in terms of occurrence, it is recommended for the BU15 and BU152 reservoirs production to use the equipment for dual completion with application of double clusters on the fifth level of complexity (TAML classification). In order to test different reservoir management programs for the given geological and physical conditions, the sites of experimental industrial activities at facilities BU151+BU152 and PK18+ PK20 have been allocated. Gas and condensate assets are planned to develop with systems of horizontal and multilateral wells.

Decisions to launch the development of facilities BU151, BU152 and PK18 are adjusted with account for the plan to build an oil pipeline The Subarctic - Purpe as well as a central gathering station and source pump station, which will be located on the territory of Pyakyakhinskoye field. Completion of construction is planned in 2016. Drilling is carried out with priority rates. The field is planned to be put into commercial operation in the second half of 2016.
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8. URL: http://www.tehnoprogress.ru/lenta/news20131.html.

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V.V. Vakhrushev, V.N. Melnikov, S.A. Moskvitin (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Generalization of experience in the development of YuV1 object of LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC fields in order to increase the substantiation of the technological parameters forecast

Keywords: J-function, theoretical characteristic of the displacement, relative permeability, theoretical productivity

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A.A. Ankudinov, L.A. Vaganov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), S.K. Sokhoshko (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
A comprehensive approach to the analysis of realizing flooding system and its improvement

Keywords: oil, deposit, flooding system, reservoir pressure maintenance system, flooding system analysis

The unified approach to the analysis of the impact of realizing flooding system on the energy state of the reservoir, as well as on the process of development of reserves is suggested on the basis of generalization of existing experience and selection of the most effective tools, used in various departments of KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen. The proposed approach includes the following steps: 1) the collection and preparation of raw data (technological parameters of wells operation, instrumental measurements of reservoir pressure and dynamic level, the results of hydrodynamic studies, etc.); 2) evaluation of the stimulation intensity; 3) estimation of the dynamics of technological parameters; 4) analysis of the energy state of the formation (voidage replacement, reservoir pressure dynamics). All additional calculations are performed with Microsoft Excel software, without the involvement of geological and hydrodynamic modeling, that significantly reduces labor costs.

Applying the approach is considered by the example of YuV1 formation. In accordance with the technological parameters of the wells performance, and also with additionally obtained in the analyzing process data, the recommendations for the improvement of the development process and program of geological and technical measures are produced.
1. RD 153-39.0- 110-01. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po geologo-promyslovomu
analizu razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methodical
instructions on geological and field analysis of oil and gas fields development),
Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Energy RF, 2002, 59 p.
2. Sokolov S.V., Praktika proektirovaniya, analiza i modelirovaniya razrabotki
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (The practice of design, analysis and modeling
of oil field development), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2008, 200 p.
3. 2. Wolcott D., Applied waterflood field development, Publ. of Schlumberger,
2001, 142 p.
4. Ankudinov A.A., Vaganov L.A., Method of distribution of injected water volumes
along the square of an oil field (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka
neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 9, pp. 1924.
5. Ankudinov A.A., Vaganov L.A., Analysis of water-flooding system efficiency
with application of material balance method (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika
i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2014, no. 10, pp. 6366.
6. Ankudinov A.A., Vaganov L.A., Rapid assessment of the existing reservoirpressure
maintenance system using multivariate analysis and material balance
methods (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2015, no. 67, pp. 811.

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V.V. Kolpakov, Ya.Kh. Saetgaleyev, V.A. Shmyrina, S.M. Yulyakshin, S.V. Kozakov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Microinhomogeneity influence on the permeability of rocks of Uryevskoye field YuV1 reservoir

Keywords: clay minerals, microinhomogeneity, permeability, experiment

The integration of lithologic and physical and special investigations of the core is carried out in order to study the possible reasons for reservoir capacity reduction. The object of the study was sandy-silty rocks of producing YuV1 reservoir of Uryevskoye field, characterized by heterogeneous composition of the argillaceous cement and its nonuniform distribution (microinhomogeneity). Kaolinite, chlorite, hydromica minerals are allocated as part of the cement composition. Lithological-technological typification of reservoir rocks with contouring areas of their distribution is carried out with account of clay minerals amount in the composition of rocks and their different ability to swell. Total four basic types are allocated: I - the high content of hydromicaceous minerals; II, III - respectively intermediate and high content of kaolinite; IV - the absence of argillaceous cement. Rocks type I distribution area is the most susceptible to swelling. In such circumstances it is necessary to use highly mineralized water in the reservoir pressure maintenance system. Rocks type III distribution areas are less prone to swelling, so water with lower salinity can be injected for the reservoir pressure maintenance system. There are no injected water mineralization constraints in rocks type IV distribution areas. The results of experiments on models, consisting of a core sample types II and III, show that rock permeability slowly reduces since the beginning of the injection. The most significant reduction of permeability is fixed for rocks type II. This presumably is due to kaolinite content decreasing and increasing the proportion of chlorite and hydromica minerals in the argillaceous cement compared to type III.

It is suggested that one of the possible reasons for reducing the permeability of the YuV1 reservoir is microinhomogeneity of rocks of allocated lithological-technological types and their non-uniform distribution over the area.
1. Tabakaeva L.S., Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya osobennostey
vozdeystviya na nizkopronitsaemye glinosoderzhashchie neftyanye plasty
rastvorami elektrolitov (Experimental studies of electrolyte solutions impact on
low-permeability clay-containing oil reservoirs), thesis of candidate of technical
science, Moscow, 2007.
2. Sokolov V.N., Microcosm of clay rocks (In Russ.), Sorosovskiy obrazovatel'nyy
zhurnal, 1996, no. 3, pp. 5664.
3. Gafarov Sh.A., Using the product of hydrocarbons liquid phase oxidation
for the stabilization and suppression of swelling clays (In Rus.), Neftegazovoe
delo = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2003, no. 2, URL:
4. Gayvoronskiy I.N., Leonenko G.N., Zamakhaev V.S., Kollektory nefti i gaza
Zapadnoy Sibiri. Ikh vskrytie i oprobovanie (Collectors of oil and gas in Western
Siberia. Their completion and testing), Moscow: Geonformmark Publ.,
2000, 364 p.
5. Shmyrina V.A., Saetgaleev Ya.Kh., Study of influence of productive formations
clay factor on technical and economic indicators of fields development
(illustrated by Kustovoye field) (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka
neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 9, pp. 713.

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K.E. Kordik, V.V. Shkandratov, A.E. Bortnikov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen), S.A. Leontyev (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta)
About trends in the oil-gas ratio change in the process of exploitation of LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC fields

Keywords: oil- gas ratio, associated gas recovery, oil degassing by water, thermobaric conditions of separation
The results of the analysis of the oil-gas ratio dynamics on the fields of LUKOIL - West Siberia LLC from 2004 to 2014 are presented. The trend of oil-gas ratio increasing is marked in many fields, including the facilities being at late stage of operation. The dynamics of the oil-gas ratio depends on a factors complex, related both to intrastratal changes of fluid properties, and to the conditions of the separation of wells production in the routine preprocessing facilities. Among the reasons, that lead to reservoir changes of the oil-gas ratio, special attention is paid to oil degassing by the injected water. The impact of this factor is especially noticeable in the later stage of the development of the deposit, when water cutting of wells production exceeds 90%. During this period, it is advisable to conduct further studies to determine the gas-oil ratio of produced water. An important aspect, determining the dynamics of the oil-gas ratio, is also a mode of operation of the routine preprocessing facilities, in particular the change of thermobaric regime of oil separation from the gas. The significant oil separation temperature rise in the facilities of LUKOIL - West Siberia LLC is marked during the observation period (from 2004 to 2014), that contributes to a further transfer of low-boiling hydrocarbons in the gas phase and, consequently, leads to the oil-gas ratio increase. Therefore, for the fact-based analysis of the oil-gas ratio change reasons it is required the constant monitoring not only the parameters, characterizing the operating mode of deposit, but also parameters of field separation (temperature and pressure), that is currently neglected.
1. Sheykh-Ali D.M., Izmenenie svoystv plastovoy nefti i gazovogo faktora v
protsesse ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Changing the properties
of reservoir oil and gas factor in the process of oil fields exploitation), Ufa:
Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2001, 136 p.
2. Sheykh-Ali D.M., Yulbarisov E.M., Changing the properties of oil and gas factor
in the process of oil fields exploitation (In Russ.), Interval, 2003, no. 1,
pp. 3035.
3. Yulbari sov E.M., Valeev M.D., Sheykh-Ali D.M., Some recommendations for
research of dynamics of the gas factor changes in the later stages of development
(In Russ.), Interval, 2005, no. 1112, pp. 2934.
4. Amerkhanov I.I., Kovalev K.A., Izmenenie fiziko-khimicheskikh svoystv plastovoy
nefti v protsesse razrabotki Romashkinskogo mestorozhdeniya (Changing
the physical and chemical properties of reservoir oil in the process of Romashkinskoye
field developing), Proceedings of TatNIPIneft', 2010, V. 78,
pp. 135140.
5. Bortnikov A.E., Kordik K.E., Moroz V.N. et al., Influence of temperature mode
change of field separation on the value of oil gas factor (In Russ.), Geologiya,
geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2015, no. 9,
pp. 8186.
6. Kutyrev E.F., Shkandratov V.V., Belousov Yu.V., Some results of physical modeling
of gas exchange processes in an oil-injected water system (In Russ.),
Georesursy = Georesources, 2008, no. 5, pp. 3336.

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The oil and gas industry

553.98(470.41) + 622.337.2
R.N. Minnikhanov (President of the Republic of Tatarstan, RF, Kazan), N.U. Maganov, R.S. Khisamov, (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
On creation of research and testing facilities to promote study of nonconventional oil reserves in Tatarstan

Keywords: nonconventional reserves, Domani deposits, extra-heavy oil, research and testing facilities, Tatneft assets, tight oil, R&D
Discovery of new fields with conventional hydrocarbon reserves is not enough anymore to replace resource base of the Republic of Tatarstan. However geological surveys testify that the hydrocarbon potential of the domanikites and domanikoids in Tatarstan is rather high and it has not been fully understood by now. Today, study of nonconventional hydrocarbon reserves and bringing them into development is an effective tool to replace reserves that can provide the necessary level of oil production to guaranty the economic growth of the country. The paper considers the feasibility of creating of research and testing facilities in the unallocated subsoil reserve fund on the Tatarstan and on the boundary Samara region territories to provide in-depth study and development of nonconventional reserves. Main challenges of this project have been set out. Program of works to initiate research and testing facilities DOMANIK and BITUM in the Republic of Tatarstan has been developed and preliminary cost estimates have been calculated. The research and testing facilities are aimed at development of new geological exploration methods and testing of new reservoir engineering technologies to be carried out in cooperation with the largest Russian research enterprises and major operators. Considering the highest potential of the Volga-Ural oil-and-gas province and the economic importance of reserves production, discovery, study, and development of nonconventional reserves should be a key priority for the Tatneft Company and for the Republic of Tatarstan.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

T.A. Kononova, T.A. Nesterova, E.S. Latypova (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Seismic facies analysis for reservoir prediction in a low drilling maturity conditions

Keywords: seismic facies analysis, reservoir prediction, Tyumen formation
The study is dedicated to the reservoir prediction specificity based on drilling, core and seismic data in a low drilling maturity conditions. The study area (800 km2) is covered with 3D seismics. Drilling maturity is low and irregular and composes 1 well per 200 km2.  Apart from this the southern part of the area (about 420 km2) has no wells.  The object of the study is J2 layer of Tyumen formation regional oil-bearing formation. The genesis of the layer is continental in its lower part and coastal-marine in its upper part. The sedimentation specificity has determined a complex configuration and lateral heterogeneity of the reservoir. In these conditions conventional seismic opportunities, seismic facies analysis particularly is the optimal decision for geological risks mitigation. Results of the study are litho-facial map, zones of supposed reservoir distribution, net reservoir map. The described method is supposed to be advanced based on drilling results and used within the similar areas.
1. Malyarova T.N., Seismic facies analysis as a universal means of understanding
the structure of reservoir (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2007, no. 2,
pp. 7987.
2. Pukharev V.A., Potapova E.A., Malinovskaya O.I., Primenenie klassifikatsionnykh
algoritmov pri sedimentologicheskom modelirovanii (The use of classification
algorithms for sedimentological modeling), Oil&Gas Journal Russia,
2012, January-February, p. 5559.
3. Safonov V.G., Zervando K.Yu., Development of exploration project in the
Uvat Area, south of Western Siberia (In Rus..), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO NK Rosneft', 2015, no. 3, pp. 1013.
4. Finogenova A.S., Zervando K.Yu., Prediction of channel sandstone spreading
in Middle Jurassic deposits on the basis of seismic-facial analysis (In Russ.),
Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy,
2013, no. 3, pp. 2833.
5. Muromtsev V.S., Elektrometricheskaya geologiya peschanykh tel litologicheskikh
lovushek nefti i gaza (Electrometric geology of sand bodies -
lithologic traps of oil and gas), Leningrad: Nedra Publ., 1984, 260 p.
6. Reading, H.G., Sedimentary environment and facies, Blackwell Scientific
Publication, 1986, 615 p.
7. Musatov I.V., Zverev K.V., Vizualizatsiya drevnikh ruslovykh sistem plastov
Yu2-4 Tsentral'nogo Uvata po seysmicheskim dannym na osnove spektral'noy
dekompozitsii (Visualization of ancient fluvial systems of layers YU2-4 of Central
Uvat on seismic data based on spectral decomposition), Tyumen': Publ.
of EAGE, 2013; http://www.earthdoc.org/publication/publicationdetails/?

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P.F. Popova, V.A. Tsygankova (VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Volgograd, RF, Volgograd), S.V. Deliya (LUKOIL-Nizhnevolzhskneft LLC, Astrakhan)
Study of the middle Caspian Neogene fluvial system prospects based on seismic survey and lithofacies analysis

Keywords: water area of the Middle Caspian, seismic-facies analysis, lithofacies analysis, channel, paleochannel of the Volga
Comprehensive studies of the Neogene thickness prospects for hydrocarbon search have been presented basing on the results of seismic and lithofacies analysis with regard to new wells drilling in the water area of the Middle Caspian. Such approach allowed identifying and specifying the geometry of the Neogene fluvial system with its main water artery the Paleo-Volga, as well as studying the genesis of the deposits making the paleochannel and the conditions of sedimentation in the Miocene-Pliocene in the central part of the Middle Caspian.
1. Pronicheva M.V., Rozhdestvenskiy A.P., Geomorfologiya, 1976, no. 4,
pp. 12-22.
2. Gadzhiev A.N., Popkov V.I., Geotektonika Geotectonics, 1988, no. 6,
pp. 101112.
3. Gadzhiev A.N., Collected papers Struktura i neftegazonosnost' vpadin
vnutrennikh morey (Structure and oil and gas potential of inland seas
basins), Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 1989, pp. 65-69.
4. Kholodov V.N., Kheirov M.B., Khalilov N.Yu., Litologiya i poleznye iskopaemye
- Lithology and Mineral Resources, 1992, no. 2, pp. 14-27.
5. Klenova M.V., Geologicheskoe stroenie podvodnogo sklona Kaspiyskogo
morya (Geological structure of the underwater slope of the Caspian
Sea), Moscow: Publ. of USSR Academy of Sciences, 1962, 636 p.
6. Ayzenshtadt G.E.-A., Koltypin S.N., Razmyslova S.S. et al., Proceedings of
VNIGRI, 1967, V. 253, 309 p.
7. Nevesskaya L.A., Goncharova I.A., Il'ina L.B., Paramonova N.P., Khondkarian
S.O., Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya korrelyatsiya Stratigraphy and
Geological Correlation, 2003, V. 11, no. 2, pp. 3-26.
8. Brylev V.A., Geomorfologiya, 1984, no. 3, pp. 22-30.
9. Kolesnikov V.P., Stratigrafiya SSSR (Stratigraphy of the USSR), Book XII,
Neogen SSSR (Neogene of the USSR), Moscow: Publ. of AN SSSR, 1940,
10. Baturin V.P., Paleogeografiya po terrigennym komponentam. Baku (Paleogeography
of terrigenous components. Baku), Moscow: Publ. of ONTI,
NKTP SSSR, AzONTI, 1937, 292 p.

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A.M. Khusainova, T.V. Burikova, O.R. Privalova (BashNIPI-neft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.N. Nugaeva, R.I. Zianberdin (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa)
The influence of structural and lithological features on the saturation model of Middle Carboniferous reservoirs of the Republic of Bashkortostan

Keywords: petrophysical classes, limestone, dolomite, oil field, petrophysical model, interpretation model, voids type, volumetric parameters, geophysical surveys, unit, tectonic region
The article describes the developed unified interpretation model, individually approaching each middle Carboniferous object and able to highlight the geological characteristics of rocks, influencing the formation of void space and hence hydrocarbon saturation. Detailed lithological and petrographic study of middle Carboniferous rocks allowed identifying the main lithotypes for each stratigraphic unit. Facies conditions of rock formation and characteristics of sedimentation basin at different period of time were considered in lithotype determination. This approach allowed us to separate the rocks by their petrophysical parameters, and to justify the petrophysical classes determination by geological features of middle Carboniferous section. Petrophysical models were developed based on the results of all currently available capillarimetry studies of middle Carboniferous deposits of the Northern part of Bashkortostan. PLT data were used in studying the lithological composition and they help to determine the mineralogical composition. To analyze pore space structure of the pore space in addition to indirect methods such as acoustic and traditional methods thin sections study, we used special methods such as tomography that helped us to justify the typification of rocks according to pore space structure. We arranged 7 petrophysical classes: 4 for limestone and 3 for dolomite. Based on petrophysical model there were created an interpretative model including lithologic differentiation of the section (dolomite, limestone, shale), reservoir determining and key logging parameters. Application of these dependencies confined to a certain study area, allows approximating estimated log parameters to core data of the fields on the territory of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
1. Bulgakov R.B., Nekotorye rezul'taty raboty opytno-metodicheskoy partii
no. 22 (Some results of the test survey crew no. 22 work), Collected papers
Geologicheskaya sluzhba i gornoe delo Bashkortostana na rubezhe vekov
(Bashkortostan geological survey and mining on the turn of the century), Proceedings
of Republican scientific and practical conference, Ufa: Publ. of
TAU, 2000, pp. 244250.
2. Bulgakov R.B., Privalova O.R. , Nekotorye voprosy kachestva petrofizicheskikh
issledovaniy kerna iz kollektorov (Some questions the quality of petrophysical
studies of the core of collectors), Proceedings of Novye geofizicheskie
tekhnologii dlya neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (New geophysical
technology for the oil and gas industry), Ufa: Publ. of NPF Geofizika, 2003,
pp. 8587.
3. Lozin E.V., Masagutov R.Kh., Minkaev V.N., Stroenie i evolyutsiya osadochnogo
chekhla platformennoy Bashkirii v svyazi s zakonomernostyami
razmeshcheniya zalezhey nefti i gaza (Structure and evolution of the sedimentary
cover of platform Bashkortostan in connection with the laws of placing
of oil and gas deposits), Ufa, 1989, 338 p.
4. Vissarionova A.Ya., Stratigrafiya i fatsii sredne-nizhnekamennougol'nykh otlozheniy
Bashkirii i ikh neftenosnost' (Stratigraphy and facies of Medium and
Lower Carboniferous deposits of Bashkortostan and its oil content), Moscow,
1959, 222 p.
5. Dakhnov V.N., Geofizicheskie metody opredeleniya kollektorskikh svoystv i
neftegazonasyshcheniya gornykh porod (Geophysical methods for the determination
of reservoir properties and oil and gas saturation of rocks),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 343 pp.
6. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika
gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)): edited Kozhevnikov D.A.,
Moscow: Neft I gaz Publ., 2004, 368 p.
7. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym
metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS
(Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric
method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging):
edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of
VNIGNI, 2003.
8. Tauzhnyanskiy G.V., Sokolovskaya O.A., Rumak N.P., Selivanova E.E., Petrophysical
reasoning of determining the oil and gas saturation factor of reservoirs
in Western Siberia (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2002, V. 101, pp. 3545.

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A.V. Gabnasyrov, PhD, N.A. Lyadova, PhD, I.S. Putilov, PhD, S.I. Solovjev (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Evaluation of Domani formation unconventional resources in LUKOIL PJSC

Keywords: Domanic formation, shale oil, unconventional hydrocarbons resources
Main purpose of this paper was to evaluate unconventional resources of Domanic shales within Volga-Ural and Timan-Pechora basins. Unconventional resources of Domanic formation are studied very poorly. Well known, shale plays have very complicated geology. Because of that we generalized previous geological reports, revised all existed standard, special and geochemical (including Rock Eval) core studies and well logging. Those studies results were analized. Core-Core and Core-Log plots were made. All the materials mentioned above were used for generation of maps of unconventional exploration features (such as organic matter maturity, lithology variation, total organic carbon content etc.). Parameters of Domanik shales were compared with parameters of unconventional plays of United States and Canada. Geology of Domanic shales was specified. Criteria of sweet spots in Domanic formation were determined. Territories for further exploration works were localized. After generalization of all geological materials, such as well logging and core analysis, mentioned data were comparing with some shale projects in USA. Based upon all new information and criteria (new relative to traditional traps) a new program for further exploration of unconventional resources in Domanic shale has been developed.
1. Glaser K.S., Miller C.K., Johnson G.M., Denver B.T. et al., Seeking the
sweet spot: reservoir and completion quality in organic shales, Oilfield
Review 25, no. 10 (Winter 2013/2014).
2. Alcantar-Lopez L., Chipera S.J., Improving our understanding of
porosity in source rock reservoirs through advanced imaging techniques,
SPE 168916, 2013.
3. Wasaki A., Akkutlu Y., Permeability of organic-rich shales, SPE 170830-
PA, 2015.
4. Curtis M.E., Cardott B.J., The development of organic porosity in the
woodford shales related to thermal maturity, SPE 160158, 2015.
5. Maende A., Weldon W.D., Pyrolysis and TOC identification of tight
sweet spots, SPE 168732-MS, 2013.
6. Reijenstein H.M., Where is the Vaca Muerta sweet spot? The importance
of regional facies trends, thickness, and maturity in general play
concepts, SPE 178702-MS, 2015.
7. Tinnin B. et al., Multi-source data integration: Eagle Ford shale sweet
spot mapping, SPE 178592-MS, 2015.

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A.A. Kolesnikova, M.I. Kremenetskiy, A.I. Ipatov, I.V. Kovalenko (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg, RF, Sain-Petersburg), V.S. Komarov, G.M. Nemirovich (Messoyakhaneftegaz JSC, RF, Tyumen)
Field-geophysical research of horizontal wells in low unstable inflow

Keywords: production-logging tool in horizontal wellbore, spectral noise logging , diagnosis of intense local inflows, different time observations

local inflows, different time observations

Today Horizontal and deviated wells found strong using in the field development schedule, because of their high efficiency in the extraction of hydrocarbons. Using such wells related with significant complication works, both in drilling and the planning and conduct geophysical research and interpretation of the getting results. The article discusses the possibility of informative geophysical studies (PLT) in determining the inflow profile of horizontal wellbore under unstable flow rate and low draw down pressure. It has been shown that the addition of a standard set of PLT and water-cut log with gauges distributed over the cross section of the wellbore, and spectral noise logging allows to successfully identify contrasting inflow rates (in case with the oil reservoir with high specific yield, breaking water and gas). The control the dynamics of filling the wellbore on the unstable state start-up or change of draw down pressure is necessary condition for the effectiveness of research. Methods of geophysical investigations at this stage of knowledge of the field needs to be considered not only in the "traditional" context, as a development control tool, but also as a method of further exploration of the deposit and the possibility of obtaining additional information regarding the mining characteristics of the exposed geological bodies, the study based production potential of the effective length horizontal wells drilled in cyclites different genesis.
1. Ipatov A.I., Kremnetskiy M.I., Geofizicheskiy i gidrodinamicheskiy kontrol
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodov (Geophysical and hydrodynamic
control of hydrocarbon deposits development), Moscow: Publ. of NITs Regulyarnaya
i khaoticheskaya dinamika, 2010, 780 p.
2. Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Gulyaev D.N. et al., Reservoir surveillance
when hard-to-recover reserves developing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 6872.
3. Ipatov A.I., Kremenetskiy M.I., Kaeshkov I.S. et al., Undiscovered DTS potential
of horizontal well inflow profile monitoring (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 96100.
4. Savich A.D., Chernykh I.A., Shumilov A.V., Efficiency upgrading of geophysical
researches in horizontal wells (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2011, V. 5,
pp. 7080.
5. Sal'nikova O.L. Flowing fluid profile and composition evaluation in horizontal
operation wells (In Rus.), Karotazhnik, 2015, no. 10 (244), pp. 65 78.
6. Valiullin R.A., Yarulin R.K., Peculiarities of geophysical research in running
horizontal wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Akademii nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan,
2014, V. 19, no. 1, pp. 2128.
7. Lenn K., Kadenkhed D., Sander R., Ashurov V., New developments in the
production logging in horizontal wells (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK, 2004, no. 5.

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N.N. Bozhenyuk, M.D. Korobkov (Surgutneftegas JSC, RF, Surgut)
Construction of the geological model of the Vikulov sediments in consideration of data uncertainty

Keywords: structural model, geological model, model fluids, uncertainty analysis
The article is focused on the process of geological modeling of the complex geological structure in consideration of the analysis of uncertain background data. The territory is understudied. For this reason model was developed using derived dependence of structure variability on remoteness of wells with actual information and formation depth. To present layer variability when constructing lithology cube, combination of deterministic and stochastic methods by applying geological-statistical profiles was used. While making distribution of characteristics in interwell space declustering of initial data was exercised. The model of relative permeability to phase and capillary model were built on the basis of examined well logging data. The methodology for interactive petrophysical modeling of undersaturated reservoirs in the transition zone was tested and applied.
1. Alekseev V.P., Amon E.O. et al., Sostav, stroenie i usloviya formirovaniya
kollektorov gruppy VK vostochnoy chasti Krasnoleninskogo neftyanogo
mestorozhdeniya (Zapadnaya Sibir') (The composition, structure and conditions
of formation of VK collectors group of eastern part of Krasnoleninsk oil
field (Western Siberia)), Ekaterinburg: Publ. of Ural State Mining University, 2011,
325 .
2. Dubrule O., Geostatistic in petroleum geology, AAPG Continuing Education
Course Note Series no. 38, AAPG, Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.A., 1998, 256 .
3. Deutsch Clayton V., Geostatistical reservoir modeling, Oxford University
Press, 2002, 384 p.
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186 .
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Tomsk: Publ. of TPU, 2004, 453 .

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Shelf development

.S. Afanasiev, G.D. Fedorchenko, A.A. Kozhemyakin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow), V.A. Smyslov (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara)
Practical implementation of integrated approach concept for offshore assets of Zarubezhneft JSC

Keywords: offshore, asset development, investments, integrated modelling

According to international accounting and consulting agencies up to 70% of oil and gas projects implemented in the last decade, are characterized by the worst actual performance compared with the design. Problems with quality planning were the reasons for looking of new and creative solutions for oil and gas companies. One of these solutions, along with cost engineering, value of information analysis (VOI analysis) and integrity management was integrated assets modeling (IAM). This approach is one of the most popular in oil and gas industry. Its should be noticed that Russian and foreign oil and gas companies successfully implement and develop methodologies and tools for integrated modeling. It is common to use in offshore and deep-water shelf, as well as for projects related to restrictions and limitations (production, surface facilities, economics, and licensing obligations).

The paper considers the experience of Zarubezhneft JSC in the integrated design of offshore oil projects. They consider an issue of quality of assets development planning. It was given a description of features of offshore development. Asset of Zarubezhneft JSC, located on the shelf of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (hereinafter Vietnam) - a Joint Venture Vietsovpetro is described. Authors provided practical examples to illustrate integrated design concept of joint venture assets Vietsovpetro JV using in-house developed software. They provided conclusions and recommendations for further work.
1. URL: http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/
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4. URL: www.ey.com/
5. Kudryashov S.I., Afanas'ev I.S., Dashevskiy A.V. et al., Integrated approach
to oil and gas producing enterprise rates planning in Zarubezhneft JSC
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 144148.
6. Van den Berg F., Perrons R.K., Moore I., Schut G., Business value from intelligent
fields, SPE 128245, 2010.
7. Kostrigin I.V., Zagurenko T.G., Khatmullin I.F., History of the creation and deploying
of software package RN-KIN (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO NK Rosneft', 2014, no. , pp. 47.
8. Khasanov M.M., Oil production today is science intensive and high-tech
(In Russ.), Nef t', gaz, promyshlennost', 2014, no. 5 (55).

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V.I. Bogoyavlenskiy, I.V. Bogoyavlenskiy, R.A. Nikonov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), A.D. Dzyublo (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), A.N. Ivanov, Le Viet Hai, D.I. Varlamov (Vitsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau)
Oil and gas potential of the crystalline basement at Southern Vietnam offshore

Keywords: White Tiger, Dragon, Vietnam Shelf, Cuu Long Basin, crystalline basement, oil and gas bearing, catagenesis
The geodynamic arrangement in the South China Sea situated in the junction zone of Eurasian, Pacific and Indo-Australian tectonic plates was analyzed on the basis of seismologic and gravimetric data. The detailed structural model of crystalline basement based on 2D-3D seismic data and drilling results has been built for Vietsovpetro block 09-1, which includes White Tiger, Dragon and South-East Dragon fields. For the first time the catagenesis scheme of sedimentary bottom has been created. With the help of this scheme authors has determined that the most of the sedimentary rocks in the lower part of the Cuu Long Basin under the South China Sea were situated in meso- and apocatagenesis zones. This allowed to state the general presence of deep sedimentary rocks that have depleted their oil generation potential but still were able to generate catagenetic gas. Moreover the rocks above the deep-lying gas generating sediments were considered to continue liquid hydrocarbon generating. The main regularities of large hydrocarbon deposits formation in deep crystalline basement on southern Vietnam shelf revealed as a result of complex analysis of geological, geophysical and geochemical data. The formation is connected to fractured zones in crystalline basement, significant difference in the depth and catagenesis level of lower part of Cenozoic oil-source rocks and anomalously high reservoir pressure. According to the sediment structure and catagenesis analysis of White Tiger and Dragon fields the existence of direct contacts between crystalline basement reservoirs and oil-source rocks in Cuu Long Basin causing the real time resource replenishment proved to be the main search criteria.
1. Areshev E.G., Neftegazonosnost' okrainnykh morey Dal'nego Vostoka i
Yugo-Vostochnoy Azii (Oil and gas bearing of the Far East and South-East
Asia marginal seas), Moscow: Avanti Publ., 2003, 288 .
2. Maslov V.V., Paleotectonic grounds for oil and gas potential prospects of
Cenozoic sedimentary cover of South Konshon depression (Vietnams
shelf) (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology,
2005, no. 4, pp. 4247.
3. Areshev E.G., Gavrilov V.P., Pospelov V.V. et al., The nature of voidness
and composition of the rocks of oil containing foundation of South Vietnam
shelf (In. Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1996, no. 8, pp.
4. Gavrilov V.P., Gulev V.L., Kireev F.A. et al., Granitoidnye kollektory i
neftegazonosnost' yuzhnogo shel'fa V'etnama (Granitoid collectors and
oil and gas bearing of Vietnam southern offshore), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
2010, 294 p.
5. Areshev E.G., Gavrilov V.P., Dong Ch.L. et al., Model of geodynamic evolution
of the continental shelf south of Vietnam (In Russ.), Geologiya i geologorazvedochnye
raboty, 1996, no. 8, pp. 3034.
6. Lyong T.V., Nyan N.Kh., Features of distribution and change of reservoir
pressure in granitoid collectors of White Tiger field (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe
delo, 2009, URL: www.ogbus.ru
7. Bogoyavlenskiy V.I., The oil and gas industry in the Pacific region: condition,
problems and development prospects (In Russ.), Nauchnye trudy
Vol'nogo ekonomicheskogo obshchestva Rossii i Mezhdunarodnogo
soyuza ekonomistov, 2015, V. 40, pp. 214238.
8. Tuan L.M., Zhabin A.N., Makarov N.A., Kuz'menko V.P., Economic efficiency
of Vietsovpetro production activities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1996, no. 8, pp. 8889.
9. Areshev E.G., Dong T.L., San N.T., Shnip O.A., Reservoirs in fractured basement
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activity on the formation of oil and gas reservoirs in the basement
rocks (In Russ.), Izvestiya AN SSSR. Seriya Geologicheskaya, 1992,
no. 5, pp. 119-128.
11. Tien Kh.D., Usloviya neftegazoobrazovaniya i formirovaniya uglevodorodnykh
skopleniy v kaynozoyskikh osadochnykh basseynakh kontinental'nogo
shel'fa SRV (Environment of oil and gas generation and the formation
of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Cenozoic sedimentary
basins of the continental shelf of Vietnam): thesis of doctor of geological
and mineralogical science, 1999.
12. Khay V.V., Serebrennikova O.V., Savinykh Yu.V., Somposition and sources
of oils in the terrigenous and volcanogenic reservoirs from White Tiger deposit
(Vietnam) (In Russ.), Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta,
2012, V. 361, pp. 165170.
13. Areshev E.G., Gavrilov V.P., Dontsov V.V., Alternative model of oil pool
forming in the basement of White Tiger field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 9, pp. 4447.
14. Gavrilov V.P., Dzyublo A.D., Pospelov V.V., Shnip O.A., Geology and oil
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i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1995, no. 4, pp. 2529.
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pp. 5158.
17. Kiryukhin A.V., Kireeva T.A., Oil reservoir formation with steam condensate
hydrothermal system conditions according to the results of numerical
modeling (at the example of the White Tiger deposit, Vietnam) (In Russ.),
Geologiya nefti gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2015, no. 1,
pp. 7886.

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B.A. Bagirov, l.A. Abdullaev (Azerbaijan state oil & industry university)
Analysis of results of field development of azerbaijan offshore fields characterized by various geological environments

Keywords: offshore fields, mathematical model, oil recovery factor, active and passive drives, oil reserves

17 offshore oilfields of Azerbaijan have been being developed for a long period of time within the Caspian shelf. 400 mln.t of oil has been produced during that period, what corresponds to the current average oil recovery of 0.33. Wellsite data analysis of these oilfields identifies wide discrepancy in oilfield development outcomes, whereas identical production techniques had been employed ubiquitously: current oil recovery factor varies from 0.05 to 0.60 for the Absheron archipelago and from 0.08 to 0.30 for the Baku archipelago.

Revealing factors, that impact oil recovery and, thereby, justifying measures for further efficient development of the oilfields                is of keen scientific and practical interest. It is well-known that such a problem is reliably solved based on geological mathematical models, since interpretation of their structure facilitates revealing the role of natural technological parameters of oilfields during production. Nevertheless, building an oil recovery model for the entire region without manifestation features of oilfield drive conditions being taken into account turns out to be incorrect.

Two types of formation drives can be distinguished in a majority of the oilfields of the South Caspian depression: active and passive.

Passive type featuring solution gas drive (as formation pressure drops during the development process oil gives off dissolved gas, by virtue of which oil is displaced towards a well drainage area at low rates).

Active type is characterized by combination drive (shows as energy of water bodies of perimeter areas in combination with solution gas drive).

After detailed study of manifestation features of the oil pool formation drives of the offshore oilfields using mathematical methods (cluster analysis, discriminant functions etc.), the following layout has been revealed: 68 production units are characterized by solution gas drive, 81 units -- by combination drive.

Based on development outcomes, identified oil pool types distinguish considerably from one another. Thus, current average oil recovery factor for group I oil pools is 0.20, whereas for group II units more than 0.38.

In order to find out diverse production reasons oil recovery models have been built in selected pool groups.

It should be noted that only those factors, that had considerable impact upon oil recovery, have been incorporated into the equation structure. The paper covers brief interpretation of acquired models and graphic representation of impact of geological and technological factors on oil recovery.

Analysis of models, built to reveal the role of formation parameters during development of oilfields grouped according to drives, enabled unscrambling the features of oil recovery process for the Azerbaijan offshore fields. Based on produced results it is possible to justify measures on optimization oil recovery dynamics from Azerbaijan offshore oilfields.


1. Bagirov B.A., Salmanov A.M., Gasanaliev M.K., Nazarova S.A., On certain

categories of oil reserves (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and

Gas Geology, 1998, no. 1, pp. 2225.

2. Bagirov B.A., Neftegazopromyslovaya geologiya (Oil and gas geology),

Baku: Publ. of ASPA, 2011, 311 p.

3. Abdullaeva L.A., The reason for the varying results of offshore fields development

(In Russ.), Geolog Azerbaydzhana, 2006, no. 11, pp. 105110.

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U.A. Sazonov, M.A. Mokhov, V.V. Bondarenko, V.V. Voronova (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Development of the rational utilization of reservoir energy on offshore fields

Keywords: turbine, separator, oil, gas, oil platform, offshore field

Rational use of reservoir energy might provide increased efficiency of offshore oil and gas production. The utilization of traditional technologies leads to significant energy losses at the wellhead when oil and gas stream goes through the choke. The problem of the reservoir energy utilization remains unsolved due to the absence of technologies and technics, working on multiphase environment with significant changes of composition and properties of gas-liquid mixtures. Creating special turbines and additional equipment for energy conversion is necessary to solve the specified problem. Holistic research of multiphase stream energy production and conversion technologies is carried out within the scope of current studies. The main objective of studies is to create an experimental hydraulic machine sample, which includes a special turbine and a dynamic type separator. The utilization of this special turbine, with a reticulation rotor instead of blades, makes this method of energy conversion unique. The study of the liquid and gas flow key features, through the reticulation rotor, deals with the solution of the liquid and gas flow through the permeable obstacle problem applied to a rotary movement. Key advantages of these considered technologies are reduced energy, necessary for hydrocarbon production, and reduced expenses for equipment maintenance. The utilization of new hydraulic machines will allow directing the reservoir energy to a multiphase environment separation and transportation process, taking into account unique features of each producing well.

The main application of this considered technology deals with the Arctic offshore oil and gas production. Moreover, research results might be used for creating energy effective technologies in other spheres of the industry, including oil and gas treatment and processing.


1. Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., The research of technical systems for offshore

oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 4, pp. 8082.

2. Bondarenko V.V., Sazonov Yu.A., Mokhov M.A., Hybrid equipment developing

for oil and gas offshore production and treatment (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 116119.

3. Sarwar N., UK Gas pipeline to generate renewable energy through geopressure

technology, Climatico. Independent analysis of climate policy, 2009,

January, URL: http://www.climaticoanalysis.org/post/uk-gas-pipeline-to-generate-


4. Geothermal energy production with co-produced and geopressured resources,

2011, URL: www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47523.pdf

5. Kaupert K., Use better designed turboexpanders to handle flashing fluids,

Hydrocarbon Processing, 2012, URL: http://www.hydrocarbonprocessing.



6. EP 2467568 b1, A method and an apparatus for obtaining energy by expanding

a gas at a wellhead, 18.09.13.

7. US patent no. 4369373, Method and apparatus for generating electricity

from the flow of fluid through a well, 18.01.83.

8. US patent no. 5117908, Method and equipment for obtaining energy from

oil wells, 02.01.92.

9. US patent no. 6907727, Gas energy conversion apparatus and method,


10. US patent no. 7043905, Gas energy conversion apparatus and method,


11. US patent no. 3960319, Centrifugal separator, 01.06.76.

12. US patent no. 4044943, Centrifugal separator and system, 30.07.77.

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Drilling of chinks

V.A. Pyalchenkov, D.V. Pyalchenkov, V.V. Dolgushin, O.F. Danilov (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), Ya.M. Kurbanov (ZapSibBurNIPI Branch of SIC Nedra JSC, RF, Tyumen)
Experimental method for measuring the forces acting on the cutters of the rolling cutter bit

Keywords: bearing, drilling, rolling cutter bit, rolling cutter, rolling cutting structure, weight on bit
To assess the reliability and durability of separate elements of drill bits cutting structure and rolling cutter support nodes as well as the whole bit rolling cutter, it is necessary to know the force values acting on the cutting structure elements of the rolling cutter bit during its interaction with the down hole. Analysis of existing experimental investigation methods for weight distribution on the rolling cutting structure elements indicates the insufficient knowledge of this issue. The paper presents the method of direct measuring of these forces. A radically new measuring device was developed and manufactured. It allows to measure the force values acting on each tooth of each rolling cutter in cooperation with non-destructive down hole, consisting of concentric steel rings, divided into two sectors, a working one in which the measurement is made, and a non-working one. Measurement is performed using the strain-gage sensors glued on special beams. The sensor signals are amplified, recorded, and processed using the special equipment. For implementation of this method a stand is made, intended for the bit rolling under a load along the bottom of the measuring device. The stand allows test performing of various standard bit size, changing the axial load on the bit from 0 to 200 kN and a bit angular speed from 0.16 to 11.34 s-1, these values correspond to real conditions of rotary drilling. The given stand allows operatively and cost-effectively bits testing with different standard sizes in order to optimize the cutting structure design and rolling cutter bit bearings, including those at their design stage.
1. Blinkov O.G., Puti povysheniya effektivnosti raboty burovykh sharoshechnykh
dolot (Ways to improve the efficiency of the drilling cone bits), thesis of
doctor of technical science, Moscow, 2007.
2. Geoffroy H., Nguyen Miah D., Putot C., Study on interaction between rocks
and worn PDCs cutters, Int. J. of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 1997,
V. 34, no. 314, p. 611.
3. Rao K.U.M., Bhatnagar A., Misra B., Laboratory investigations on rotary diamond
drilling, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 2002, V. 20, pp. 116.
4. Elsayed M.A., Washington L.E., Drillstring stability based on variable material
specific force and using a sharp three-insert polycrystalline diamond compact
(PDC) coring bit, J. Of Energy Resources Technology, 2001, V. 123, pp. 138143.
5. Simonov V.V., Vyskrebtsov V.G., Rabota sharoshechnykh dolot i ikh sovershenstvovanie
(Work of cone bits and their improvement), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1975, 240 p.
6. Lysenko V.N., Eksperimental'no-teoreticheskoe obosnovanie konstruktsii
sharoshechnykh dolot s ravno nagruzhennymi sektsiyami (Experimental and
theoretical foundation of construction of cone bits with equal stressed sections):
thesis of candidate of technical science, Karaganda, 1972.
7. Dolgushin V.V., Kulyabin G.A., Method of calculation of forces in the bearing
assembly of drilling bit rolling cutters (In Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh
zavedeniy. Neft' i gaz, 2012, no. 2, pp. 4956.
8. Komm E.L., Perlov G.F., Mokshin A.S., Issledovanie nagruzhennosti sektsiy
sharoshechnogo dolota (The study of stress loading of roller cone bit sections),
Proceedings of VNIIBT, 1976, V. 36, pp. 2736.
9. Mardakhaev A.A., Rubarkh V.M., Korovinskikh L.N., A device for measuring
the distribution of forces and moments on rolling-cutter teeth row (In Russ.),
Mashiny i neftyanoe oborudovanie, 1976, no. 10, pp. 2729.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

I.I. Mustakimov (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), A.V. Tudvachev, P.K. Konosavsky (Saint-Petersburg State University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Analysis of phase-permeability function of oil-saturated reservoirs of the Eastern part of Orenburg oil and gas-condensate field

Keywords: oil, analysis, of variability parameter, oil saturation, water saturation, permeability
Calculated dependences for more than 40 laboratory determinations of the relative permeability to fluids (oil, gas, water) for the Eastern sector of the Orenburg gas condensate field were built. According to the results of approximation of laboratory data the dependence of the variable parameter on the coefficient of effective porosity was set. According to the results of approximation, it was found that the variable parameters of the Stones depending for water and oil are well correlated with the residual water saturation of the samples and indicate satisfactory correlation between each other. The dependence of the variable Stones parameters on water from the oil was also built. With the increase in the value of variable parameter for oil the variable parameter for the water increases, and that satisfies the laboratory data of the empirical Stones relationships.
1. Gimatudinov Sh.K., Fizika neftyanogo i gazovogo plasta (Physics of oil and
gas reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1971, 312 p.
2. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrodinamika (Underground hydrodynamics),
Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 397 p.
3. Tudvachev A. V., Konosavskiy P.K., Analysis and prediction of the relative
permeability dependence of oil-saturated reservoir on the example of deposits
Surgut and Vartovsk arches in the West Siberian petroleum province
(In Russ.), Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta. Seriya 7. Geologiya. Geografiya,
2013, V.1, pp. 31-41.
4. Basniev K.S., Dmitriev N.M., Rozenberg G.D., Neftegazovaya
gidromekhanika(Oil and Gas Hydromechanics), Izhevsk: Publ. of Institut Komp'yuternykh
issledovaniy, 2005, 544 p.

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A.E. Chikin (Rosneft Oil Company PJSC, RF, Moscow), M.N. Nikitin (Varyoganneftegazs PJSC, RF, Nizhnevartovsk), A.S. Petukhov, V.Yu. Fedorenko (Science-Technology Center ChemArt LLC, RF, Kazan), A.A. Zarov, A.A.Galiev (Samotlornefteotdacha JSC, RF, Nizhnevartovsk)
Acid stimulation of oil wells using non-polymer diverter

Keywords: acid job/stimulation, non-polymer diverter, terrigenous rocks, hydraulic fracturing

The heterogeneity of the reservoirs structure determines the complexity of a productive low-permeability formation processing due to high acid loss in the flushed zones. One of the ways to increase the efficiency of acid treatments is the use of micellar viscoelastic non-polymer acids. The reagent, allowing to obtain effective diverter slug units on the basis of hydrochloric acid of low concentration of 3-5%, was tested. The possibility to obtain self-diverting acid using the reagent was demonstrated. The rheological properties of the reagent (non-polymer diverter) are presented and excellent compatibility of the composition with the oils by the standard of Rosneft Oil Company is shown.

The technology for a well treatment with the use of viscoelastic diverter was tested in seven wells at the fields in Western Siberia. A permeability of terrigenous reservoir ranged from 0.510-3 to 0.001 mm2 and hydraulic fractures had extended perforation intervals of more than 6 m. The study of colmatant in proppant slug in case of Jurassic formations showed a significant content of calcite, iron compounds and silicon. All treatments with diverter were conducted using mud acids. A typical technology of well treatment is described. For five of seven wells with reservoir pressure below hydrostatic one, the appearance of excess head pressure in the course of treatment is noted. An average increase in initial well production rate was 6.3 t/day, an average increase of productivity index was more than twofold. The obtained values of the increments of oil production rate after the well treatment with non-polymer diverter are comparable with the efficiency of hydraulic fractures at a lower cost and a lower risk of increase of water production after the repair.
1. Economides J.M., Kenneth J.N., Reservoir stimulation, Houston: Wiley, 2002,
856 p.
2. Bulgakova G.T., Sharifullin A.R., Kharisov R.Ya. et al., Laboratory and theoretical
researches of matrix acid-based carbonates processing (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 5, pp. 7579.
3. Kefi S., Expanding applications for viscoelastic surfactants, Oilfield Review,
2004, V. 16, no. 4, pp. 1023.
4. Anderson V.J., Pearson J.R.A., Boek E.S., The rheology of worm-like micellar
fluids, Rheology Reviews, 2006, pp. 217253.
5. Lin Z., Eads C.D., Polymer-induced structural transitions in oleate solutions:
microscopy, rheology, and nuclear magnetic resonance studies, Langmuir,
1997, V. 13, p. 2647.
6. Kern F., Lequeux F., Zana R., Canadau S.J., Dynamic properties of salt-free
viscoelastic micellar solutions, Langmuir, 1994, V. 10, p. 1714.

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R.N. Imashev, V.N. Fedorov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.M. Zaripov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, Oil and Gas Production Department Arlanneft, RF, Neftekamsk)
On the gas factor change in the process of Arlanskoye field development

Keywords: oil, gas factor, gas-oil ratio, residual gas-oil ratio, dissolved gas, casing-head gas, bubble point pressure
Based on the field research of Arlanskoye field it is shown that current gas factors of the main development objects are less than initial reservoir gas-oil ratios. With reference to the field and laboratory investigations of other authors, we adduced the main causes of gas factor loss in process of Arlanskoye field development. The main causes of gas factor loss at Arlanskoye field are the maintenance of production wells with bottomhole pressure below the bubble-point pressure and move some of gas oil component to download and bottom water at their contact. For example, total producing water oil ratio of the one development object amounts to 9.1 t/t. Today we cannot definitely say which of the above reasons have the most value in the process of reducing the reservoir gas-oil ratio. The systematic monitoring of the gas factor on the basis of instrumental measurements in wells throughout the period of Arlanskoye field development was not made. Therefore, we dont know in time gas-oil ratio dynamics. Also, we note that it necessary to conduct the control of the gas factor on the core network of weels for indirect estimation of current oil reservoir gas content, as on date, the Arlanskoye field has no conditions for the selection of representative samples of deep oil. The reasons for the lack of conditions for the selection of deep oil samples are high water cut wells production, operation of wells with bottomhole pressure below the bubble point pressure.
1. Namiot A.Yu., Bondareva M.M., Rastvorimost' gazov v vode pod davleniem
(Gas solubility in water under pressure), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ.,
1963, 147 p.
2. Glumov I.F., Izmenenie svoystv nefti i vody pri ikh vzaimnom dinamicheskom
kontaktirovanii v plastovykh usloviyakh (Changing the properties of oil and
water at their mutual dynamic contacting in situ), Collected papers Voprosy
geologii, razrabotki, bureniya skvazhin i dobychi nefti (Geology, engineering,
well drilling and oil production), Proceedings of TatNII, 1961, V. III, pp. 223-227.
3. Sheykh-Ali D.M., Izmenenie svoystv plastovoy nefti i gazovogo faktora v
protsesse ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Changing the properties
of reservoir oil and gas factor in the process of oil fields exploitation), Ufa:
Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2001, 140 p.
4. Gul'tyaeva N.A., Toshchev E.N., Mass exchange in the oil-gas-water and its
effect on the production of associated gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 100103.
5. Ignatov I.S., Lozin E.V., Imashev R.N., Fedorov V.N., Field studies on gas-oil ratios
for target production zones of Bashneft JSOC oil fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4, pp. 4850.

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D.A. Ibragimova, A.G. Safiulina, A.I. Lakhova, N.Yu. Bashkirtseva (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan), S.M. Petrov (Kazan (Volga) Federal University, RF, Kazan), Yu.M. Ganeeva (Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry A.E.Arbuzov RAS, RF, Kazan)
Features of the n-alkanes crystalline phase content in paraffin oil components and their deposits

Keywords: crystallization, wax, paraffin, asphalt-resinous substances, phase transitions, crude oil disperse system

High-molecular n-alkanes within  high paraffin oils of remaining hard-to-recover reserves are studied. Oil paraffin hydrocarbons redistribution between oils and their heavy deposits  in the downhole equipment is presented. The presence of n-alkanes in the oils asphaltenes and their deposits is shown.  Asphaltenes, extracted from the oils and their asphaltene deposits, were investigated by high-temperature gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry, with the help of which it was succeeded to find  the presence of high n-alkanes 40-59 and higher ones in their composition judging by  the crystallization temperature  detected in the crystalline phase. The highest molecular weight n-alkanes, whose molecular mass distribution peak falls on  54-58 , were found in asphaltenes of oils with low paraffin wax content. The data  on the crystalline phase content in oils, heavy oil deposits, asphaltenes samples, isolated from oils and heavy oil deposits, as well as on the crystallization temperature are presented. High-molecular oil paraffin hydrocarbons  can serve as crystallization centers of the complex structural units in oil dispersion system and flocculate at the system unbalance  at achieving the critical concentration. Paraffin hydrocarbons, containing  in the asphaltenes, are able to migrate and accumulate within the oil heavy deposits under certain thermodynamic conditions, as evidenced by the different compositions of n-alkanes in the oil asphaltenes and  in their deposits. Different kind of  the heat capacity temperature dependences is stated for oils, the presence of paraffin wax crystal phase is revealed. Comparative analysis of differential scanning calorimetry data of samples indicates contradictory dependence  of  the crystallization temperature and  crystalline phase content on the molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes, containing  in their composition, and correlates with the molecular mass distribution of solid n-alkanes in the asphaltenes, that  determines the differences in the structural organization of the dispersed phase in heavy oil deposits.


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Technics and technology of oil recovery

N.I. Krysin, E.P. Riabokon, M.S. Turbakov, S.E. Chernyshov, A.A. Shcherbakov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Improvement of devices of abrasive jet perforation in oil wells

Keywords: enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods, bottomhole formation zone, abrasive jet perforation, oil production problems

Well stimulation and provision a future sustainable hydrodynamic connection in the well reservoir system is performed using perforating devices by creating channels in casing and cement annulus. Oil well completion technologies does not always lead to project oil flow rates as a result of the negative impact on the bottomhole formation zone of drilling and cement slurries, perforation and well killing fluids, resulting in deterioration of reservoir properties of productive layers.

The article describes an abrasive jet perforation, as the most effective, with which an initial permeability of the rock is preserved, an effective radius of the well and a filtration area are increased. The authors have developed a device for the abrasive jet perforation in oil wells, which differs from the previously developed by setting bushings fixed using a clip into the holes of a movable cup; location of jet nozzles along the body in a spiral; presence of a groove in the movable bushing, in which a plug end is pushed (the plug is mounted into the hole in the body of the perforator); separating a spring of the movable cup from a movable rod by tubular elements, which allows to start removing mechanical particles from the well after perforation without switching to backwash and stopping circulation. The device provides a quality perforation of productive oil layers, increases the durability and reliability of operation, allows to create a hydrodynamic connection in the well reservoir system without deterioration in the initial reservoir properties of productive formation. Conducting the abrasive jet perforation using the developed device allows to prepare the well for a directed hydraulic fracturing.
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(In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo
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Standardization and technical regulation

A.A. Tarasenko, A.A. Gruchenkova; M.A. Tarasenko (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen)
Analysis of differences in the requirements of national regulations and USA standards in the development of the tank bottom differential subsidence

Keywords: tank, bottom, ANSYS, FEM, stress-strain state, SAG, differential settlement.
The article analyzes the national and foreign regulatory documents in part of the requirements for the allowable size of bottom local settlement.  Choosing a method to deal with the corrosive destruction of tanks metal structures, many Russian experts prefer to increasing the thickness of the bottom structure due to corrosion allowance. In some cases, it leads to a redistribution of the existing stresses in the tank operation, because the bottom of the vertical steel tank is "absolutely flexible membrane", and the deformation limits of steel structures reasonable for typical projects, in this case, are questionable and require additional theoretical justification. For this reason, there was a question about the possibility of bringing the former requirements for local settlement of tank bottoms, the thickness of metal structures which are increased by the allowance for corrosion. The authors of the task to determine the bottom stress-strain state of the vertical steel tank RVS-20000 the most widespread in the Russian Federation, for two cases: a thickness of 6 mm and 9 mm - with different sizes of  local settlement of the bottom central part. To obtain the results were used the analytical solutions of the flexible membrane on base elastic deformation problem and numerical methods in mechanics of solid deformable body, in particular the finite element method. According to the results of the analytical calculation were obtained the maximum sag value of local settlement zones, as well as the values of the tensile stresses acting in the center of the settlement zone, for the most unfavorable case - is when under the membrane missing the subgrade. According to the results of numerical calculation in PC ANSYS were obtained analytical dependences between the vertical and radial component of the settlement zone. To model the settlement zone has been selected by a factor of soil bed 3 MN/m3, this choice is justified need to obtain real values of tank bottoms deformations, constructed on the territory of Western Siberia. Analysis of the dependences showed that the magnitude of the settlement zone vertical component in national standards significantly overstated in contrast to the requirements of the American standard API: for the bottom sheet 6 mm and 9 mm at 52% and 65%, respectively. By increasing the thickness of the tank bottom central part up to 9 mm allowable interval of local settlements radial dimensions is increased by 37% from the maximum possible at the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation. According to the authors, to change the way to appointment the value of allowable settlement in the national regulatory documents, you can identify more realistic requirements for steel structures also with a corrosion allowance. Thus, national regulations need to be harmonized with international standards in the terms of requirements for allowable geometric dimensions of tank bottom central part local settlements.
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s teel cylindrical tanks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014,
no. 10, pp. 121123.

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