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September 2013




The oil and gas industry



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Economy, management, the legal right


R.G. Kaspina (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), L.Z. Shneydman (Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, RF, Moscow)
New approach to the oil companies’ corporate reporting

Key words: oil industry, corporate reporting, integrated reporting, international financial reporting standards (IFRS), report on payments to governments.

This article describes new approach for the corporate reporting of the oil companies. New approach includes integrated reporting, IFRS financials, accounting on payments to governments. The content elements to be included in an integrated report are: company overview and external environment; corporate governance; opportunities and risks; strategy and resource allocation; business model; performance; future outlook.

References
1. Integrated reporting. Consultation draft of the international framework,
The International Integrated Reporting Council, 2013.
2. Extractive activities. Discussion paper DP/2010/1, IFRS Board, 2010.
3. On the annual financial statements, consolidated financial statements
and related reports of certain types of undertakings. Directive
2013/34/EU, The European Parliament and the Council, 2013.
4. Disclosure of payments by Resource Extraction Issuers. Rule 17 CFR
Parts 240 and 249, Securities and Exchange Commission, 2012. 

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


S.I. Solovyov (LUKOIL-PERM LLC, RF, Perm)
On the approaches to the evaluation of geological parameters of projects for development of oil subsoil that include phase of geological exploration

Key words: assessment of areas, the license, the mathematical model.

Possible methodological approaches for the prediction of the geological attributes of subsoil development projects that include the geological study stage are considered. Several methods of mathematical statistics were used: correlation and regression analysis, the approximation with help of curves. The results of the work include: mathematical models to predict the final increase in known reserves in the subsoil; the models for the prediction of the number of discoveries; and the distribution of shares of stocks discoveries through the ranks. Areas are numerically described whit help of characteristics, which are based on the data published by Government agencies at the Announcement of tenders and auctions for subsoil use. In order to construct the models real information about the exploration of the subsoil of the Perm Territory since 1978 were used. The constructed models and dependencies can be used to assess the subsoil in order to determine the prospects of setting exploration and acquisition of licenses. Analysis of the characteristics that included in the model allowed making conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of certain groups on the final results of the work on the areas.

 


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M.G. Duduyeva (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), Yu.I. Galushkin (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
Change in thermal regime and katagenesis of an organic matter of sedimentary rocks of the western part of the South Caspian Basin

Key words: South Caspian Basin, oil-generating potential, vitrinite reflectance.

The features of the thermal regime of the sedimentary basin of the South Caspian and their reflection in the history of changes in katagenesis of pool rock organic matter are investigated. Numerical reconstructions of the evolution of the thermal regime and the history of pool sinking obtained with application of the pools simulator system GALO are used. Modeling assumes a high and noticeably unsteady modern mantle thermal conditions in the region and expressed activity of processes of dispersion heat transfer, increasing the effective thermal conductivity of the upper sedimentary rocks by several times. Assessment of the degree of katagenesis of organic matter in sedimentary section rocks of the western part of the South Caspian Basin has shown that the rocks of the lower Paleocene, Lower Eocene and Lower Maikop can only be regarded as a gas-generating, while the Middle Maikop rocks can be considered as promising for the generation both liquid and gas hydrocarbons.

References
1. Lubimova E.A., Feldman I.S., Eat flow, temperature, and electrical
conductivity of the crust and upper mantle in the U.S.S.R, Tectonophysics,
1970, V. 10, no. 1-3, pp. 245-281.
2. Glumov I.F., Malovitskiy Ya.P., Novikov A.A., Senin B.V., Regional'naya
geologiya i neftegazonosnost' Kaspiyskogo morya (Regional geology
and oil and gas potential of the Caspian Sea), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr
Publ., 2004, 342 p.
3. Guliev I.S., Fedorov D.L., Kulakov S.I., Neftegazonosnost' Kaspiyskogo
regiona (Oil and gas potential of the Caspian region), Baku: Nafta-
Press Publ., 2009, 409 p.
4. Alieva E.G., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology,
2003, no. 5, pp. 20-31.
5. Kerimov V.Yu., Rachinskiy M.Z., Karnaukhov S.M., Mustaev R.N.,
Otechestvennaya geologiya, 2012, no. 3, pp. 17 – 24.
6. Khain V.E., Chekhovich P.A., Collected papers “Mezhdunarodnaya
tektonicheskaya karta Kaspiyskogo morya i ego obramleniya” (International
tectonic map of the Caspian Sea and its surroundings),
Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2003, pp. 66-74.
7. Smith-Rouch L.S., Oligocene-Miocene Maykop/Diatom total petroleum
system of the South Caspian Basin province, Azerbaijan, Iran,
and Turkmenistan, Bulletin 2201-1, U.S. Geological Survey Reston, Virginia,
2006, 27 p.
8. Jackson Ja., Priestley K., Allen M., Berberian M., Active tectonics of
the South Caspian Basin, Geophysical Journal Internat., 2002, no. 148,
pp. 214-245.
9. Galushkin Yu.I., Modelirovanie osadochnykh basseynov i otsenka ikh
neftegazonosnosti (Modeling of sedimentary basins and evaluation of
their oil and gas potential), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 456 p.
10. Frakes L.A., Climates throughout geological time, Amsterdam: Elsevier,
1979, pp. 1-310.
11. Ali-Zade Ak.A., Aliev S.A., Mamedalizade A.M., Gamzaev G.A.,
Geokhimiya – Geochemistry International, 1982, no. 9, pp. 1370-1373.
12. Kotrovskiy V.V., Geotermicheskie usloviya obrazovaniya i
razmeshcheniya zalezhey uglevodorodov v osadochnom chekhle
Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (Geothermal conditions of formation and
placement of hydrocarbon deposits in the sedimentary cover of the
Caspian Basin), Saratov: Publ. of Saratov University, 1986, 155 p.
13. Smirnov Ya.B., Teplovoe pole territorii SSSR: poyasnitel'naya zapiska
k kartam tepllovogo potoka i glubinnykh temperatur v masshtabe 1:10
000 000 (The thermal field in the USSR: an explanatory note to the maps
of heat flow and deep temperatures in the scale of 1:10 000 000),
Moscow: Publ. of GUGK, 1980, 150 p.
14. Garven G. and Freeze R.A., Theoretical analysis of the role of
groundwater flow in the genesis of stratabound ore deposits, Part 1.
Mathematical and numerical model, Amer. J. Science, 1984, V. 284,
December, pp. 1085-1124.
15. Sweeney J.J., Burnham A.K., Evolution of a simple model of vitrinite
reflectance based on chemical kinetics, AAPG Bull., 1990, V. 74, no. 10,
pp. 1559-1570. 

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


R.S. Khisamov, R.G. Farkhullin (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk), M.Kh. Khairullin, M.N. Shamsiev (Institute of Mechanics and Engineering, Kazan Science Center of RAS, RF, Kazan), E.R. Badertdinova, V.R. Gadilshina (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Thermohydrodynamic investigations of vertical wells operating in multilayer reservoirs

Key words: thermohydrodynamic investigations, vertical wells, multilayer reservoirs.

A mathematical model is constructed to describe the thermohydrodynamic processes in "vertical well - multilayer reservoir" system. A new approach to estimate the filtration parameters and flow rates of interlayers is proposed. The curves of the bottomhole temperature variations taken after the bringing the vertical well into production are used as the source data.

References
1. Kamenetskiy S.G., Kuz'min V.M., Stepanov V.P., Neftepromyslovye issledovaniya
plastov (Oilfield reservoir studies), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974,
221 p.
2. Khayrullin M.Kh., Khisamov R.S., Shamsiev M.N., Farkhullin R.G., Interpretatsiya
rezul'tatov gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy skvazhin metodami
regulyarizatsii (Interpretation of the results of well testing with regularization
methods), Moscow – Izhevsk: Institut komp'yuternykh issledovaniy, 2006,
172 p.
3. Earlougher R.C. Jr., Advances in well test analysis, SPE Monograph Series,
1977, V. 5., 264 p.
4. Khisamov R.S., Khayrullin M.Kh., Shamsiev M.N. et al., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2010, no. 9, pp. 76-78.
5. Khisamov R.S., Sultanov A.S., Khayrullin M.Kh. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
– Oil Industry, 2011, no. 10, pp. 103-105.
6. Maron V.I., Gidrodinamika odnofaznykh i mnogofaznykh potokov v
truboprovode (Hydrodynamics of phase and multiphase flows in the
pipeline), Moscow: MAKS Press, 2009, 344 p.  

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V.G. Salimov, R.R. Ibatullin, A.V. Nasybullin, O.V. Salimov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Influence of formation fluid viscosity on hydrofracturing efficiency

Key words: hydraulic fracturing, viscosity of formation fluid, fracture design.

The hydrofracturing modeling performed allowed estimating the well deliverability as a function of the formation fluid viscosity and the reservoir drainage area geometry. It has been found that a horizontal well, where no multi-stage hydrofracturing is planned, shall be parallel to the long axis of the reservoir area. The areas shall rather be rectangular than isometric. For a horizontal well with transverse hydraulic fractures, a reservoir drainage area shall preferably be rectangular and oriented parallel to fractures. An optimum reservoir aspect ratio can also add to production. It has been found that the higher the formation fluid viscosity, the larger aspect ratios, and, consequently, the higher the production rate. For Tatarstan oil fields, the number of transverse fractures shall be at least four. So, when planning hydrofrac treatment, the orientation of the fracture is first determined to ensure the highest possible productivity, then, the orientation of the horizontal wellbore and the reservoir drainage area shape are selected.

  


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V.A. Sannikov, V.I. Kurochkin, A.N. Lapshin (LUKOI-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Assessment system of quality and reliability of pressure transient test

Key words: pressure transient test, criteria, quality assessment, reliability assessment.

The authors consider quality of pressure transient test performance and tests results interpretation. The article presents the formalized procedure for test results analysis based on the criteria system.

References
1. Fedorov V.N., Proceedings of XI Scientific and
Technical Conference “Monitoring razrabotki
neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy: razvedka i
dobycha” (Monitoring of oil and gas field development:
Exploration and Production), Tomsk: Publ.
of Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2012, pp. 9-11.
2. Korolev K.B., Silkina T.N., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
– Oil Industry, 2008, no. 12, pp. 12-14.
3. Kryganov P.V., Metody povysheniya dostovernosti
rezul'tatov gidrodinamicheskikh issledovaniy
neftyanykh plastov i skvazhin (Methods to improve
the reliability of the results of well test):the
thesis of the candidate of technical sciences,
Moscow, 2012.4. Kulagina T.E., Kamartdinov M.R.,
Gidrodinamicheskie issledovaniya skvazhin (Well
test), Tomsk, 2007, 26 p.
4. Kulagina T.E., Kamartdinov M.R., Gidrodinamicheskie
issledovaniya skvazhin (Well test),
Tomsk, 2007, 242 p. 

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A.G. Kolyagin, V.L. Terentyev, E.I. Shevchenko, V.V. Denisov (STC OILTEAM, RF, Sochi), K.M. Fedorov (Academy of Oil and Gas Engineering, RF, Sochi)
Reduction of model dimention retaining field geological features

Key words: multilayered reservoirs, static and simulation models, numerical cells, material balance, Carter-Tracy model, interbed leakage.

Numerical reservoir simulation is always a compromise between accuracy of geological description and calculation rate. Development of optimal 3D field model, in terms of number and size of cells, requires adequate recognition of the field’s geological and technological features. The paper introduces the method of decreasing the number of cells in a model. This algorithm was applied for Sudanese G oil field simulation. It includes common upscaling procedure and split of the model into parts based on geological characteristics and development technology. Simplified material balance model is built for each reservoir, inter reservoirs transmissibility and aquifer power are evaluated as a result of reservoir pressure matching. Division of the initial 3D model is performed according to simplified models with predetermined on Material balance models aquifer flux and interbed leakage.
References
1. Cristie M-M., Upscaling for reservoir simulation, JPT, 1996, V. 48, no. 11,
pp. 1004-1010.
2. Bordzilovskiy A.S., Ignatov I.S., Kostyuchenko S.V., Shapieva E.I., Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2009, no. 8, pp. 42-46.
3. Schilthuis R.J., Active oil and reservoir energy, Trans. AIME, 1936, V. 118,
pp. 33-52.
4. Barenblatt G.I., Entov V.M., Ryzhik V.M., Dvizhenie zhidkostey i gazov v
prirodnykh plastakh (The movement of liquids and gases in natural reservoirs),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 211 p.
5. Brons F., Marting V.E., The effect of restricted fluid entry on well productivity,
JPT, 1961, February, pp. 172-174.
6. Cinco-Ley H., Miller F.G., Ramey H.J., Unsteady state pressure distribution
created by directionally drilled well, JPT, 1975, pp. 1392-1400.
7. Carter R.D., Tracy G.W., An improved method for calculation water influx,
Trans. AIME, 1960, V. 219, pp. 415-417.

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G.P. Kayukova, G.V. Romanov (A.E. Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan Scientific Centre of RAS, RF, Kazan) , I.M. Abdrafikova, S.M. Petrov (Kazan National Research Technological University, RF, Kazan)
Temperature viscosity features of extra heavy oil of the Ashalchinskoye field

Key words:extra heavy oil, rheology, viscosity, chemical type, wax,resin-asphaltene substances

It is revealed the variation of the viscosity of samples from a variety of extra-heavy oil wells Ashalchinskoye field at different temperatures and shear stresses. It is shown that the degree of structure and mechanical strength of the oil systems, as well as the variation of these properties with decreasing temperature is largely determined by their chemical composition, reflecting the degree of their natural transformations.

References

1. Khisamov R.S., Abdulmazitov R.G., Ibatullina S.I., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2007, no. 11, pp. 85-87.

2. Kayukova G.P., Romanov G.V., Muslimov R.Kh., Khimiya i geokhimiya permskikh bitumov Tatarstana (Chemistry and geochemistry of Permian bitumen of Tatarstan), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1999, 304 p.

3. Malofeev V.V., Geologicheskoe obosnovanie effektivnosti osvoeniya mestorozhdeniy sverkhvyazkikh neftey i prirodnykh bitumov Tatarstana (Geological substantiation of efficiency of field development heavy oil and natural bitumen of Tatarstan): thesis of the candidate of geology and mineralogy sciences, Moscow, 2011.

4. “Tatneft'” uvelichivaet debit na Ashal'chinskom mestorozhdenii sverkhvyazkoy nefti ("Tatneft" increases the production rate to the Ashalchinskoye field of extra viscous oil), Oil&Gas Journal Russia, URL: www.ogj.ru/news/2012/03/538.

5. Petrov Al.A., Uglevodorody neftey (Petroleum hydrocarbons), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1984, 264 p.

6. Ratov A.N., Neftekhimiya – Petroleum Chemistry, 1996, no. 3, pp. 195-208.

7. Tumanyan B.P., Nauchnye i prikladnye aspekty teorii neftyanykh dispersnykh sistem (Scientific and applied aspects of the theory of oil disperse systems), Moscow: Tekhnika Publ., 2000, 336 p.

8. Barskaya E.E., Ganeeva Yu.M., Yusupova T.N. et al., Tekhnologi nefti i gaza - Science and Technology of Hydrocarbons, 2006, no. 4, pp. 28-33.

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A.P. Kondakov, S.V. Gusev, T.M. Surnova (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
Experience of the use of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery of YuS2 layers of Surgutneftegs OJSC fields

Key words: low-permeability reservoirs, methods of enhanced oil recovery, physical and chemical methods, flow deviation technologies.

Factors complicating the effective development of YuS2 layers of Surgutneftegas OAO fields are shown. The main principles of effective application of physical and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery are given. The volumes and the results of flow deviation technologies application at the fields of Surgutneftegas OJSC in 2009-2012 are presented.


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A.S. Mikhin (LUKOIL-Ingineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Improvement of Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for the Purpose of Involve to Production not Drained Zone of Layered Non-uniform Low Permeability Reservoir

Key words: hydraulic fracturing; control of hydraulic fracture orientation.

The author offers an effective solution for control of hydraulic fractures propagation in low permeability layered non-uniform reservoirs due to redistribution of reservoir stress.

Reference
1. Mikhin A.S., Slavkin V.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2011, no. 12,pp. 116-117.
2. Mikhin A.S., Slavkin V.S., Neft', gaz i biznes, 2012, no. 1-2, pp. 50-53.

3. Mikhin A.S., Neft', gaz i biznes, 2012, no. 1-2, pp. 65-67. 


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A.N. Mikhailov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Influence of capillary trailing effects on development parameters

Keywords: variable wettability, non-uniform layers, capillary trailing effects.

The analysis of existing ideas about non-uniform layers is made. Influence of capillary trailing effects on features of development of operational objects and on characteristics of transitional water oil zones is researched. Modeling of replacement of oil by water from a non-uniform core on wettability is carried out.

References
1. Petersil'e V.I., Belov Yu.Ya. et al., Proceedings of VNIGNI, 1976, V. 242.
2. Craig F., The reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding, Monograph Series,
SPE, Dallas, 1971.
3. Sokolova T.F., Vasilevskaya G.R., Izyumova E.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry,
2011, no. 1, pp. 24-27.
4. Tul'bovich B.I., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1975,
no. 1, pp. 61-64.
5. Berg R.R., Capillary pressures in stratigraphic traps, AAPQ Bull., 1975, V. 59,
pp. 939-956.
6. Mikhaylov A.N., Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific Conference dedicated
to the 80th anniversary of the Gubkin Oil and Gas University “Aktual'nye problemy
razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii” (Actual problems of Russian oil
and gas industry development), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Oil and Gas University,
2010, 158 p.
7. Mikhaylov A.N., Proceedings of All-Russian Scientific Conference “Aktual'nye
problemy razvitiya neftegazovogo kompleksa Rossii” (Actual problems of Russian
oil and gas industry development), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Oil and Gas University,2012, pp. 72-73. 

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Information technology


V.V. Kononov (NEOLANT CJSC, RF, Moscow), N.N. Andreeva (RusGazEngineering Group of Companies, Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Human factor in CAD implementation: how to keep the technological processes knowledge and engineering skills

Key words: CAD, 3D CAD, 3D model, scientific management, project development cost.

The article draws attention to the fact of growing engineering skills importance for project quality under the introduction of computer-aided design tools. The «pass-through» design automation mode – the digital information model transfer between sub-contractors of the project – is also very substantial tool for minimizing project errors and time-to-market reduction. But it’s great to understand, authors say, though design process automation helps to improve the quality and reduce time-to-market nevertheless the amount of project work is not reduced. In this situation, it is important to solve the issue of project CAD development pricing of on the basis on the mutual interests of customers and contractors.

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A.A. Kaverin (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow), V.Z. Kuzenkov, N.A. Povalkovich, A.A. Muruntayev (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk)
The basic principles of the approach to the use of the most advanced technologies of design and research works automation

Key words: design and survey works, the unification of systems of computer-aided design (CAD) and geographic information systems (GIS), automation.

The basic principles of the approach to the use of the most advanced technologies on the automation of design and survey works of taken individually corporate design institutes of Rosneft Oil Company. This is necessary for their replication and the establishment of a unified software technology platform to enhance the performance, manageability and quality of output construction documents in the area of design of oil and gas fields construction and oil refining.
References
1. Gornev V.F., Avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya, 1998, no. 4, pp. 40-44; 1999,
no. 1, pp. 28-36.
2. Galkin O.A., Napryushkin A.A., Povalkovich N.A., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo –
Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 122-125.
3. Povalkovich N.A., Muruntaev A.A., Kovin M.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2008, no. 11, pp. 82-85.

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P.N. Bilenko, Yu.A. Osipenko (HMS Group, RF, Moscow)
IT instruments of complex projects management

Key words: EPM, BI, PDM, CAD, project management, toolkit, dashboards, mind mapping, megaprojects, WBS.

Complicated, unstructured and turbulent data flow appears with complex project management. Data flow management, systematization and control is organizing by project team with new tools implementing or standard tools borrowing, developed based on major software solutions. Microsoft Project and other MS Office products, Business Intelligence systems, teamwork software, online project management applications could work as such solutions. It is possible to achieve the best results on three classic PM limitations - time, budget, project scope by providing software solutions synergy systematically. One of the possible complex project information management solutions was perfected during projects management in 2009-2013 by authors and their project teams.

References
1. Bilenko P., Osipenko Yu., Petroleum, 2012, no. 6, pp. 46-51.
2. Bilenko P., Osipenko Yu., Neftegazovaya vertikal' – Oil and Gas Vertical,
2013, no. 12, pp. 92-96.
3. Mikes A., Hall M., Milio Yu. How experts gain influence. Harvard Business Review.– 2013. – July–August.
4. Upravlenie proektami. Natsional'nye trebovaniya k kompetentnosti spetsialistov.
Osnovy professional'nykh znaniy (Project management. National requirements
for the competence of experts. Basics of professional knowledge):
edited by Voropaev V.I., Moscow: Proektnaya praktika Publ., 2010, 256 p.
5. Bilenko P., Gandralyan S., Shevchenko A., Nasosy i oborudovanie, 2011,
n. 4-5.
6. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK
Guide). – The Fifth Edition. – USA: PMI, 2013. – 616 p.
7. 97 Things Every Project Manager Should Know: collective wisdom from the
experts: edited by Barbee Davis, O’Reily, 2009.
8. Harold Kerzner Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards, New

Jersey: WILEY, 2011. 


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M.A. Gavrilov, M.N. Bredikhina (NEOLANT CJSC, RF, Moscow)
Information modeling of fuel-and-energy complex objects

Key words: information model / information modeling, applied information model, engineering model, lifecycle management, lifecycle management system, PLM-system, integrated information systems creation, fuel and energy complex.

The article devoted the comprehensive informatization for lifecycle management support implementation on the basis of information modeling of the fuel & energy market facilities. The methodology possibilities and advantages are discussed. The information modeling technology helps to evaluate the advisability of the investments proposed at the investments justification stage, to create facility development concept at the feasibility study stage, to form accurate facility engineering project model and to use it for effective building and assembly jobs and many operation support applications.
References
1. Gavrilov M.A., Sozdanie sistemy upravleniya inzhenernymi dannymi na predpriyatiyakh
TEK (Development of control systems for engineering data on energy companies),
Moscow: Publ. Autodesk University Russia, 2012.
2. URL: www.neolant.ru/technologies/info_model
3. URL: i-model.livejournal.com
4. Kulikov V.A., Avtomatizatsiya v promyshlennosti – Automation in Industry, 2013, no. 9,pp. 25-28.

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E.S. Golovina, A.V. Kolmogorov (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara)
IT infrastructure as a basis of successful advance

Key words: information technologies, automatic design, 3D-design.

Qualified personnel and hardware components at their disposal are the principal assets of a design organization. The main parts of the IT infrastructure necessary for efficient project activities are analyzed on the example of SamaraNIPIneft LLC. The design method based on tridimensional modeling appears to be promising and is being actively developed at SamaraNIPIneft LLC for designing infrastructure development facilities and fueling stations. Nowadays successful advance of a design organization is impossible without information technologies developing. Today, in choosing infrastructure development, it is necessary to employ only the most up-to-date solutions, which in a few years’ time will become vital for efficient and high-quality performance.

 


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V.I. Poroskun, N.L. Rodionova, Yu.A. Voloshina (All-Russian Research Geological Oil Institute, RF, Moscow)
GIS technologies in monitoring of subsurface management in the Russian Federation

Key words: geographic information system (GIS), licensing, hydrocarbons, subsurface management monitoring.

The article examines the key aspects of subsurface management monitoring for hydrocarbons in the Russian Federation with the use of GIS system called "Oil and gas content and status of subsoil management in the Russian Federation". The authors describe the GIS system environment and its main components. Application range and a list of tasks for which GIS project can be used also are shown.
References
1. Davydenko B.I., Poroskun V.I., Rozanova G.N., Iutina
M.M., Mineral'nye resursy Rossii. Ekonomika i upravlenie
– Mineral Recourses of Russia. Economics
and Management, 2013, no. 2, pp. 40-44.
2. Varlamov A., Davidenko B., Poroskun V. et al., GIS
Technologies in monitoring of subsoil use and regional
oil and gas exploration in the Russian Federation,
34th International Geological Congress,
2012, Brisbane, Australia, URL: www.34igc.org//34th
International Geological Congress.
3. Voloshina Yu.A., Proceedings of II International
Conference of Young Scientists and Specialists
“Resursno-geologicheskie i metodicheskie aspekty
osvoeniya neftegazonosnykh basseynov” (Resource-
geological and methodological aspects of
the development of oil and gas basins), St. Petersburg:
Publ. of VNIGRI, 2011, pp. 17-23.

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M.V. Chertenkov, S.P. Kovalchuk, I.V. Zolova (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), V.Ya. Kozlov (LUKOIL-Inform LLC, RF, Moscow), A.D. Portiannikov (GIS-ASUproject CJSC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Vidyakin (GEOSPLINE Ltd, the Republic of Belarus, Minsk)
Oil field development planning and operation: new approach, innovative solutions

Key words: analytical system, field development and operation, geological and geophysical data, data warehouse, OLAP, well manage, mapping tools, geological profiles, cross sections, 3D visualization of geological models, results of reservoir simulation.

In order to increase field development and operation quality, LUKOIL Oil Company has developed corporate software system, based on data collection and analysis of fragmented development objects. The system uses advanced interactive visual tools for geological and geophysical data analysis: multi-dimensional OLAP reporting, geographical maps, regional maps of geological and geophysical exploration, development maps, geological profiles, wells logging, design and inclinometry, etc.
 

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R.M. Yusupov (OT-OIL CJSC, RF, Moscow)
Geological and geophysical and field data management

Key words: data management, geological and geophysical and field data, business-process, corporate information system.

The author considers current problems of geological and geophysical and field data management and solutions that are used in domestic and foreign oil companies. The paper presents main stages of the data management process.

References
1. Yusupov R.M., Neft' i kapital – Oil&Capital, 2001, no. 3.
2. Hawtin S., The Business Value Case for Data Management, CDA/Schlumberger,
2011.
3. Mandrik I.E., Guzeev V.V., Yusupov R.M. et al., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2006, no. 10, pp. 16-22.
4. Pferd J., Williams G., Cullick S., Strategic technical information management
planning at Berry Petroleum, 17th PNEC International Conference on
Petroleum Data Integration, Information and Data Management, Houston,
May 14-16, 2013.
5. Cooper S., Schneider S., Monaghan G., Implementing the data management
continuum, 17th PNEC International Conference on Petroleum Data Integration,
Information and Data Management, Houston, May 14-16, 2013.
6. Mugalev I.I., Proceedings of “Sovremennye informatsionnye tekhnologii v
neftyanoy i gazovoy promyshlennosti” (Modern information technologies in
the oil and gas industry) – Rodos, 17-24 oktyabrya, 2010. 

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G.V. Bylov (All-Russian Research Geological Oil Institute, RF, Moscow)
Technical aspects of building GIS in petroleum geology

Key words: geographic information system (GIS), ArcGIS, geology, petroleum, system.

All-Russian Research Geological Oil Institute successfully uses MapInfo-based geographic information system (GIS) to monitor petroleum resource base of the country. Current needs of the organization require the deployment of scalable server and portal technologies (ESRI ArcGIS and Microsoft Sharepoint) to provide shared and remote access to the datasets. GIS analysis and development are used to enhance the quality and speed of geodata processing, as well as to streamline cartographic output.

 


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S.V. Chizhikov, E.A. Dubovitskaya, A.D. Pashchenko (Ingenix Group, RF, Moscow)
Problems and proposed solutions for oil and gas projects cost estimation in Russia

Key words: evaluation of oil and gas projects construction cost, database of analogues objects, classification of oil and gas facilities, methodology of estimating the cost of construction of oil and gas facilities.

The article discusses the fundamental problem of estimating the cost of construction of oil and gas projects in Russia and solution of these problems based on company experience. Major problems of oil&gas projects costs evaluation are: lack of publicly open costs data, methodological differences, and different classification of construction objects. While working on optimization of cost evaluation process, Ingenix Group has developed its own approach to costs estimation. This approach includes own methodology and construction objects classification together with creating own costs database. Finally, it become a basis for developing cost estimation software Ingenix Cost Manager.

 


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Ya.S. Korovin, A.I. Kalyaev (Nejrosetevye Tekhnologii LLC, RF, Taganrog)
Methods and algorithms of improving the efficiency of data transmission systems in oil corporations’ enterprise networks

Key words: computing networks, software defined networks (SDN), control systems, decentralized systems, mutliagent systems.

The paper describes the issue of reducing the load and increasing of efficiency of enterprise computer networks of Russian oil corporations by using software defined networks (SDN) technology based on the principles of multi-agent interaction. In the paper, we introduce the new methods and algorithms allowing to improve the reliability and efficiency of operations made on the same available resources (without the need to purchase supercomputers).

References
1. Korovin Ya.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2007, no. 1,
pp. 80-83.
2. Korovin Ya.S, Tkachenko M.G., Kononov S.V., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
– Oil Industry, 2012, no. 9, pp. 116-118.
3. Wooldridge M., An introduction to MultiAgent systems, John Wiley &
Sons Ltd., 2002, Paperback, 366 p.
4. Kalyaev A.I., Izvestiya Yuzhnogo federal'nogo universiteta. Tekhnicheskie
nauki - Izvestiya SFedU. Engineering Sciences, 2011, no. 8,
pp. 230-238.
5. Tarasov V.B., Ot mnogoagentnykh sistem k intellektual'nym organizatsiyam
(From multi-agent systems to intelligent organizations), Moscow:
Editorial URSS Publ., 2002, 214 p.
6. Kalyaev A.I., Vestnik komp'yuternykh i informatsionnykh tekhnologiy,
2012, no. 4, pp. 28-33.
7. Kalyaev I.A., Mel'nik E.V., Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN –
Vestnik SSC RAS, 2007, V. 3, no. 4, pp. 37-46.
8. Kaliaev A., Multiagent approach for building distributed adaptive
computing system original research article, Procedia Computer Science,
2013, V. 18, pp. 2193-2202.
9. Kalyaev A.I., Proceedings of IV National Multiconference on Control
Problems,Taganrog, 2012, pp. 303-304.
10. Rastrigin L.A., Statisticheskie metody poiska (Statistical methods for
searching), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, 378 p.
11. Kalyaev I.A., Mel'nik E.V., Detsentralizovannye sistemy komp'yuternogo
upravleniya (Decentralized system of computer control),
Rostov-na-Donu: Publ. of YuNTs RAN, 2011, 196 p.
12. Gorelova G.V., Mel'nik E.V., Radchenko S.A., Kalyaev A.I., Vestnik
komp'yuternykh i informatsionnykh tekhnologiy, 2007, no. 10, pp. 49-56.
13. Kalyaev A.I., Vestnik komp'yuternykh i informatsionnykh tekhnologiy,
2012, no. 5, pp. 37-41.
14. Kostenko V.A., Iskusstvennyy intellekt – Shtuchniy іntelekt - Artificial
intelligence, 2002, no. 2, pp. 141-150. 

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S.A. Perrottet (QLogic, RF, Moscow)
Applications acceleration with the SAN caching technology

Key words: FabricCache, QLogic, caching, Fibre Channel adapter, cluster environment, virtualization.

All the existing solutions to accelerate applications in the data center by data caching while working in a SAN infrastructure are divided into two main classes: server-side caching and storage-side cashing. The article describes a new technology and a new class of solution: caching Fibre Channel (FC) host bus adapters. This technology is a hybrid solution that combines the advantages of both classes, as the FC adapters are plugged inside a server but the cached data is available both from within the server, as well as outside - to everyone who has access to the SAN. The article contains the results of testing of the FabricCache family FC adapters in a virtualized (VMware) cluster environment when working with applications such as databases (SQL), Oracle RAC, MS Exchange. The performance increase was in a set of configurations of clusters of 7 to 22 times, showing a good scalability and the possibility of actually summing of cache memory of all the cards between nodes of the cluster. As an essential advantage is marked the independence of the solution on the operating environment, ease of deployment and management in the existing infrastructure of the customer.

 


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The oil-field equipment


I.I. Ahmetzyanov (Oil and Gas Production Departmen Fedorovskneft, RF, Surgut), A.Sh. Yanturin (Geophysika NPF JSC, RF, Ufa), M.S. Gabdrakhimov (Oktyabrskiy Branch of Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Oktyabrskiy), R.A. Yanturin (Rostneftekhim CJSC, RF, Ufa)
Self-releasing of threaded connection of a rod into a well

Key words: well, rod, threaded connection.

This solution enables the choice of the mimimum acceptable values of the tightening of the threaded connection of a rod, when the total of frictions in threadings and shoulder bearing faces of rods and boxes exceeds the total of twisting strains from the spiral deformation of the column. At the same time this prevents accidents when the first (from the collar) engaged threads failure occurs.

References
1. Kruman B.B., Glubinnonasosnye shtangi (Sucker rods), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1977, 191 p.
2. Birger I.A., Iosilevich G.B., Rez'bovye soedineniya (Threaded connections),
Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1973, 256 p.
3. Junker G., Strelov D., Untersuchungen über die Mechanik des selbstätigen
Lösens und die ZweckmäBige Sickerung von Sehraubenverbindungen, Draht-Welt, 1966, V. 52, no. 2, 3, 5. 

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V.D. Grebnev, M.S.Turbakov – Phd (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm), E.V. Kozhevnikov (National Mineral Resources University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Improving the design back pressure valve for reservoir pressure maintenance system

Key words: back pressure valve, reservoir pressure maintenance system, production problems.

The authors propose improved design of the back pressure valve for autonomous shutting down pressure lines in an emergency stop of pumping units of the reservoir pressure maintenance system. New back pressure valve includes no moving metal parts exposed to the negative effects at work in an aggressive or saline environment, providing reliable operation during emergency stops of pumps, increasing its life span.

References
1. Sarbuchev S.N., Prakticheskie primeneniya gazotermicheskikh tekhnologiy
naneseniya zashchitnykh pokrytiy. Rukovodstvo dlya inzhenerov (Practical
applications of thermal spray technologies for applying protective coatings.
Guide for engineers), Moscow: Termal-Sprey-Tek Publ., 2009, 72 p.
2. Yashchura A.I., Sistema tekhnicheskogo obsluzhivaniya i remonta energeticheskogo
oborudovaniya: Spravochnik (System of maintenance and repair
of power equipment. Guide), Moscow: Publ. of NTs ENAS, 2006, 504 p.
3. Patent no. 2300686 RF, Check Valve, Inventors: Makarov V.V., Shanaurin A.L., Fedulov M.V., Matveev A.V., Shevelev A.V. 

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Pipeline transport of oil


G.G. Vasiliev, Yu.A. Goryainov, A.N. Larentieva (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
On the selection of the method for risk assessment at the stage of offshore pipelines investment engineering

Key words: risk of failure, offshore pipeline, construction.

The paper describes the selection of methodology for technological risk assessment at the stage of effectiveness and feasibility analysis of offshore pipeline project. Scenarios of possible failures during the construction of the offshore pipeline are given. Risk level variations during the pipeline construction are calculated.

References
1. Levin S.N., Lavrent'eva A.N., Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta
nefti i nefteproduktov – Problems of Gathering, Treatment and Transportation
of Oil and Oil Products, 2011, no. 4, p. 141-151.

2. Goryainov Yu.A., Izvestiya vuzov “Neft' i gaz”, 2004, no. 6, pp. 64-69  


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M.V. Lurie (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Algorithm for detecting partial clogging in pipeline

Key words: oil, local obstacle, partial clogging, measurement of pressure and velocity on the ends of the controlled segment, method of characteristics, detection algorithm.

Locating method (L-method) for detecting the location of a partial clog in the pipeline is developed. The method is based on continuous measurement of pressure and velocity (or flow rate) on the ends of the controlled segment with subsequent processing of the measured values according to unique mathematical algorithm. The proposed method allows detection of partial clogging in the pipeline and assessment of the extent of its impact on the reduction of flow rate. This method is recommended as primary or supplementary to existing methods for detecting clogging within the pipeline.

References
1. Lur'e M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of the
pipeline transport of oil and gas), Moscow: Publ. of Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, 2012, 456 p.
2. Lur'e M.V., Zverev F.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo – Oil Industry, 2009, no. 8, pp.105-107.
3. Patent no. 2421657 RF, Procedure for detection of liquid hydrocarbon leaks
from mains, Inventors: Zverev F.S., Lur'e M.V. 

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Ecological and industrial safety


L.V. Rudakova, Ya.I. Vaysman, E.S. Belik (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Technological basis of obtaining biosorbents on the base of modified carbon-containing waste for oil contaminated soils treatment

Key words: biosorbent, immobilization, hydrocarbon, hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, carbon-containing waste.

New method of biosorbent obtaining is proposed. Hydrocarbon obtained as a result of surplus active sludge modification was used as a matrix. Physical characteristics of hydrocarbon are not correspond to natural carbon sorbents, but are sufficient for using as a matrix for microorganisms immobilization on the porous surface. Results of investigations are considered to be the base for justification of technological process parameters for biosorbents obtaining on the base of carbon-containing waste and technology of biosorbents production. Proposed method of biosorbents obtaining allow to use material potential of carbon-containing waste, to reduce volumes of landfilled waste, to use efficiently obtained biosorbents in environmental technologies in processes of water and wastewater treatment from petroleum products, and bioremediation of oil contaminated soils.

References
1. Vieira R.H.S.F., Volesky B., Biosorption: a solution to pollution, Internatl microbial, 2000, no. 3, pp. 17-24.
2. Zhdanova E.S., Rudakova L.V., Vestnik PGTU “Urbanistika”, 2011, no. 3, pp. 97-107.
3. Vaysman Ya.I., Glushankova I.S., D'yakov M.S., Khodyashev M.B., Voda:
khimiya i ekologiya – Water: chemistry and ecology, 2011, no. 3., pp. 14-24.
4. Belik E.S., Rudakova L.V., Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom
komplekse, 2012, no. 7, pp. 10-14.
5. Vodopodgotovka: Spravochnik (Water preparation: A Guide): edited by
Belikov S.E., Moscow: Akva-Term Publ., 2007, 240 p.
6. Sinitsyn A.P., Raynina E.I., Lozinskiy V.I., Spasov S.D., Immobilizovannye kletki mikroorganizmov (Immobilized microbial cells), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1994,288 p. 

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R.Kh. Gumerova, P.Yu Galitskaya, O.R. Badrutdinov, S.Yu. Selivanovskaya (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Changes of hydrocarbon and oil fractions contents in oily waste treated by different methods of bioremediation

Key words: oily wastes, remediation, hydrocarbon fractions.

In this study content of oil fractions in wastes produced was estimated during oil extraction and transportation. It was demonstrated, that these wastes differ in their fraction content: either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbons are dominant. In modeling of bioremediation processes by means of composting with soil, compost and addition of sel ected microorganisms, different speed of degradation of different oily fractions was revealed. In case of low final content of oil, concentration of asphaltens and resins, in case of uncompleted degradation of hydrocarbons concentrations of asphaltens and aromatic hydrocarbons became higher. 

References
1. Lazar I., Dobrota S., Voicu A., Microbial degradation of waste hydrocarbons
in oily sludge fr om some Romanian oil fields, Journal of Petroleum Science
and Engineering, 1999, no. 22, pp. 151-160.
2. Solntseva N.M., Collected papers “Vosstanovlenie neftezagryaznennykh
pochvennykh ekosistem” (Restoration of contaminated soil ecosystems),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988, pp. 23-42.
3. Pikovskiy Yu.I., Collected papers “Vosstanovlenie neftezagryaznennykh
pochvennykh ekosistem” (Restoration of contaminated soil ecosystems),
Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1988, pp. 7-22.
4. Kurakov A.B., Il'inskiy V.V., Kotel'tsev S.V., Sadchikov A.P., Bioindikatsiya i reabilitatsiya
ekosistem pri neftyanykh zagryazneniyakh (Bioindication and rehabilitation
of ecosystems with oil pollution), Moscow: Grafikon Publ., 2006,
336 p.
5. Reddy M.V., Devi M.P., Chandrasekhar K., Aerobic remediation of petroleum
sludge through soil supplementation: Microbial community analysis, Journal
of Hazardous Materials, 2011, no. 197, pp. 80– 87.
6. Wang X., Wang Q., Wang S., Effect of biostimulation on community level
physiological profiles of microorganisms in field-scale biopiles composed of
aged oil sludge, Bioresource Technology, 2012, no. 111, pp. 308-315.
7. Marin J.A., Hernandez T., Garcia C., Bioremediation of oil refinery sludge by
landfarming in semiarid conditions: Influence on soil microbial activity, Environmental
Research, 2005, no. 98, pp. 185–195.
8. PND F 16.1:2.2.22-98. Metodika vypolneniya izmereniy massovoy doli
nefteproduktov v pochvakh i donnykh otlozheniya metodom IK-spektrometrii
(The method for measuring the mass fraction of oil products in soils and sediments
by IR spectrometry), Moscow, 1998, 35 p.
9. Mishra S., Jyot J., Kuhad R.C., Lal B., Evaluation of inoculum addition to stimulate
in situ bioremediation of oily-sludge-contaminated soil, Applied and Environmental
Microbiology, 2001, V. 67, no. 4, pp. 1675-1681.
10. Roldán-Carrillo T., Castorena-Cortés G., Zapata-Peñasco I., Aerobic
biodegradation of sludge with high hydrocarbon content generated by a
Mexican natural gas processing facility, Journal of Environmental Management,
2011, no. 86, pp. 384-389.
11. Tahhan R.A., Ammari T.G., Goussous S.J., Al-Shdaifat H.I., Enhancing the
biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons in oily sludge by a modified
bioaugmentation strategy, International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,
2011, no. 65, pp. 130-134.

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N.D. Tskhadaya, A.E. Zhuykov, Z.Kh. Yagubov (Ukhta State Technical University, RF, Ukhta), E.Z. Yagubov (Far Eastern Federal University, RF, Vladivostok)
Creating a safe working conditions at thermal stimulation of formation

Key words: probability of the methane concentrations exceeding, optimal working conditions, time forecast, the generalized criterion, the minimum probability of a false alarm.

The problems of ensuring safe working conditions in the oil mines are considered. An expression for predicting the time of alarm operation at disfunction of the ventilation system is obtained. The developed method allows to predict the number of blowouts and to assume the measures to prevent emergency situation in the mine.

References
1. Yagubov Z.Kh., Optimizatsiya parametrov tekhnicheskikh sredstv sistem
kontrolya i upravleniya pri shakhtnom sposobe dobychi nefti (Optimization of
parameters of hardware for monitoring and control systems in mining
method of oil production), St. Petersburg: Publ. of St. Petersburg State University, 1994, 168 p.
2. Pravila bezopasnosti pri razrabotke neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy shakhtnym
sposobom (Safety rules for the development of oil fields using mining
method), Moscow, Minnefteprom, 1986, 367 p.
3. Tikhonov V.I., Mironov M.A., Markovskie protsessy (The Markov processes),Moscow: Sovetskoe radio Publ., 1977, 488 p. 

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From history of development of petroleum industry



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