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|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
Many petroleum companies have problems associated with absence of necessary information during the geological and economic assessment. Low level of available data set is the main reason of such problems. In general, these areas are located in the regions with absence of infrastructure, which impact on expenditure of the following exploration program. For evaluated areas with poor volume of geological and geophysical data new approach was developed and tested based on the available tectonic models, paleogeographic conditions and stochastic modeling. Developed fast-method including object geological modeling for assessment of lateral distribution of reservoir, level of heterogeneity and potential gross reservoir volume allowed team to estimate volume of hydrocarbon in place correctly using geological success. Algorithm of fast estimation the following important stages: a) identification and estimation of effective area, where potential objects might be formed; b) identification possible number of separated reservoir bodies; c) estimation of volume of hydrocarbon in place of 1 geological object and total volume of reserves. The proposed approach of estimation allows make stochastic estimation of reserves and following economic assessments of projects before high-cost exploration program, which is necessary for decreasing geological uncertainty of target objects. Such method was implemented for estimation of volume of hydrocarbon in place of middle and lower Jurassic sediments. Total area of studied region comprises approximately 11 thousands km2 and located in the southern part of Western Siberia. The main advantages of implemented approach are simplicity of calculations and low time consumptions. However, complexity of collection information of analogues fields is the main disadvantages of method.
1. Ol'neva T.V., Zhukovskaya E.A., Paleochannels parametrization for the reconstruction of depositional environments and object modeling (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2017, no. 4, pp. 41–46.
2. Patent RU 2672766 C1, Method for predicting morphometric parameters of channel bodies (paleochannels), Inventors: Ol'neva T.V., Zhukovskaya E.A.
3. Kirzeleva O.Ya., Kir'yanova T.N., Fedorova M.D., Kak zakartirovat' reki, ozera i bolota yurskogo perioda? (Sozdanie skhemy usloviy osadkonakopleniya plasta Yu2 po 5 seysmicheskim s"emkam v obrabotke raznykh let) (How to map Jurassic rivers, lakes and swamps? (Creation of a diagram of the sedimentation conditions of the Yu2 formation based on 5 seismic surveys in processing of different years)), Proceedings of 21st conference on geological exploration and development of oil and gas fields "Geomodel 2019", Gelendzhik, 2019.
4. Safonov V.G., Zervando K.Yu., Development of exploration project in the Uvat Area, south of Western Siberia (In Rus.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2015, no. 3, pp. 10–13.
5. Kontorovich A.E., Ershov S.V., Kazanenkov V.A. et al., Cretaceous paleogeography of the West Siberian sedimentary basin (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2014. V. 55, no. 5, pp. 745–776.
6. Atlas paleotektonicheskikh i paleogeologicheskikh kart Zapadno-Sibirskoy neftegazonosnoy provintsii (Atlas of paleotectonic and paleogeological maps of the West Siberian oil and gas province), Sheet 6. Pozdnekelloveyskoe vremya (Late Callovian time), Scale: 1:5 000 000, SNIIGGiMS, 1995.
7. Finogenova A.S., Zervando K.Yu., Prediction of channel sandstone spreading in Middle Jurassic deposits on the basis of seismic-facial analysis (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 3, pp. 28–33.
8. Nikanorova M.A., Kulyavtsev V.V., Saf'yannikov I.M. et al., Simulation features of Tyumen suite main production objects for well placement and calculation of predicted production indices (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2018, no. 2, no. 40–44.
9. Viktorova E.M., Zhigulina D.I., P.Yu. Kiselev, Klimov V.Yu., New approach to appraise non-structural Tyumen formation traps in the absence of high quality of data (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2021. no. 3, pp. 43–51, DOI: 10.51890/2587-7399-2021-6-3-43-51
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The paper discusses the application of machine learning algorithms for one of the fields in Western Siberia. The results of ordinary attribute analysis and the results of the neural networks operation are presented. Their use is analyzed within the framework of a conceptual 3D geological model. The analysis and development of oil and gas fields with a complex clinoform structure is often complicated by the selection of a single seismic attribute for the entire area which allow to predict net thicknesses and reservoir properties in the interwell space (porosity, net thicknesses, etc.). To perform neural network calculation we used following data: seismic amplitude cube, structural surfaces that limit the search interval and participate in the generation of the low-frequency model. To train the neural network used logging curves and the values of the net thicknesses values at the well points. As a result of the calculations, the maps and 3D grid properties were generated to predict the selected parameter (net thickness) obtained in the variants P10, P50, P90, as well as the values of the standard deviation. The quality of the obtained results was assessed by the selecting optimal parameters of the algorithm, matching the results to conceptual representations and the actual wells operation data. As a part of the work we discuss a methodology for tuning machine learning algorithms and methods for assessing the quality of the described results. Comparison of ordinary and generated by neural networks attributes presented in paper. Results of the neural net calculations are presented by forecast maps of effective thickness (2D), grid properties (3D) of the West Siberian field. The advantage of using the described technique is confirmed by drilling new wells.
1. Priezzhev I.I., New age, Kolmogorov full functional neural network usage for nonlinear predictive seismic inversion, EAGE conference proceedings, Saint Petersburg, 2020, V. 2020, p.1 – 5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202053084
2. Kolmogorov A.N., Representation of continuous functions of several variables in the form of superpositions of continuous functions of one variable and addition (In Russ.), DAN, 1957, V. 114, pp. 953–956.
3. Kobrunov A. Priezzhev I., Hybrid combination genetic algorithm and controlled gradient method to train a neural network, Geophysics, 2016, V. 81(4), pp. 1–9, DOI:10.1190/geo2015-0297.14. Tikhonov A.N., Arsenin V.Ya., Metody resheniya nekorrektnykh zadach (Methods for solving ill-posed problems), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 223 p.
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In the present time, many companies try to diversify risk of exploration projects all over the world. Therefore, big international oil and gas companies have to evaluate petroleum basins based on available data under limited time limits. During the ranking of oil and gas basins, petroleum companies face a lack of necessary geological and geophysical data and resources for estimation. This fact does not allow companies to conduct completed estimation of potential of basins. Based on these restrictions, authors proposed express method for ranking of oil and gas basins using available statistical data. Such method was tested in African continent. The proposed approach of express assessment includes the algorithms of estimation of potential hydrocarbon in place (YET), rise of volume of hydrocarbon over the decade, and relative volume of hydrocarbon in place. Based on proposed way to rank petroleum basins and further systematization of petroleum basins based on study level (greenfields, mature basins etc.) additional geographic clustering of oil and gas basins allows to conduct additional filter of basins and identify list of petroleum basins for further detailed elaboration.
Proposed method allows to estimate resources base of oil and gas basins is quite effective for identification new area of exploration with limited resources and geological and geophysical data. Advantages of such method are relative simplicity and small time spending. The main disadvantages of our approach are complexity and performance-enhancing gathering of statistics of petroleum basins.
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One of the most important factors in the decarbonization process of the oil and gas industry is the availability of geological capacity for the injection and storage of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A geological body into which greenhouse gases can be injected must be able to receive and reliably contain the injected fluid for a long period of time, and therefore must meet the following basic requirements: a) to consist of reservoir rocks capable of receiving the injected fluid and providing the required injectivity; b) to ensure the preservation of acid gases at the injection site, or to neutralize aggressive components of the injected fluid. The geological storage must provide tightness, absence of the possibility of migration to groundwater and the earth's surface, and the ability of the rocks and fluids of the storage to interact with corrosive gas components without the formation of potential channels for the leakage of greenhouse gases. According to these criteria, the most promising are the aquifers that are propagated across substantial area in the sedimentary cover and located near carbon dioxide emitters. To confirm the possibility of using aquifers as carbon dioxide storage, it is necessary to take into account the mechanisms affecting the preservation of the injected gas – structural or stratigraphic trapping, hydrodynamic trapping, solubility trapping and mineral trapping which provide the required level of injection safety. The article discusses the criteria for the selection and evaluation of such prospective storages in Russia, and also reveals the key characteristics that ensure the safe utilization of carbon dioxide.
1. Greenhouse gas emissions, URL: https://ourworldindata.org/greenhouse-gas-emissions
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5. CCUS: monetizatsiya vybrosov RF (CCUS: monetization of RF emissions), Vygon consulting, 2021, URL: https://vygon.consulting/products/issue-1911/
6. Solomon S., Carbon dioxide storage: Geological security and environmental issues – Case study on the Sleipner gas field in Norway, Oslo: Bellona Report, 2007, 128 p, URL: https://bellona.org/assets/sites/3/Case_Study_on_the_Sleipner_Gas_Field_in_Norway.pdf
7. Chadwick A., Arts R., Bernstone C. et al., Best practice for the storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, Nottingham, UK: British Geological Survey, 2008, 267 p.
8. Skhema gidrogeologicheskogo rayonirovaniya SSSR (Scheme of the hydrogeological zoning of the USSR), In: Atlas gidrogeologicheskikh i inzhenerno-geologicheskikh kart SSSR (Atlas of hydrogeological and engineering-geological maps of the USSR), Moscow: Publ. of Main Directorate of Geodesy and Cartography, 1983.
9. Kamenskiy G.N., Tolstikhina M.N., Tolstikhin N.I., Gidrogeologiya SSSR (Hydrogeology of the USSR), Moscow: Publ. of Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1959, 366 p.10. Gunter W.D. Benson S., Bachu S., The role of hydrogeological and geochemical trapping in sedimentary basins for secure geological storage for carbon dioxide, Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide, Geological Society, London, U.K., Special Publication, 2004, no. 233, рр. 129-145.
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Increasing rate of penetration and length of reservoir section are ones of the main challenges for oil industry. Difficulty with transferring weight on the bit while sliding leads to decreasing rate of penetration and horizontal section length. Currently there are several methods available to increase ability to transfer weight to the bit. This article describes some methods used while drilling wells of Gazprom Neft. Such methods as decreasing friction factor by using special lubricant or oil based mud, decreasing friction factor by using special surfacing on the drill pipe and well profile optimization. It was concluded that using lubricants and oil based mud in general case gives higher effect than surfacing on drill pipe or possible well profile optimization. According to the analyzed data, a borehole cleaning affects friction factor and ability to transfer weight to the bit so by choosing optimal drilling parameters that is possible to increase transfer weight to the bit. Also by improving drill string resistance to buckling also helps to prevent drill string buckling. This resistance can be achieved by optimizing drill string designs so drill string design plays big role in ability to transfer weigh to the bit. All these methods can help to increase the ability to transfer weigh on the bit while sliding, the rate of penetration, and the length of reservoir section respectively.
1. Khuzina L.B., Petrova L.V., Techniques to reduce friction in field development by horizontal wells (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2012, no. 5, URL: http://ogbus.ru/files/ogbus/authors/Khuzina/Khuzina_4.pdf
2. Al'ternativa rotornym upravlyaemym sistemam (RUS) (Alternative to rotary steerable systems (RSS)), URL: https://www.unitools.ru/news/detail.php?ID=422
3. Lectures by K&M Technology group TD&B Fundamentals, URL: https://www.scribd.com/document/455525799/5-day-Section-05-TD-B-Fundamentals-RUS
4. Tikhonov V., Safronov A.I., Analysis of postbucking drillstring vibrations in rotary drilling of extended-reach wells, Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 2009, V. 133(4), DOI:10.1115/OMAE2009-79086.5. Basovich V.S., Buyanovski I.N., Sapunzhi V.V., Use perspectives of light-alloy drill pipes with outer spiral finning for drilling of horizontal wells and offshoots ("Rat Holes") (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2014, no. 5, pp. 42-46.
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The purpose of this work is to increase the efficiency of well killing operations for carbonate fractured porous reservoirs with high gas factor, the presence of hydrogen sulphide, and abnormally low formation pressure. Well killing in such conditions is complicated by large losses of technological well killing fluid, which provokes gas kick. In this regard, the calculation of a sufficient well killing fluid volume for operations with a high gas factor in conditions of abnormally low formation pressure is an urgent task, which, along with technological and economic efficiency, should increase the safety of repair work on wells. To solve this problem, a model of filtration of non-Newtonian fluid in the borehole zone was proposed. In the course of this work, the Herschel–Bulkley fluid flow was simulated in a porous medium and in a fracture, and a statistical analysis of field data was performed for comparison with the results obtained by the model. The physical and mathematical model used in this work was built based on continuity equation of the flow and the law of conservation of momentum. As a result, the dependence of the injected well killing fluid volume on the repression applied to the reservoir during the well killing operation was derived. Based on the constructed model, key parameters were obtained which allow us to estimate a fluid volume for successful well killing operation. Then the field data was selected, and statistical analysis was carried out using the parameters identified in the initial model. The retrospective analysis showed good convergence of filed data with the results obtained on the basis of the proposed methodology, which confirmed its validity. As a result, a method for well killing fluid volume estimation was proposed for the conditions of fractured porous reservoirs. It is fair to consider the ratio of the volume of the technological fluid that went into the formation during a successful well killing operation to the repression created during the operation as a criterion for the effectiveness of the use of well killing fluid. This parameter depends on the rheology of the fluid and on the rock filtration-volumetric characteristics. Thus, the proposed analytical model with a simple method for well killing fluid volume estimation allows to predict the parameters for each well killing operation. This methodology can be scaled to other porous and fractured-porous reservoirs.
1. Ovcharenko Yu.V., Gumerov R.R., Bazyrov I.Sh. et al., Well killing specifics in conditions of fractured and porous carbonate reservoirs of the Eastern part of the Orenburgskoye oil-gas-condensate field (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 52-56, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-12-52-55
2. Bazyrov I.Sh., Gun'kin A.S., Ovcharenko Yu.V. et al., Modeling of a hydraulic fracture initiation in directional and horizontal wellbores in fractured reservoir (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 12, pp. 56–59, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-56-59
3. Sugaipov D.A., Yakovlev A.A., Galyautdinov I.M. et al., Improving of new wells drilling efficiency based on the selection of optimal drilling pattern for the south-western block of Orenburg oil, gas and condensate field (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 1, pp. 29–33, DOI:10.24887/2587-7399-2019-1-29-33
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Heavy well killing fluids are an integral part of workovers in wells with abnormally high reservoir pressure. At the same time, they have a high cost and do not always meet the requirements of Gazprom Neft PJSC and other oil companies for the conditions of high-temperature reservoirs. In order to expand the range of applied compositions, lead their parameters to the requirements of regulatory documents and reduce the cost of heavy well killing fluids as part of the implementation of the technological strategy in the direction of "Long-term infrastructure development program - Production and operations", research work was carried out to develop new formulations of fluids for killing wells in complicated conditions. At the beginning of the work, the requirements were outlined to which the developed heavy well killing fluids must be met taking into account the specifics of preparing fluids at the Company's fields, as well as taking into account the reservoir conditions of the fields. Aqueous solutions of salts (brines) were considered as heavy well killing fluids. Based on literature data, patent analysis, and the Company's experience, 5 potentially promising salts and salt compositions were selected. The first part of the experimental studies was the laboratory selection of consumption rates (concentrations and ratios). Further, a study of the physicochemical properties of well killing fluids was carried out, as a result of which it was revealed that one of the salt systems does not meet the low-temperature requirements and did not participate in further studies. For the remaining formulations, work was carried out on the selection of additives with the determination of effective dosages: scale inhibitors, anticorrosive additives and oil wetting agent. The result of the work is 4 new formulations of heavy killing fluids with a density of 1600 kg/m3, adapted to the conditions of Subsidiaries of the Company - potential consumers of heavy well killing fluids. The effectiveness of the formulations has been confirmed by pilot field tests carried out at the Company's fields. The implementation of these inventions allows to achieve a reduction in the cost of heavy well killing fluids with density of up to 1600 kg/m3 by more than 20%.
1. Ryabokon' S.A., Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti dlya zakanchivaniya i remonta skvazhin (Process fluids for completion and repair of wells), Krasnodar: Publ. of NPO Burenie, 2016, 382 p.
2. Kunakova A.M., Duryagin V.N., The improvement of economic efficiency of the well control process by the implementation of new process liquids (In Russ.), PROneft'.Professional'no o nefti, 2016, no. 2. pp. 61–63.
3. Patent RU 2737597 C1, Composition for preparation of heavy process fluid for well killing, Inventors: Kaybyshev R.R., Kunakova A.M., Karpov A.A., Duryagin V.N., Usmanova F.G., Rabaev R.U.
4. Shishkin A.V., Domestic solutions for killing wells with abnormally high reservoir pressures (In Russ.), Territoriya neftegaz, 2015, no. 11, pp. 68 – 71.5. Ryabokon' S.A., Gorlova Z.A., Lamosov M.E., Solevoy sostav dlya prigotovleniya tyazhelykh tekhnologicheskikh zhidkostey bez tverdoy fazy s plotnost'yu do 1600 kg/m3 (Salt composition for the preparation of heavy process fluids without a solid phase with a density of up to 1600 kg/m3), URL: https://neftegaz.ru/science/booty/332608-solevoy-sostav-dlya-prigotovleniya-tyazhelykh-tekhnologiche...
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
Nowadays more than half of production drilling is related to horizontal wells, development systems based on the use of horizontal, multi-hole and branched wells are designed and applied at new discovered fields in most cases. For now, there are no generally accepted methods for selecting the optimal system, as well as the existing development tools require the use of expensive specialized software, large computing capacities and a high degree of exploration of the deposit. However, the last-mentioned condition cannot be fulfilled in the case of designing the development of a new poorly studied field or deposit, when it is necessary to assess the prospects for the development of an object based on available data and make a decision on further exploration of the object. Therefore, it is necessary to create a unified methodology that allows you to assess the prospects of development without additional time and resources.
The article describes this technique, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of its application, presents the criteria of applicability and the basic rules for the use of horizontal wells, as well as the main systems of field development using horizontal wells with the most effective conditions for their use. The article describes this technique, pros and cons of using this technique, the criteria of applicability and the basic rules for the use of wells with horizontal end, as well as the main systems of field development using horizontal wells with the most effective conditions for their use. The article shows the procedure for determining the optimal parameters of the grid of horizontal wells, the density of the grid of wells, the length of the horizontal end. Moreover, the main parameters of the development are calculated in this article and based on the modification of the Buckley – Leverett method with consideration of the horizontal end of the well. To assess the convergence of the method and confirm the theoretical research, a simulation of the development element with the considered parameters was carried out in the Tempest software package.
1. Galkin V.I., Koltyrin A.N., Investigation of probabilistic models for forecasting the efficiency of proppant hydraulic fracturing technology (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2020, V. 246, pp. 650–659, https://doi.org/10.31897/PMI.2020.6.7.
2. Leusheva E., Morenov V., Tabatabaee Moradi S., Effect of carbonate additives on dynamic filtration index of drilling mud, International Journal of Engineering, Transactions B: Applications, 2020, V. 33(5), pp. 934–939, DOI: 10.5829/IJE.2020.33.05B.26
3. Mardashov D., Islamov S., Nefedov Y., Specifics of well killing technology during well service operation in complicated conditions, Periodico Tche Quimica, V. 17(34), pp. 782–792, DOI:10.52571/PTQ.v17.n34.2020.806_P34_pgs_782_792.pdf
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5. Korotenko V.A., Grachev S.I., Kushakova N.P., Mulyavin S.F., Assessment of the influence of water saturation and capillary pressure gradients on size formation of two-phase filtration zone in compressed low-permeable reservoir (In Russ.), Zapiski Gornogo instituta, 2020, V. 245, pp. 569–581, https://doi.org/10.31897/PMI.2020.5.9
6. Suchkov B.M., Gorizontal'nye skvazhiny (Horizontal wells), Moscow: NITs Regulyarnaya i khaoticheskaya dinamika Publ., 2006, 423 p.
7. Muslimov R.Kh., Ways to improve the efficiency of horizontal wells for the development of oil and gas field. Part 1 (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2016, V. 18, no. 3, pp. 146–153, DOI: 10.18599/grs.18.3.1.
8. Berdin T.G., Proektirovanie razrabotki neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy sistemami gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Design of oil and gas development by systems of horizontal wells), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2001, 199 p.
9. Trukhina O.S., Otsenka effektivnosti primeneniya gorizontal'nykh skvazhin v regulyarnykh sistemakh razmeshcheniya skvazhin na mestorozhdeniyakh Zapadnoy Sibiri (Evaluation of the efficiency of using horizontal wells in regular well placement systems at fields in Western Siberia), Collected papers “Aktual'nye problemy geologii nefti i gaza Sibiri” (Actual problems of oil and gas geology in Siberia), 2014, pp. 324–327.
10. Smirnov V.A., Shagiakhmetov A.M., Analiz metodik raschetov optimal'noy dliny gorizontal'nogo okonchaniya skvazhiny (Analysis of methods for calculating the optimal length of the horizontal well completion), Collection of selected articles based on the materials of scientific conferences of the State Research Institute “Natsrazvitie”, International scientific conference “Tekhnicheskie i estestvennye nauki” (Technical and natural sciences), St. Petersburg: Publ. of GNII “Natsrazvitie”, 2020, pp. 50–53.
11. Khasanov M.M., Mel'chaeva O.Yu., Roshchektaev A.P., Ushmaev O.S., Steady-state flow rate of horizontal wells in a line drive pattern (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 48–51.
12. Kazantsev A.V., Calculation of the radius of the feed contour of oil wells (In Russ.), Issledovaniya po informatike, 2001, no. 3, pp. 145–148.13. Kotlov S.N., Shamshev A.A., Numerical geo-flow modeling of horizontal drainage holes (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 2019, Issue 6, pp. 45–55, DOI: 10.25018/0236-1493-2019-06-0-45-55.
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The use of physically meaningful models as a basis for building pore pressure maps and analyzing well productivity is necessary to improve the efficiency of monitoring of the reservoir energy state and planning of geological activities. Therefore, the development of tools for the automatic construction of pore pressure maps based on the results of physically meaningful calculations is an urgent and demanded task. The main requirement for the model is a high speed of calculations, which is critical for timely updating of data on the state of the reservoir. Taking this aspect into account, proxy modeling based on the use of algorithms that provide a high and acceptable for practical application speed of calculation is a more suitable approach than full-scale 3D modeling.
This article is devoted to the development of a proxy model based on a two-dimensional diffusion equation, which is solved using the boundary element method. The developed tool allows to adapt the parameters of the proxy model in such a way that the resulting pore pressure field satisfies the conditions that can be specified based on the average reservoir pressures according to well test data. This adaptation of the model to the technological regime data is carried out automatically, which is of great importance for practical engineering tasks. The developed proxy model makes it possible to build a pore pressure map in a fairly short computation time. The deviation of the estimated reservoir pressures from well test data when using a proxy model is (on average) 2 times lower than when using traditional methods for constructing isobars. Due to the fact that the pore pressure map is built on a physically meaningful model, it is also possible to optimize well performance based on the parameters determined at the stage of mapping. This option was implemented in addition to the basic proxy model algorithm. Another one extension of the basic algorithm is adaptation of the local pore pressure to piezometric measurements. As well as the adaptation to well test data, this adaptation is carried out automatically. The developed proxy model was tested both on synthetic data and on five real fields. The obtained pore pressure maps were analyzed; conclusions were drawn about the limitations of the current version of the proxy model. Based on these conclusions, further directions of its development and expansion of the area of applicability were defined.
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5. Simonov M.V., Penigin A.V., Margarit A.S. et al., Methodology of surrogate models (metamodels) and their prospects for solving petroleum engineering challenges (In Russ.), PROneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2019, no. 2, pp. 48–53, DOI:10.24887/2587-7399-2019-2-48-53
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8. Yudin E.V., Gubanova A.E., Krasnov V.A., Method for estimating the wells interference using field performance data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 8, pp. 64–69, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-8-64-69
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In the process of constructing forecast models, based on which the prediction of the future dynamics of oil production is built, it is highly crucial to quantify the mutual influence of wells within the target area. The complexity of such estimates is associated with among others the need for consideration time-lagging response of injection wells and the production wells of one group (cluster). The main purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for estimation of mutual influence of injection and production wells in a quantitative manner that will take into account the information regarding time-lagging response within a target area. The empirical basis for constructing models was a field that is presented by 115 wells (24 groups of wells), where 84 of them are producing ones. The data was considered in daily dynamics for a specific period of time - 9 years and 6 months and it was presented by various parameters such as fluid flow rate for production wells, reservoir and bottom-hole pressures, volume of injected fluid for injection wells. A vector autoregression model was considered as a quantitative representation the parameters of which were found using an approach of Bayesian estimation. In all constructed models for 24 groups of wells, there was a statistical significance (p <0.05) dependences of the fluid flow rate of production wells on the following parameters: 1) fluid volume of the adjacent production wells in the group of wells with a time lag of up to 4 days, 2) difference between the bottom-hole and reservoir pressures at the current time; 3) pressure difference in adjacent wells along with the cluster/group (for some wells); 4) cumulative injection rate for all injection wells in the cluster/group. The average forecast error found on the test dataset of 30-day dynamics for 76 out of 84 producing wells and was 3.84%, while for another 4 wells this parameter was 14-18%, and for the other 4 wells it was 36-51%. All model estimates were considered to be as robust and asymptotically consistent. Application of the developed methodology for constructing a vector autoregression model with parameter estimation based on the Bayesian approach made it possible to consider the mutual influence of the production rate of wells on each other, taking into account the delayed effect. Moreover, the obtained estimates of this impact were reliable since it was indirectly proved by the small value of the forecast errors calculated using the corresponding models.
1. Grif A.M., Persova M.G., Soloveichik Yu.G., Determination of the effect of injection wells on production wells in their work dynamics by using hydrodynamic modeling science, Bulletin of the Novosibirsk State Technical University, 2019, no. 4(77), pp. 31–44, DOI: 10.17212/1814-1196-2019-4-31-44.
2. Weber D., Edgar T.F., Lake L.W. et al., Improvements in capacitance-resistive modeling and optimization of large scale reservoirs, SPE-121299-MS, 2009, DOI:10.2118/121299-ms
3. Kaviani D., Interwell connectivity evaluation from wellrate fluctuations: a waterflooding management tool: Doctoral dissertation, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), 2009.
4. Khatmullin I.F., Tsanda A.P., Andrianova A.M. et al., Semi-analytical models for calculating well interference: limitations and applications (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 38–41, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-12-38-41.
5. Khasanov M.M., Bakhitov R.R., Lakman I.A., Review of research on modeling the geological structure and processes of field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 10, pp. 46–51, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-10-46-51
6. Sagitov D.K., Studying of changes in the interaction of well during the water injection process (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2019, no. 2, pp. 81–85, DOI: 10.31660/0445-0108-2019-2-81-85
7. Ponomareva I.N., Martyushev D.A., Chernyy K.A., Research of interaction between expressive and producing wells based on construction of multilevel models (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Inzhiniring georesursov, 2021, V. 332, no. 2, pp. 116–126, DOI: 10.18799/24131830/2021/2/3048
8. Suhartono D., Prastyo H., Kuswanto M., Hisyam L., Comparison between VAR, GSTAR, FFNN-VAR and FFNN-GSTAR models for forecasting oil production, MATEMATIKA, 2018, V. 34, no. 1, pp. 103–111, DOI:10.11113/matematika.v34.n1.1040.
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The coefficient of oil displacement by water is a key parameter in the justification of oil recovery factors and the accompanying volumes of recoverable hydrocarbon reserves. For small or undeveloped fields, one has to deal with the problem of an insufficient number of laboratory experiments or their absence, which are necessary to assessment the oil displacement coefficient. This article proposes statistical models for calculating of oil displacement coefficients obtained by summarizing the results of the flux studies in the conditions of the Western Siberia oil fields. In the process of generalizing a large volume of experimental data, authors have proposed a method for estimating the coefficient of oil displacement by water without laboratory determination. Use of statistical models to estimate the coefficient of oil displacement by water is of interest since their construction takes into account various indicators characterizing the properties of the reservoir, reservoir fluids, displacement agent, etc. The advantages of the method also lie in the fact that it allows generalizing the available experimental data in a mathematical model. The proposed method for the conditions of Western Siberia oil fields is based on the use of data from previous studies to build statistical models for estimating the displacement coefficient using linear multidimensional regression equations. The method requires knowledge of filtering and capacitive parameters: porosity, permeability, initial oil saturation. For the design field development, the obtained analytical equations can be used to estimate the coefficient of oil displacement by water without its laboratory determination through core studies.
1. OST 39-195-86, Neft'. Metod opredeleniya koeffitsienta vytesneniya nefti vodoy v laboratornykh usloviyakh (Oil. The method of determining the coefficient of oil displacement by water in the laboratory).
2. Gladkikh E.A., Khizhnyak G.P., Galkin V.I., Popov N.A., Method for evaluation of oil displacement coefficient based on conventional core analysis (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo = Perm Journal of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, 2017, V. 16, no. 3, pp. 225–237, DOI: 10.15593/2224-9923/2017.3.3.
4. Muftakhov D.F., Justification of the displacement ratio of the Strezhevskoye field (In Russ.), Molodoy uchenyy, 2018, no. 24 (210), pp. 97–102.
5. Raspopov A.V., Khizhnyak G.P., Determination of displacement (oil by water) efficiency with application of objects-analogues investigation results (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 6, pp. 39–43.
6. Tul'bovich B.I., Mikhnevich V.G., Mitrofanov V.P. et al., Primenenie obobshchennykh petrofizicheskikh zavisimostey pri podschete balansovykh i izvlekaemykh zapasov (Application of generalized petrophysical dependencies in the calculation of balance and recoverable reserves), Collected papers “Problemy geologii i razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v rayonakh s istoshchayushchimisya resursami” (Problems of geology and development of oil fields in areas with depleting resources), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1989, V. 79, pp. 117–123.
7. Khizhnyak G.P., Poplaukhina T.B., Galkin S.V., Efimov A.A., Experience of assessment technique implementation of oil displacement coefficient in the time of projecting of perm oil fields development (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 8, pp. 42–45.
8. Sokolov S.V., Substantiation of water-oil displacement factor in designing field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 11, pp. 51–539. Yatsenko G.G., Ruchkin A.V., Substantiation of the lower limits of permeability and porosity of reservoirs based on core samples (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 1975, no. 12, pp. 42–44.
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In this paper the path of novel software development is described. The aim of that research is the simulation of near-wellbore zone treatment. The core of the simulator is the numerical solution of the system of linear equations. Equations describe hydrodynamic processes and chemical homogenous and heterogeneous interaction in porous media. The simulator implements the ability to simulate the geometry of the near-wellbore zone for different well constructions (horizontal well, fractures wells and multi-stage fractures). Algorithms and methods have been developed for modeling the properties of the rock and its mineralogical composition, as well as for modeling formation damage distribution. In addition to solving the system of equations for porous media around the wellbore, a module was implemented for calculating the movement of fluids along the well casing from the wellhead to the bottomhole. This module takes into account the internal structure and geometry of the formation penetration and heat movement. The simulator implements the ability to simulate acid compositions with various types of diverters based on modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in the well and reservoir. Special important addition is heat transfer modeling. The developed simulator is focused on optimizing the treatment design in field conditions. Therefore, optimization modules were additionally developed based on multivariate calculations and optimization algorithms, taking into account the economic model and the forecast of the extra oil production module. An adaptation module has been developed to search for empirical coefficients characteristic of an object based on previously carried out treatments and laboratory studies. The article presents comparative calculations of the implemented software package with simplified models. It allows to substantiate and assess the significance of the implemented additional features. Examples of calculations for various types of wells and conditions are given. In addition, it was taken into account previously conducted laboratory experiments and real treatment experience. Computational experiments were considered and carried out on the following problems: the effect of the temperature of the injected fluid on the treatment efficiency, the distribution of the acid injection front for wells with horizontal construction, the diverters influence, the effect of acid injection volumes in wells with hydraulic fractures, the effect of acid composition injection volumes on the treatment efficiency in carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. The existing problems and prospects for the development of modeling the well treatment are analyzed and identified with account taken of the experience of developing the simulator.
1. Maltcev A., Shcherbakov G., The development of the trends in formation damage removal technologies in sandstone reservoirs, SPE-199321-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/199321-MS
2. Shcherbakov G., Yakovlev A., Groman A., Maltcev A., The development of chemical stimulation method trends in sandstone reservoirs, SPE-196992-MS, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/196992-MS
3. Bulgakova G.T. et al., Mathematical modeling and optimizing the design of matrix treatments in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2014, no. 2, pp. 22–28.
4. Bulgakova G.T., Kharisov R.Ya., Sharifullin A.R., Pestrikov A.V., Optimizing the acidizing operations of horizontal wells in carbonate reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 102–105.
5. Sevougian S.D., Lake L.W., Schechter R.S., KGEOFLOW: A new reactive transport simulator for sandstone matrix acidizing, SPE-24780-PA, 1995, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/24780-PA
6. Filippov D.D., Vasekin B.V., Mitrushkin D.A., Multiphase filtration modeling of complex structure reservoirs on dynamic adaptive PEBI-GRID (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2017, no. 4(6), pp. 48–53
7. A. Blonsky A., Mitrushkin D., Kazakov A. et al., Development of acidizing simulator for sandstone reservoirs, SPE-94566-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/94566-MS
8. Oda M., Permeability tensor for discontinuous rock masses, Geotechnique, 1985, vol. 35, рр. 483–495.
9. Barenblatt G.I., Zheltov Yu.P., Kochina I.N., On the basic concepts of the theory of filtration of homogeneous fluids in fractured rocks (In Russ.), Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika – Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, 1960, V. XXIV, no. 5, pp. 852–864.10. Mal'tsev A.A., Sandstone (polymictic) acid treatment design optimization based on complex approach (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 6, pp. 80–83, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-6-80-83.
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The experience of two successful pilot projects at the East-Messoyakhskoye field made it possible to systematize the information and develop unified system – guidelines for design and implementation of polymer flooding pilot project. The developed system is implemented in the form of practical engineering guidelines for the application of polymer flooding technology in poorly consolidated reservoirs of viscous oil reservoirs. The system consists of step-by-step algorithm for planning, efficiency estimation and implementation of polymer flooding pilot project; activity matrix; and checklist. The main stages of planning, efficiency evaluation and implementation of polymer flooding pilot are identified; their sequential passage is systematized in the form of an algorithm consisting of 7 steps from preliminary EOR screening to analysis of pilot results. The matrix of activities covers key research areas in design and implementation of pilot project: analogues, polymer selection, polymer solution rheology, polymer retention, simulation, technological parameters of injection, monitoring and control of polymer flooding process, engineering solutions for the preparation and injection of polymer solution, a comprehensive assessment of the economic efficiency of the project. The matrix allows to assess the level of effort and cost required at each stage of the project. A detailed checklist has been developed to monitor the implementation of measures and make a decision on the transition to the next stage. The implementation of the guidelines will make it possible to increase efficiency and reduce the timing of design and implementation of pilot polymer flooding projects.
1. Ilyasov I., Gudz A., Podkortyov A. et al., Results of the first polymer flooding pilot at East-Messoyakhskoe oil field (In Russ.), SPE-201822-MS, 2020, https://doi.org/10.2118/201822-MS.
2. Ilyasov I., Glushchenko N., Results of the second polymer flooding pilot at East-Messoyakhskoe oil field and future plans, Conference Proceedings, IOR 2021, April 2021, V. 2021, pp. 1–10, https: //doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202133019.
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|FIELD INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT|
This paper reflects some elements of the concept of an autonomous asset, in particular autonomous bush sites, which implies the development of oil and gas fields with minimal human participation as part of their development in remote regions. The key objective of these works is to reduce labor costs, economic and environmental challenges associated with the development of deposits in remote regions with difficult climatic and geographical conditions. Analytical work has been carried out on the processes of oil and gas production used in modern conditions of operation of Gazprom Neft Company assets onshore. Potential technological and digital solutions are reflected, allowing to implement the concept of an autonomous asset of the Company's Exploration and Production Unit in a complex. An important component of this concept is the automation of many production processes, which today depend on the human factor, which need to be transferred from routine operations to fully adaptively controlled systems and complexes at the field. Work in the field of a deserted or sparsely populated field should be divided into two major areas: a) design and commissioning of new assets taking into account available technologies on the market, and b) phased optimization of existing capacities of mature assets as part of their reengineering. The paper also outlines the ESG direction of Gazprom Neft in the implementation of autonomous projects. The work on building autonomous assets in the Company will be built in several phases in the project logic of the portfolio of initiatives. The first phase is scheduled for 2022, which will be continued in the subsequent time period.
1. Kuz'min M.I., Kibirev E.A., Zatsepin A.Yu., Klinov E.V., Unmanned oil field: Present and the future (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 1, pp. 64–68, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2020-1-64-68.
2. Beyko E., Sablok A., Pegg M.J., Un-manned minimal floating platforms, Proceedings of Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 201 Conference, Houston, Texas, May 2019, OTC-29648-MS, https://doi.org/10.4043/29648-MS
3. Ivar Aasen now operated from land, URL: https://www.oedigital.com/ news/461853-ivar-aasen-now-operated-from-land
4. Nevin M., Unmanned facilities: The way to $30bn savings, SPE-197302-MS, 2019, https://doi.org/10.2118/197302-MS
5. Slyshenkov V.A., Degovtsov A.V., Oborudovanie dlya sbora i podgotovki nefti i gaza (Equipment for the collection and treatment of oil and gas), URL: https://www.gubkin.ru/faculty/mechanical_engineering/chairs_and_departments/machines_and_equipment/O...
6. Andreychikov B., Problemy i resheniya po modernizatsii AGZU tipov “Sputnik” i “Mera” v neftedobyvayushchey promyshlennosti (Problems and solutions for the modernization of AGZU types "Sputnik" and "Mera" in the oil industry), URL: https://www.cta.ru/cms/f/435964.pdfhttps://www.slb.ru/services/testing/multiphase_well_testing/surface_multiphase_flowmeters/spectra/
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The article describes the optimizing of the gas field development system parameters. Optimization criterion is the net present value (NPV). Existing approaches are analyzed such as numerical integrated models using hydrodynamic simulators as a reservoir model; semi-analytical balance models based on the standard nonlinear flow equation to a gas well; the material balance equation and empirical correlations for calculating pressure losses in tubing lifts and surface arrangement. These approaches provide optimal solutions in particular cases, however, the design of a general solution to the optimization problem and the analysis of factors affecting the optimal values of the parameters of the development system is extremely difficult due to the significant time spent on calculations and relatively large number of variables. An analytical technical and economic model for the gas field development is proposed. The following assumptions are made: the gas is perfect; pseudo-stationary inflow of gas; properties of the reservoir are uniform over the area; condensate-gas factor is constant. Above listed assumptions let us to calculate a NPV value in analytical form. Cases outside boundaries of assumptions can be compensated by evaluating the range of optimal parameters of the development system corresponding to the range of input parameters. The main dimensionless control parameters were determined: coefficients of the gas well flow equation, cost of well construction, cost of transport and gas treatment infrastructure per unit of increase in throughput capability, wellhead pressure, limit of tubing head velocity. Optimization parameters are number of wells and dimensionless rate of production. The optimization problem of calculating optimal values of number of wells and dimensionless rate of production was solved for a wide range of control parameters. The solution is presented in a graphical form - values of the optimal parameters form dimensionless coefficients of the inflow equation. Dependences on the other dimensionless control parameters are presented in the form of analytical correlations obtained by deep analysis of optimization solutions.
Results of the work can be used to assess the optimal parameters of the gas field development system at the early design stages, to assess the sensitivity of the optimal parameters of the gas field development system to changes in the values of the most uncertain geological and economic parameters, as well as to assess the range of optimal parameters of the gas field development system to narrow the number of options planned for calculation on detailed numerical integrated models.
1. Apasov R.T., Chameev I.L., Varavva A.I. et al., Integrated modeling: a tool to improve quality of design solutions in development of oil rims of multi-zone oil-gas-condensate fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 12, pp. 46–49, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-12-46-49
2. Khasanov M.M., Maksimov Yu.V., Mozhchil' A.F. et al., Osnovy sistemnogo inzhiniringa (Fundamentals of systems engineering), Moscow – Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2020, 422 p.
3. Brill J.P., Mukherjee H., Multiphase flow in wells, SPE Monograph, Henry L. Dogherty Series, V.17, 1999.
4. Sletfjerding E., Friction factor in coated gas pipelines and well tubing, SPE-52059-STU, 1999, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/52059-STU
5. Andriasov R.S., Mishchenko I.T., Petrov A.I. et al., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference guide for the design, development and operation of oil fields. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.
6. Buckingham E., On physically similar systems: illustrations of the use of dimensional equations, Physical Review, 1914, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 345–376.
7. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O., Nekhaev S., Karamutdinova D., The optimal parameters for oil field development (In Russ.), SPE-162089-MS, 2012, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/201987-MS
8. Khasanov M.M., Ushmaev O.S., Samolovov D.A. et al., A method to determine optimum well spacing for oil rims gas-oil zones (In Russ.), SPE-166898-MS, 2013, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/166898-MS
9. Sitnikov A.N., Pustovskikh A.A., Belonogov E.V. et al., Methodology for determination of low-permeability reservoirs optimal development by wells with multi-stage fracturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 12, pp. 56–59.
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11. Tokunaga H., Hise B.R., A method to determine optimum well spacing, SPE-1673-MS, 1966, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/1673-MS
12. Apasov R.T., Perevozkin I.V., Badgutdinov R.R. et al., Method for determine optimal parameters of gas field development system, SPE-206576-MS, 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/206576-MS
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|Oil & Gas News|
|GEOLOGY & GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION|
3D seismic acquisition at a Rosneft’s gas field in Krasnoyarsk region is characterized by difficult hydrographic conditions. Use of standard technological solutions is problematic due to the wide Angara River, which does not freeze during winter period. The article describes the methodology for 3D seismic acquisition using water and ground sources, geophones, marshphones and hydrophones. The methodology allows to maintain a regular survey network throughout the study area and, as a result, to receive good quality seismic data within the river region. In the article, 3D seismic survey design was described in detail. Then, the technology of producing and receiving of seismic signals by pulsed electromagnetic sources was considered. After that, the stage of quality control of the fieldwork results was presented. Seismograms, obtained on land and water, were processed using the unitized workflow in the integrated project. The processing workflow comprised noise reduction in various data sorting, regularization by offsets with a variable panel width. Finally, several iterations of the mesh migration calculation were performed for refinement of the velocity model for migration. The workflow results in preserving the wave pattern characteristics over the entire area and obtaining high-quality data for structural and dynamic interpretation. Measures, described above, improve the productivity, stability and quality of the obtained seismic data. The technology can be successfully applied in shallow water (depth less than 15 m) and transition zones to extend study survey areas by regions, which were unreachable due to the complex hydrography of Eastern Siberia.
1. Bryksin A.A., Seleznev V.S., A Liseykin.V. et al., Razvitie rechnykh seysmorazvedochnykh tekhnologiy (Development of river seismic technologies), Collected papers “Geofizicheskie metody issledovaniya zemnoy kory” (Geophysical methods for studying the earth's crust), Proceedings of All-Russian conference dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician Puzyrev N.N., 2014, Novosibirsk: Publ. of INGG SB RAS, 2014, pp. 11–15.
2. Efimov A.S., Smirnov M.Yu., Ukhlova G.D. et al., New data on the structure of the Turukhan zone of deformation from the results of seismic survey and geological traverses (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika = Russian Geology and Geophysics, 2017, V. 58, no. 3–4, pp. 553–564.
3. Seleznev V.S., Bryksin A.A., Liseykin A.V. et al., Osobennosti tekhnologii rechnoy seysmorazvedochnykh issledovaniy (Features of river seismic survey technology), Proceedings of 1st conference and exhibition “Morskie tekhnologii 2019” (Marine Technology 2019), Gelendzhik, 2019, April, 22–26, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.201901799
4. Seleznev V.S., Solov'ev V.M., Sysoev A.P. et al., Rechnaya seysmorazvedka na vostoke Rossii (River seismic survey in the east of Russia), Collected papers “Perspektivy razvitiya neftegazodobyvayushchego kompleksa Krasnoyarskogo kraya” (Prospects for the development of the oil and gas production complex of the Krasnoyarsk Territory), Proceedings of scientific and practical conference, 2007, pp. 143–146.
5. Milashin V.A., Starobinets M.E., Milashina O.L. et al., 3D seismic survey for areas with difficult hydrographic conditions (In Russ.), Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki, 2010, no. 2, pp. 70–73.
6. Detkov V.A., Pulsed electromagnetic seismic sources "Yenisei". Model overview and practical experience (In Russ.), Pribory i sistemy razvedochnoy geofiziki, 2007, no. 4, pp. 5–10.
7. “Yenisei” is crossing the border (In Russ.), Nefteservis, 2010, no. 2 (10).
8. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po ispol'zovaniyu dannykh seysmorazvedki dlya podscheta zapasov uglevodorodov v usloviyakh karbonatnykh porod s poristost'yu treshchinno-kavernovogo tipa (Guidelines on the use of seismic data to calculating hydrocarbon reserves in conditions of carbonate rocks with a fracture-cavern porosity): edited by Levyant V.B., Kozlov E.A., Khromova I.Yu. et al., Moscow: Publ. of TsGE, 2010, 250 p.
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A computational algorithm based on an artificial neural network has been developed and implemented for lithological interpretation of well logging data for the Bazhenov Formation. The algorithm estimates the mineral-component composition of rocks. Our studies employ the classification of the Bazhenov Formation lithological types, which is centered on the modern concept of rock-forming mineral and mineraloid components distribution (clay, siliceous, carbonate minerals, and organic matter). Using the developed algorithm for a set of well logging data and taking into account the results of laboratory lithological and geochemical core studies, we constructed models of the content of rock-forming components of the Bazhenov Formation for the central part of the Salym field. The main lithological types of Bazhenov Formation rocks were distinguished: silicites, mudstones, carbonates, and mixtites (mixed siliceous-clay-carbonate rocks), including those enriched in organic matter. The contents of rock-forming components that were calculated with usage of an artificial neural network have a good correlation with the results of detailed lithological and geochemical core studies. Based on the obtained lithological models, we constructed correlation schemes of the Bazhenov Formation, which made it possible to trace the vertical and lateral variability of its mineral-component composition. The average contents of clay, siliceous, carbonate minerals, pyrite, albite, and organic matter have been determined. Significant spatial heterogeneity of the Bazhenov Formation is observed due to the multicomponent composition and complex distribution of various types of rocks that affect its main characteristic features within the local area of the examined field. The obtained results of the performed studies can be useful in research of the structure of the Bazhenov Formation when core materials are unavailable.
1. Epov M.I., Glinskikh V.N., Petrov A.M. et al., Frequency dispersion of electrophysical characteristics and resistivity anisotropy of the Bazhenov formation deposits according to resistivity logging data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 9, pp. 62–64, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-9-62-64
2. Kulyapin P.S., Sokolova T.F., Prediction of reservoirs in the section of the Bazhenov formation based on core samples and geophysical studies of wells (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2015, V. 326, no. 1, pp. 118 – 133.
3. Cybenko G., Approximation by superpositions of a sigmoidal function, Mathematics of control, signals and systems, 1989, V. 2, no. 4, pp. 303–314.
4. Al-Mudhafar W.J., Integrating well log interpretations for lithofacies classification and permeability modeling through advanced machine learning algorithms, Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, 2017, V. 7, no. 4, pp. 1023–1033.
5. Khabarov A.V., Oshnyakov I.O., Aleksandrova I.O. et al., A multidimensional analysis of logs and core as a tool for the petrophysical typing of the Bazhenov-Abalak association (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2019, V. 300, no. 6, pp. 86–102.
6. Kontorovich A.E., Yan P.A., Zamiraylova A.G. et al., Classification of rocks of the Bazhenov formation (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2016, V. 57, no. 11, pp. 2034–2043.
7. Kingma D.P., Ba J., Adam: A method for stochastic optimization, ArXiv: 1412.6980, 2014.
8. Goodfellow I., Bengio Y., Courville A., Deep learning, Cambridge: MIT press, 2016, V. 1, no. 2, 787 p.
9. Eder V.G., Zamiraylova A.G., Zanin Yu.N., Zhigul'skiy I.A., Lithological structural features of the main types of the Bazhenov formation sections (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2015, no. 6, pp. 96–106.
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The paper considers the known correlations and conditions of their applicability for calculating the PVT properties of reservoir oil, gas and water for fields located on the territory of the activities of RN-Purneftegas LLC. For correlations that meet the conditions of applicability for the deposits of RN-Purneftegaz LLC, the results of laboratory determination of PVT properties were compared with the results of calculation by correlations. Correlations have been determined for strata or groups of strata of each deposit, which give minimal mismatch with laboratory data when calculating PVT properties. A matrix of applicability of various correlations has been developed, in which correlations are given for each PVT property for deposits or groups of deposits of each deposit, allowing the most accurate determination of PVT properties. Correlations were found to determine the gas content, volume coefficient, compressibility, viscosity of oil at given values of pressure, temperature, saturation pressure, relative density of oil in water and relative density of gas in air. Correlations are selected to determine the z-factor and the viscosity of the gas for a given pressure, temperature and relative density of the gas through the air. Correlations are selected to determine the solubility of gas, density, compressibility and viscosity of water depending on pressure, temperature and mineralization. Based on the obtained results, an audit and correction of the album of PVT properties was carried out. Corrected PVT properties of reservoir fluids will be used in forming of technological regime of wells, in planning of dissolved gas production, well tests interpretation and in reservoir development projecting.
1. Khabibullin R.A., Khasanov M.M., Brusilovskiy A.I. et al., New approach to PVT correlation selection (In Russ.), SPE-171241-RU, 2014, DOI:10.2118/171241-MS
2. KhabibullinR.A., KhasanovM.M., Odegov A.I. et al., Analysis of Black Oil correlations for PVT properties estimation (In Russ.), SPE-176596-RU, 2015, DOI:10.2118/176596-RU
3. McCain W.D., Spivey J.P., Lenn C.P., Petroleum reservoir property correlations, Tulsa: PennWell, 2011, 219 p.
4. Larry W.L., Petroleum engineering handbook, 2006, 864 p.
5. Al-Marhoun M.A., Evaluation of empirically derived PVT properties for Middle East crude oils, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2004, V. 42, pp. 209–221.
6. Dindoruk B., Christman P.G., PVT properties and viscosity correlations for Gulf of Mexico oils, SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2001.
7. Ghetto G., Paone F., Villa M., Reliability analysis on PVT correlation, SPE-28904-MS, 1994, DOI: 10.2118/28904-ms
8. Lee S.T., Chien M.C.H., A new multicomponent surface tension correlation based on scaling theory, SPE-12643-MS, 1984, , DOI: 10.2118/12643-MS
9. Yarborough L., Hall K.R., How to solve equations of state for z-factors, Oil and Gas J., 1974, no. 18, pp. 86–88.
10. Sutton R.P., Fundamental PVT calculations for associated and gas/condensate natural gas systems, SPE-97099-PA, 2005, DOI:10.2118/97099-PA
11. STO 51.00.021-84. Raschet sostava i svoystv nefti, gaza i vody neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy Glavtyumenneftegaza (Calculation of the composition and properties of oil, gas and water of oil fields of Glavtyumenneftegaz), 1985.
12. Al-Shammasi A.A., A review of bubblepoint pressure and oil formation volume factor correlations, SPE-71302-PA, 2001, DOI:10.2118/71302-PA
13. Dariy S.D., IslamovR.R., Khaydarshin R.R. et al., Methodical bases of differntiation of associated petroleum gas production to free gas and dissolved gas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 86–90, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-86-9014. Zor'kin L.M., Vody neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy SSSR (Waters of oil and gas fields of the USSR), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 382 p.
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The article discusses the results of the study of the causes of complete and catastrophic lost circulation when drilling exploration and production wells in the reef structures of the Kama-Kinel downfold system. The features of the distribution of zones of mud losses of different intensities in the drowned the Upper Frasnian-Famennian-Tournaisian reef system are analyzed using the example of the Blagodarovsky uplift of the Kuleshovskoye field. It is shown that total and catastrophic lost circulation is mainly confined to the zone of the reef-front apron, which consists of psephitic and weak carbonate rocks. Drilling in a reef-front apron can be accompanied by drilling tool failures with loss of circulation and a significant decrease in the static level of the flush fluid. Partial losses occur, as a rule, in the zone of the carbonate core of the reef, its frontal and rear zones. The absence of losses or insignificant loss of circulation of the drilling fluid is characteristic of the depression (backreef) zone of the organogenic rocks. It was noted that it is important to determine the contours and amplitudes of the drowned reef, the boundaries of its facies zones. This enables to use standard S-shaped profiles when designing wells, bypassing possible intervals of complete and catastrophic lost circulation. At the same time, it allows to make the necessary technical and technological decisions for timely prevention and effective elimination of complications when drilling wells in organogenic massifs. It is shown that a detailed analysis of geological and geophysical information, taking into account the technical and technological data on previously drilled wells, makes it possible to predict zones of possible complications and develop effective measures to prevent complications at the design stage in order to increase the efficiency, reliability and safety of well construction and reduce the cost of drilling works at the fields of Rosneft Oil Company.
1. Shipovskiy K.A., Tsirkova V.S., Koval' M.E., Prediction of complete and catastrophic drilling mud loss cases at the fields of Kama-Kinel system of depressions in Samara Region (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2018, no. 3, pp. 14–19.
2. Shipovskiy K.A., Tsirkova V.S., Koval' M.E. et al., Trend of territorial distribution of the lost circulation areas and methods for lost circulation control at the Samara region fields (In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2020, no. 6, pp. 62–69.
3. Shipovskiy K.A., Tsirkova V.S., Koval' M.E., Kozhin V.N., Regularities of the distribution of lost circulation areas in single reefs of the depression zone of the Kama-Kinel downfold system (In Russ.), Ekspozitsiya. Neft'. Gaz, 2021, no. 1, pp. 34–39.
4. Zhigalov A.A., Kartsanova M.A., Kurbatov D.V., Masterova V.A., Vydelenie biogermnykh obrazovaniy vo fransko-famensko-turneyskikh otlozheniyakh po rezul'tatam seysmorazvedochnykh rabot MOGT 3D (Identification of biohermal formations in the Frasnian-Famennian-Tournaisian sediments based on the results of 3D CDP seismic exploration), Samara: Publ. of Samaraneftegeofizika, 2015, 87 р.
5. Kuznetsov V.G., Osnovnye cherty geologii rifov i ikh neftegazonosnost' (The main features of the geology of reefs and their oil and gas content), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1971, 57 p.6. Kuznetsov V.G., Geologiya rifov i ikh neftegazonosnost' (Geology of reefs and its oil and gas potential), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 304 p.
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|OIL FIELD DEVELOPMENT & EXPLOITATION|
The main producing formations of Central-Khoreiver Uplift (CKU) fields are carbonate Devonian deposits (Famenian stage) that are characterized by predominantly hydrophobic wettability. Reservoir temperatures are around 70 °C and high salinity formation water – up to 210 g/l, hardness of water (Ca+Mg) - up to 20 g/l. Oil viscosity at reservoir condition is of 7 mPa·s, bubble-point pressure – 8 MPa, gas-oil ratio – 36 m3/t. The current reservoir pressure is about 20 MPa. A study is currently in progress these object to evaluate the injection of different chemical agents to increase oil recovery factor.
The paper presents the process of designing pilot test to evaluating the efficiency of surfactant-polymer flooding in field conditions using single well chemical tracer test. The effective surfactant-polymer composition was selected on the basis of a set of key parameters measured in screening and complex laboratory testing. Filtration experiments on composite core model were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of selected composition. At the target concentration values, an additional oil displacement coefficient of 7% is provided after pumping one pore volume of the surfactant and 14% after pumping one pore volume for the surfactant-polymer composition. To evaluating the efficiency of the selected composition in the field conditions, pilot test was designed using single well chemical tracer test. The main task of the pilot test is to determine the change in the residual oil saturation or the oil displacement efficiency during successive pumping of water and surfactant-polymer composition. With the help of dynamic modelling the optimal values of the pilot test parameters were obtained, such as: maximum injectivity; the size of the studied formation zone; required volumes of water, surfactant, polymer and tracers; duration of operations. The resulting design became the basis for drawing up a pilot program, which includes all the main technological operations and possible risks.
1. Petrakov A.M., Rogova T.S., Makarshin S.V. et al., Selection of surfactant-polymer technology for enhanced oil recovery project in carbonate formations of Central-Khoreiver uplift (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 1, pp. 66–70, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-1-66-70
2. Kornilov A., Zhirov A., Petrakov A. et al., Selection of effective surfactant composition to improve oil displacement efficiency in carbonate reservoirs with high salinity formation water, SPE-196772-MS, 2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/ 196772-MS.
3. Mohammed A., Senthilmurugan B., Modiu S. et al., Single-well chemical tracer test for residual oil measurement: field trial and case study, SPE-182811-MS, 2016, DOI:10.2118/182811-MS
4. Dean R.M., Walker D.L., Dwarakanath V. et al., Use of partitioning tracers to estimate oil saturation distribution in heterogeneous reservoirs, SPE-179655-MS, 2016, DOI:10.2118/179655-MS
5. Patent US 3590923 A, Method of determining residual oil saturation in reservoirs, Inventor: Cooke C.E. Jr., 1971.
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When developing oil fields, the main influence on the efficiency of flooding is provided by the breakthrough of water to the producing wells from the injection wells. Among the main reasons for the active water breakthrough are the heterogeneity of the reservoir, the high viscosity of oil, reservoir physico-chemical phenomena. Stopping wells due to high water cut violates the design decisions for the development of the field and reduces oil production. The intensification of oil production with a decrease in the volume of lifted water (and hence liquid) is an important industrial and economic industry task.
Based on the reagents of the AC-CSE-1313 series, the water control technologies for injection and production wells have been developed and tested under field conditions. These technologies are aimed at improving oil production while reducing the water content of products (volumes of liquid being lifted), which, when used massively, reduce industry costs by several billion dollars per year. The technological effect when using technology for injection wells based on reagent AC-CSE-1313 grade B is on average 800-1500 tons of additional oil produced per treated well. The use of technology for production wells based on the AC-CSE-13 grade A reagent allows to reduce the fluid flow rate of producing wells by more than 40% while maintaining or increasing (5-9%) the oil flow rate.
1. Khavkin A.Ya., Snizhenie obvodnennosti – osnova energosberezheniya pri neftedobyche (Reducing water cut is the basis for energy saving in oil production), Proceedings of All-Russian scientific and practical conference with international participation “Sovremennye tekhnologii izvlecheniya nefti i gaza. Perspektivy razvitiya mineral'no-syr'evogo kompleksa (rossiyskiy i mirovoy opyt)” (Modern technologies for oil and gas extraction. Prospects for the development of the mineral resource complex (Russian and world experience)), Izhevsk, May, 17-19, 2018, Izhevsk: Publ. of Udmurtskiy universitet, 2018, pp. 161–167.
2. Khavkin A.Ya., Integrated projects of the increase the development of the oil field profitability (In Russ.), Estestvennye i tekhnicheskie nauki, 2019, no. 11, pp. 282–287.
3. Nikitina A.A., Salym Petroleum: ASP technology as a solution to the problem of depletion of traditional reserves (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2014, no. 10, pp. 24–26.
4. Semikhina L.P., Karelin E.A., Pashnina A.M. et al., Analysis the reagents suitability for ASP-technology of enhanced oil recovery by size and type of their micelles (In Russ.), Socar Proceedings, 2020, no. 2, pp. 91–104, DOI:10.5510/OGP20200200435
5. Khazipov R.Kh., Ganiev R.N., Ignat'eva V.E., Application of nonionic surfactants with the addition of an adsorption and biodegradation reducer to increase oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1990, no. 12, pp. 46–49.
6. Altunina L.K., Kuvshinov V.A., Uvelichenie nefteotdachi plastov kompozitsiyami PAV (Enhanced oil recovery with surfactant compositions), Novosibirsk: Nauka Publ., 1995, 198 p.
7. Patent RU 2723797 C1, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Selimov D.F., Tastemirov S.A., Yakimenko G.Kh., Pasanaev E.A.
8. Patent no. 2592932 RU, Composition for increasing oil production, Inventors: Fakhretdinov R.N., Yakimenko G.Kh., Selimov D.F.
9. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Selimov D.F. et al., Laboratory and field tests of AC-CSE-1313-B reagent as the basis of water control technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 6, pp. 68–71, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-6-68-71.
10. Fakhretdinov R.N., Fatkullin A.A., Yakimenko G.Kh. et al., Increase in oil production by application pseudoplastic hydrophobic polymer system SPA-Well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 11, pp. 120–123, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2021-11-120-123
11. RD 153-39.1-004-96, Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po otsenke tekhnologicheskoy effektivnosti primeneniya metodov uvelicheniya nefteotdachi (Guidelines for assessing the technological effectiveness of enhanced oil recovery methods), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft, 88 p.
12. Kuznetsov M.A., Ishkinov S.M., Kuznetsova T.I. et al., The technology for water shutoff in producing wells (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 7, pp. 58–60.
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Oilfields with carbonate reservoir usually are highly anisotropic. Often, a well can penetrate intervals that differ in permeability by orders of magnitude, which is especially aggravated in the case of horizontal wells. Such a difference in permeability leads to uneven recovery of reserves, early water cut growth and so on. In case of fractured reservoirs during well acidizing the injection agent goes through fractures almost. It leads to increasing size of fractures. In case of cavernous reservoirs, injecting acid connects highly permeable channels over time and subsequently fluids mainly go through these channels. Selective well acidizing allows to block highly permeable channels temporary and let the acid go to rock matrix directly. Applying of selective allows to join low permeable rock matrix, increase wells productivity and effective wellbore length. Accordingly, applying selective well acidizing is effective way of production maintenance.
In this paper, we are considering effectiveness analysis of using gel-acid systems for production stimulation. The material is based on experience of using gel-acid systems during selective acidizing wells of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field with fractured carbonate reservoir. The analysis was carried out according to the time of contact between gel-acid system and rock, the dynamics of wells productivity, growth such parameters as water cut and gas-oil ratio (GOR). As a result, we’ve made some guidances for the technology optimization according to experimental data of Yurubcheno-Tokhomskoye field. Summing up, we could say that applying of selective well acidizing shows better results than usual well acidizing. Selective well acidizing allows to minimize risks of early water cut and GOR growth through high permeable zones and to improve productivity index of wells significantly. The technology could be replicated to similar oilfield, consisting of carbonate reservoirs with dual porosity and fluidal contacts.
1. Andriasov R.S., Mishchenko I.T., Petrov A.I. et al., Spravochnoe rukovodstvo po proektirovaniyu razrabotki i ekspluatatsii neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy. Dobycha nefti (Reference guide for the design, development and operation of oil fields. Oil production): edited by Gimatudinov Sh.K., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1983, 455 p.
2. Economides M.J., Nolte K.G., Reservoir stimulation, New York: John Willey & Sons, 2000.
3. Patent RU 2 456 444 C2, Acid treatment method of bottom-hole oil formation zone, Inventors: Magadova L.A., Silin M.A., Gaevoy E.G., Magadov V.R., Khismetov T.V., Bernshteyn A.M., Shaymardanov A.F., Firsov V.V., Kuznetsov M.A., Andrianov A.V., Voropaev D.N., Dyachenko V.S.
4. Fredd C.N., Fogler H.S., Optimum conditions for wormhole formation in carbonate porous media: Influence of transport and reaction, SPE-56995-PA, 1999, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/56995-PA5. Patent RU 2 547 850 C2, Large-volume selective acid treatment (LVSAT) for producers in carbonate reservoirs, Inventors: Bulgakova G.T., Sharifullin A.R., Kharisov R.Ya., Pestrikov A.V.
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A mathematical model to describe thermohydrodynamic processes in the reservoir – horizontal well system has been developed. It is assumed that the process of pressure distribution in the wellbore is quasi-stationary, the horizontal wellbore is parallel to the top and bottom, and the fluid movement in the wellbore is one-dimensional. The proposed numerical method for solving the direct problem is based on the conjugation of the external (in the reservoir) and internal (in the horizontal wellbore) tasks. For the numerical solution of the direct problem, the finite difference method is used. An inverse problem for assessing the filtration parameters of an oil reservoir is formulated. A distinctive feature of inverse problems of underground hydromechanics associated with the study of mathematical models of real filtration processes in oil reservoirs is that the nature of the additional information by the capabilities of the field experiment is determined. As the initial information, the curves of temperature and pressure changes are used, taken simultaneously by several deep measuring autonomous devices installed in different sections of the horizontal wellbore. The locations of downhole devices and their number taking into account the geophysical research of the well are selected (the technology of conducting thermohydrodynamic studies of a horizontal well using several deep autonomous devices). Solving the inverse problem based on numerical modeling and regularization methods allows to build an inflow profile along the horizontal wellbore, evaluate the reservoir properties of the bottomhole and remote zones of the reservoir, the radii of the bottomhole zones in the vicinity of downhole devices. The paper presents the results of thermohydrodynamic studies of horizontal well No. 18326 of the field of the Republic of Tatarstan.
1. Khisamov R.S., Sultanov A.S., Khayrullin M.Kh. et al., Interpretation of the results of horizontal wells thermo-hydrodynamic research (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 103–105.
2. Khayrullin M.Kh., Shamsiev M.N., Gadil'shina V.R. et al., Determination of the parameters of the hole bottom zone of a vertical well from the results of thermodynamic investigations (In Russ.), Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2016, V. 89, no. 6, pp. 1470–1474.
3. Sui W., Zhu D., Hill A.D., Ehlig-Economides C.A., Determining multilayer formation properties from transient temperature and pressure measurements, SPE-116270-MS, 2008, DOI:10.2523/131150-MS.
4. Kuchuk F.J., Goode P.A., Brice B.W. et al., Pressure transient analysis and inflow performance for horizontal wells, JPT, 1990, V. 42, no. 8, pp. 974–1031, DOI:10.2118/18300-PA.
5. Khayrullin M.Kh., Khisamov R.S., Farkhullin R.G., Shamsiev M.N., Interpretatsiya rezul'tatov gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin metodami regulyarizatsii (Interpretation of well test results by regularization Methods), Moscow - Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2006, 172 p.
6. Nazimov N.A., Osobennosti kharaktera techeniya flyuidov v gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh po dannym glubinnykh issledovaniy (Features of the nature of the flow of fluids in horizontal wells according to the data of deep research): thesis of candidate of technical science, Bugul'ma, 2007, 162 p.
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The article is devoted to comparing the results of field studies of the fracture geometry and proppant settling process in the fracture with the results of hydraulic fracturing simulation in the Planar3D class RN-GRID hydraulic fracture simulator. Hydraulic fracturing technology is widely used in the development of low-permeability hydrocarbon reservoirs. The peculiarity of the fracturing process in a low-permeable oil or gas reservoir is long fracture closing after pumps shutdown. During the process of fracture closure, there is gravitational settling of proppants in the carrying fluid. The final distribution of proppants after the complete fracture closure and the intersection of the proppant areas in the fracture with the productive layers of the oil and gas reservoir determine the part of the created fracture geometry, which will ensure the flow of hydrocarbons into the well and provide the effect of hydraulic fracturing. Knowledge of proppant distribution in the created fracture after fracturing operation is extremely important both for analyzing the results of performed fracturing operations and improving the designs of future fracturing operations, helps to improve the technical and economic efficiency of field development with active use of fracturing technology. Fracturing simulator RN-GRID is specialized software for mathematical modeling and engineering analysis of the process of fracture creation during hydraulic fracturing taking into account the geological structure of the reservoir, geomechanical properties of the rocks, parameters of the fracturing fluid and proppant. The simulator allows mathematical modeling of the fracture geometry dynamics, proppant transfer inside the fracture and its distribution at the moment of complete fracture closure. In turn, the application of tagged proppant technology allows to perform unique field studies for instrumental observation of proppant distribution in the near-wellbore area of the fracture in sub-vertical wells. Comparing the results of such field experiments with the results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing makes it possible to give the most accurate assessment of proppant distribution over the entire area of the created fracture.
1. Aksakov A.V., Borshchuk O.S., Zheltova I.S. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator: from a mathematical model to the software development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 11, pp. 35–40.
2. Akhtyamov A.A., Makeev G.A., Baydyukov K.N. et al., Corporate fracturing simulator RN-GRID: from software development to in-field implementation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 5, pp. 94–97, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-5-94-97
3. Pestrikov A.V., Peshcherenko A.B., Grebel'nik M.S., Yamilev I.M., Validation of the Planar3D hydraulic fracture model implemented in the corporate simulator RN-GRID (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 11, pp. 46–50, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-11-46-50
4. Ovchinnikov K.N. et al., Simulation of marked propant propagation in hydraulic fracturing fracture (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2020, no. 10, pp. 20–26.
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|OIL RECOVERY TECHNIQUES & TECHNOLOGY|
Oil reserves of sub-gas zones are in low-activity development due to high risks of water and gas breakthroughs. One of solutions to this problem can be inflow control devices (ICD). There are two main classes of inflow control devices – passive ICD (PICD) and autonomous ICD (AICD). AICD are most appropriate for development of oil rims. The use of AICD is possible on formations characterized by viscosity differentiation between oil and the breakthrough fluid, permeability differentiation as well as presence of non-reservoir intervals.
The main goal of this paper is study of AICD efficiency in horizontal wells, taking into account characteristics of target object. To carry out research, special module was used for flow rate calculations of wells with inflow control devices (developed by RN-BashNIPIneft). The paper presents comparative basic calculations of a well with and without AICD, before and after a breakthrough, with and without production restrictions. The technological criterion for the use of AICD is defined. Dependences of well flow rate on oil and on water for different amounts of AICD are constructed. Amount of AICD for effective choking of an unwanted phase is determined. Accumulated oil production was compared for options with and without AICD. The principles of choosing quantity and type of ICD depending on reservoir properties were formed. These principles were used to justify the completion strategy for a number of Rosneft fields.
1. Moradi M., Production optimization of heavy oil wells using autonomous inflow control devices, SPE-193718-MS, 2018, DOI:10.2118/193718-MS
2. Zeng Q., A novel autonomous inflow control device design: Improvements to hybrid ICD, Proceedings of International Petroleum Technology Conference, 17776-MS, 2014, DOI:10.2523/IPTC-17776-MS
3. Fripp M., The theory of a fluidic diode autonomous inflow control device, SPE-167415-MS, 2013, DOI:10.2118/167415-MS
4. Lyngra S., A case study of the application of slimhole passive inflow-control devices to revive wells with tubular limitations in a mature field, SPE-105624-MS, 2007, DOI:10.2523/105624-MS
5. Aakre H., Autonomous inflow control valve for heavy and extra-heavy oil, SPE-171141-MS, 2014, DOI:10.2118/171141-MS
6. Halvorsen M., Increased oil production at Troll by autonomous inflow control with RCP valves, SPE-159634-MS, 2012, DOI:10.2118/159634-MS
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|OIL FIELD EQUIPMENT|
The introduction of energy- and resource-saving technologies into the technological processes of the oil and gas industry corresponds to the energy strategy of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2035, approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1523-r dated 09.06.2020. The use of secondary effects accompanying cavitation expiration is promising. Cavitation is widely used in many areas of the oil and gas industry as an intensifying factor due to the erosive effects that occur in multiphase flows due to numerous microhydrostrokes - pressure surges resulting from the closure of caverns, accompanied by the formation of shock waves and high-speed micro-jets of high intensity.
The methods for calculating the cavitation number proposed by various researchers are analyzed. The flow rate, or the corresponding pressure drop at which cavitation begins, is usually called the initial condition. It is important to determine this state in order to prevent the manifestation of cavitation for a number of technical applications (in cases where liquid separation and cavitation erosion cannot be allowed), or, conversely, to effectively generate cavitation to intensify the corresponding processes (cavitation erosion, dispersion, emulsification, etc.). An experimental setup has been developed to study the processes of the origin and development of hydrodynamic cavitation by visual methods and the evaluation of the spectrum of acoustic vibrations. The initial (critical) parameters of cavitation nucleation for nozzles of various profiles have been determined analytically, experimentally and numerically. It is established that the analytical determination of the cavitation number is clearly insufficient to predict the cavitation/cavitation-free regime of fluid flow. The results obtained make it possible to predict the presence/absence of hydrodynamic cavitation in practical applications in the oil and gas industry.
1. Ibragimov L.Kh., Mishchenko I.T., Cheloyants D.K., Intensifikatsiya dobychi nefti (Oil well stimulation), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2000, 414 p.
2. Khafizov I.F., Kavitatsionno-vikhrevye apparaty dlya protsessov podgotovki nefti, gaza i produktov ikh pererabotki (Cavitation-vortex devices for the treatment of oil, gas and products of their processing): thesis of doctor of technical science, Ufa, 2016.
3. Song Xianzhi, Li Gensheng, Yuan Jinping at al., Mechanisms and field test of solution mining by self-resonating cavitating water jets, Petroleum Science, 2010, V. 7, Issue 3, pp. 385–389, DOI:10.1007/s12182-010-0082-0
4. Conn A.F., Johnson Jr. V.E., Lindenmuth W.T. at al., Some industrial applications of CAVIJETS cavitating fluid jets, Proc. of the 1st U.S. Water Jet Sympos., Golden, Colorado, 1981.
5. Brennen C.E., Cavitation and bubble dynamics, Cambridge University Press, 2014, 254 p.
6. Soyama H., Hoshino J., Enhancing the aggressive intensity of hydrodynamic cavitation through a Venturi tube by increasing the pressure in the region where the bubbles collapse, AIP Advances, 2016, V. 6, no. 4, pp. 045113, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.49475727. Omel'yanyuk M.V., Ukolov A.I., Pakhlyan I.A., Numerical simulation of turbulent submerged jets hitting a dead end when processing bottom-hole zones (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 5, pp. 72–76.
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Before the COVID-19 pandemic, the possibility of remote (out-of-office) work for employees of Rosneft’ s research centers has been considered as a distant prospect that requires a balanced assessment and approbation. Rosneft as other Russian vertically integrated companies adhered to the information security policy for corporate research and design institutes and oil and gas producing enterprises based on the assumption that the employee's workplace should be located in the office, inside the protected perimeter of the network. Under the influence of restrictive measures caused by the spread of the virus, remote work has turned from an organizational and technical innovation into a necessary condition for the continuation of the centers' activities.
The article covers the experience of Tyumen Petroleum Research Center, Rosneft corporate institute, gained in the process of switching to remote work in conditions of tight deadlines and restrictions of access to public cloud services. Main characteristics of research center IT infrastructure and implementation of technical solutions of remote work reviewed. Authors analyzed effect of IT infrastructure changes and the massive emergence of remote workplaces on IT budget and activity of IT service, and assessed an impact of new business schedule on routine activity of employees, middle and high-level managers of research center. Tyumen Petroleum Research Center does not plan to return to the previous model after pandemic, and makes a forecast for the continuation of the practice of using remote and mixed workplaces for its employees. This will not negate significance and demand of personal interaction. Based on this prospective, development of technologies and infrastructure solutions in research center during next three years will progress alongside with digital transformation of processes, intellectualization of services and increasing of employee's workplace mobility.
1. Gartner: Top 10 strategic technology trends for 2020, Published: 21 October 2019, URL https://www.gartner.com/smarterwithgartner/gartner-top-10-strategic-technology-trends-for-2020.
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Effective management of a modern industrial company engaged in oil transportation should be based on scientifically grounded, most accurate assessments of the state of the production system in real time. Increasing the throughput of oil pipelines using anti-turbulent additives is by far the most economical and effective way. However, the use of modern models, dependencies and research results to determine pressure losses in oil pipelines when using anti-turbulent additives at real facilities lead to significant deviations from the actual values. To solve this problem, it is proposed to use simulation based on machine learning models. Analysis of the initial data made it possible to determine the features and target variables for training the models. The most popular models for solving the problem of multivariate regression (search for a function of n-variables) are considered as machine learning models, such as: linear regression, decision trees, random forest, gradient boosting, artificial neural networks and ensembles of models. The model was trained in Python using popular machine learning libraries: sklearn, keras, pytorch, catboost, etc. Using cross-validation, the hyperparameters for each of the considered model were determined, which provide the best quality metrics. When comparing the forecasting results with the actual data not participating in the training process, one of the models showed a satisfactory error in comparison with the rest of the models. The possibility of increasing the forecast accuracy of machine learning models for new data by retraining existing models is also considered. Simulation modeling based on machine learning models can be effectively used as a method for assessing the required amount of anti-turbulent additives to ensure the required hydraulic efficiency of oil pipelines. It is proposed to use artificial neural networks (ANN) as a recommended model for use. This is due to the fact that the type of the objective function is not known in advance, and when training the ANN, the process of finding a function that most correctly describes the target dependence takes place. The use of simulation modeling as a tool for intelligent control makes it possible to successfully evaluate the effect of an anti-turbulent additive on the hydraulic efficiency of oil pipelines, thus significantly reducing the operating costs of pumping and thereby increasing the efficiency of the enterprise.
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8. Moiseenko T.A., Muratova V.I., Nechval' A.M., Farukhshina R.R., Determination of the optimal concentration of an anti-turbulence additive using differential calculus and mathematical analysis (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2020, no. 3, pp. 35–39, DOI: 10.24411/0131-4270-2020-10307.
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10. Cherentsov D.A., Zaraev V.F., Mareeva A.Yu. et al., Applying machine learning to predict the effect of an anti-turbulence additive on the hydraulic efficiency of oil pipelines (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2021, no. 3–4, pp. 14–22.
11. Chen' Yan, Nechval' A.M., Muratova V.I., Pen Yan, Numerical simulation method predicting the distribution of velocity in the process of reducing turbulent resistance adding drag reducing additives in the tube (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2019, no. 2, pp. 9–13, https://doi.org/10.24411/0131-4270-2019-10202
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13. CatBoost is a high-performance open source library for gradient boosting on decision trees, URL: https://catboost.ai/https://habr.com/ru/company/ods/blog/424781/
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When classifying the process of oil dehydration for preliminary assessments of the technological parameters of its treatment at various stages of the design and development of oil fields, it is necessary to take into account regional differences, starting with the geographical and geological location of oil deposits and the conditions of their occurrence, ending with the features of the physicochemical properties of reservoir fluids extracted to the surface. On the example of a number of fields in the Samara region, the dependence of the change in viscosity when changing from reservoir conditions to surface conditions is built, a comparative grouping of oil by viscosity in reservoir and surface conditions is considered, consistent with the classification of oil to assess the parameters of its preparation simultaneously in terms of density and viscosity in surface conditions. A conditional comparison of the classification parameters and the required temperature of the emulsion during oil dehydration to a residual water content of 10 wt% (preliminary dehydration) and 0.5-1 wt% (deep dehydration) was carried out according to various literature sources. It is proposed for the range of Paleozoic production of oil wells in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province, in addition to assessing the generally accepted characteristics of oil density and the content of paraffin in it, to select technological parameters for oil treatment, additionally use the relative indicators, taking into account the unique properties of highly mineralized reservoir waters and the heterogeneous hydrocarbon composition of the oil itself. On the basis of the introduced characteristics, the classification of oil dehydration of a number of fields in the Orenburg, Samara regions and Siberia is considered. A comparative assessment of the quality of wastewater treatment was carried out taking into account two calculation methods based on the properties of the separated phases, taking into account the mentioned characteristics, as well as the oil density and the specific load on the interface of the apparatuses for the combined preparation of oil and water.
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8. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of Russia dated 01.02.2016 N 3-r (as amended on 19.04.2018) “Ob utverzhdenii metodicheskikh rekomendatsiy po primeneniyu Klassifikatsii zapasov i resursov nefti i goryuchikh gazov, utverzhdennoy prikazom Ministerstva prirodnykh resursov i ekologii RF ot 01.11.2013 N 477” (On the approval of methodological recommendations for the application of the Classification of reserves and resources of oil and combustible gases, approved by order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation dated 01.11.2013 N 477).
9. RD 39-30-898-83, Instruktsiya po issledovaniyu neftey i neftyanykh emul'siy s tsel'yu vydachi iskhodnykh dannykh dlya proektirovaniya ustanovok podgotovki nefti (Instructions for the study of oils and oil emulsions in order to provide initial data for the design of oil treatment units), Kuybyshev: Giprovostokneft', 1984, 202 p.
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|ENVIRONMENTAL & INDUSTRIAL SAFETY|
The article considers peculiarities of oil products functioning in soils. Soil as a depositing element of the natural environment has a long-term effect on all the media in contact with it. The quantity and composition of oil pollution in soils largely depends on the state of air and water space. Meanwhile, methods of rationalizing the content of petroleum products in soils Cop need serious improvement. Due to the variety of soil types, it is almost impossible to develop uniform standards suitable for any soil system. Regulation of the level of dangerous oil contamination should be carried out at the local level. The proposed rationing method is based on results of mass analyses of oil content in soil obtained using screening technology. Analytical data processing is performed by probability-statistical method using Poisson distribution. At the same time, a large body of experimental data, often having different order of quantitative content of oil pollution, does not allow to carry out their direct treatment. This circumstance led to the translation of the amplitude values into a logarithmic scale. According to the values of decimal logarithms of oil contamination content, a polygon of Poisson distribution of probabilities of implementation of values of discrete random value of lgCop is built. Approximation of integral distribution of probabilities of realization of sum of possible values of lgCop is carried out by means of logistics regression. A critical point was found, dividing the range of values of lgCop value by low and high level of contamination. Isolated soil contamination groups are divided into narrower intervals by differentiation of logistics function with finding on the graph of the second derivative points of maximum and minimum values of the second derivative. Thus, it was possible to identify soil classes by the degree of oil pollution in the studied local area of soil cover. The proposed technique can be used for processing of mass analytical data on oil contamination content in soil obtained by any screening method.
1. Egorikov P.N., Bel'shina Yu.N., Sharapov S.V., Arkhipov M.I., Establishment of individual characteristics of composition of oil products by methods of the system analysis (In Russ.), Problemy upravleniya riskom v tekhnosfere, 2013, no. 1(25), pp. 23–31.
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The extraction of hydrocarbons and their transportation from the fields is accompanied by the impact on all components of the natural environment. This impact is manifested both in a change in the external appearance of the surrounding landscapes and in the initial geochemical setting. At the same time, the strength of the impact and its consequences largely depend on the natural features of the area. The Middle Ob region, where most of the hydrocarbons of Surgutneftegas PJSC are produced, is characterized by a high degree of swampiness and lagging (more than 50%). However, within this territory there is an even lower and humid place, where the proportion of wetlands exceeds 80 and even 90%. This area was called the Surgut lowland, or Surgut marshlands. In such extremely difficult conditions there are many developed objects, including the Konitlor group of fields. The extraction of hydrocarbons in the swampy and lakeside areas places higher demands on the subsoil user to prevent environmental pollution. Owing to the observance of industrial and environmental safety requirements, competent organization of production, applied environmental protection measures, in the Konitlor group of fields, despite the emergencies, made it possible to prevent environmental pollution. This is confirmed not only by the company's monitoring studies, but also by remote sensing of the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District - Yugra, which is carried out by the Department of Subsoil Use and Natural Resources of the autonomous district. At the same time, the most effective tool that can be used to assess the current state of natural environments and to determine the consequences of the impact of oil and gas production on the environment are monitoring studies. In Surgutneftegas PJSC, they are carried out at all fields and subsoil areas in accordance with the license agreement on the terms of subsoil use.
1. Shubaev L.P., Surgut Polesye of West Siberian Lowland (In Russ.), Izvestiya VGO SSSR = Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society, 1956, T. 88, no. 2, pp. 167–169.
2. Liss O.L., Abramova L.I., Avetov N.A. et al., Bolotnye sistemy Zapadnoy Sibiri i ikh prirodookhrannoe znachenie (Marsh systems of Western Siberia and their conservation value): edited by Kuvaev V.B., Tula: Grif i Co Publ., 2001, 584 p.
3. Danilenko L.A., Malyshkina L.A., Solodovnikov A.Yu., Khattu A.A., Hydrogenous landscapes of the right bank of the ob river and their geochemical features (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 6, pp. 132–136.
4. Resolution of the Government of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra no. 485-P of 23.12.11. “O sisteme nablyudeniya za sostoyaniem okruzhayushchey sredy v granitsakh litsenzionnykh uchastkov na pravo pol'zovaniya nedrami s tsel'yu dobychi nefti i gaza na territorii Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga-Yugry” (On the system for monitoring the state of the environment within the boundaries of licensed areas for the right to use subsoil for the purpose of oil and gas production in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra).
5. Solodovnikov A.Yu., Khattu A.A., The ecological influence of long-term oilfields on water objects on the example of Konitlorskoye oilfield (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 126–128.
6. Resolution of the Government of the Autonomous Okrug No. 441-P dated 10.11.04. “Predel'no dopustimyy uroven' (PDU) soderzhaniya nefti i nefteproduktov v donnykh otlozheniyakh poverkhnostnykh vodnykh ob"ektov na territorii Khanty-Mansiyskogo avtonomnogo okruga-Yugry” (Maximum permissible level (MPL) for the content of oil and oil products in bottom sediments of surface water bodies on the territory of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug-Yugra).
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|IN MEMORY OF OILMAN IN DISTINCTION|