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September 2016




Economy, management, law

338.23:622.276
A.. Mastepanov (Institute of Oil and Gas Problems of Russiann Academy of Science, RF, Moscow)
About pricing factors the world oil market and the role of shale oil in the process

Keywords: oil prices, the global oil market, geopolitics, the global economy and energy, energy, costs and expenses
The article deals with the dynamics of world oil prices in recent years, analyzes their dependence on various geopolitical and economic events. Detail considered as fundamental for oil pricing factors, such as the marginal cost of production, the development of technologies for the extraction of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbons, obtaining energy from renewable sources, the balance of supply and demand in general, politics and geopolitics, and many other very different phenomena and processes ( terrorist attacks, strikes of the oil industry, fires and natural disasters, the so-called "monetary" factors). Among these factors, the special role played by the growing production of shale oil in the US, which was decisive in the formation of the oil market in recent years. It is shown that the US shale industry has a significant margin of safety, to some extent, previously underrated. Thus, improving the efficiency of drilling, selective drilling of the most effective areas, leading to a significant increase in the productivity of wells and OE factors contributed to the growth of oil production in the US and after the number of drilling rigs operating in the country, reaching a peak in October 2014, quickly became decrease. Thus, the action of the "American" pricing factor on the world oil market (production primarily shale oil will continue in the future in conjunction with the actions of the monetary authorities of the country, the ruling on the world financial markets) will continue in the future.
References
1. URL: http://www.calc.ru
2. Mastepanov A.M., The world oil market situation: several estimates
and forecasts (In Russ.), Energeticheskaya politika, 2016, V. 2, pp. 720.
3. What drives crude oil prices? An analysis of 7 factors that influence oil
markets, with chart data updated monthly and quarterly, U.S. Energy Information
Administration, 2016, July 12.
4. Neft' ne soprotivlyaetsya (Oil does not resist), Vedomosti, 2014,
no. 3688.
5. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2016, Market analysis and forecasts to
2021, OECD/IEA, 2016, 152 p.
6. Oil Market Report, URL: https://www.iea.org/oilmarketreport/omrpublic/
7. Mastepanov A.M., Energy surplus - new reality (In Russ.), Problemy
ekonomiki i upravleniya neftegazovym kompleksom, 2014, no. 1, pp. 56.
8. Mastepanov A.M., Reversal of energy philosophy (In Russ.), Neft' Rossii,
2014, no. 1112, pp. 1724.
9. Unplanned global oil supply disruptions reach highest level since at least
2011, URL: http://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.cfm?id=26592
10. Dougher Rayola, Power & Politics Navigating the Changing Vision of Our
Energy Future, URL: http://mycommittees.api.org/standards/copm/Meeting%
20Materials/2014/Dougher_API%20COPM_10-07-14_R.pdf.
11. URL: http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MCRFPUS2&
f=M
12. Starinskaya G., Deshevaya neft' ugrozhaet dobyche (Cheap oil endangers
the production), Vedomosti, 2014, no. 3723.
13. URL: http://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2015/05/13/meaborba-
za-dolyu neftyanogo-rinka-tolko-nachalas
14. Oil Price, Free weekly report, 2016.
15. Ivanov N., Rynok nefti: Igra v dolguyu (Oil market: Playing long), Vedomosti,
2016, no. 4010.

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Geology and geologo-prospecting works

553.98.048
I.S. Gutman, G.N. Potemkin, I.Yu. Balaban, A.V. Postnikov, O.V. Postnikova (Gubkin Rusian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), M.I. Saakian (State Reserves Commission under Ministry of Natural Resources of the RF, RF, Moscow), V.V. Zhukov, A.D. Alekseev, I.A. Karpov (Gazprom Neft JSC, RF, Saint-Petersburg), M.Yu. Spasennykh, E.V. Kozlova (Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, RF, Moscow).
Volumetric control for hydrocarbon resources estimations based on geochemical laboratory measurements

Keywords: volumetric method, geochemistry, Rock-Eval, hard-to-recover reserves, petroleum reserves and resources estimation, coalbed methane, Bazhenov formation
The article concerns the problem of quantitative evaluation of hard-to-recover hydrocarbons, such as coalbed methane and Bazhenov shale oil. The application of geochemical parameters obtained from small rock samples requires analytical control. The procedure for equivalent volumetric parameters assessment is shown, that allows to control the amount of resources and reserves, obtained on the basis of geochemical laboratory measurements. For the West Siberian field specific resources were calculated based on Rock-Eval parameters, and equivalent thickness was obtained in order to compare with developed deposit. There are three types of hydrocarbons in analysis: movable hydrocarbons of carbonate and siliceous rocks with complex porous media; liquid trapped hydrocarbons; and temperature-generated ones from kerogen. Direct usage of core pyrolytic parameters for Bazhenov resources leads to overestimation. Bazhenov resources according to different estimates vary from 600 mn. tons to 175 bn. tons. Using equivalent thickness approach for Bazhenov formation it is possible to carry out verification of resources obtained from pyrolytic methods. Pyrolysis could be applied to resources estimation, given standardized core sample preparation and examination, as well as valid technique for conversion of pyrolytic parameters into variables used to estimate reserves.
References
1. Espitalie J., Madec M., Tissot B., Role of mineral matrix in kerogen pyrolysis;
Generation influence on petroleum generation and migration, AAPG Bulletin,
1980, V. 64, pp. 5966.
2. Jarvie D.M., Baker D.R., Application of the Rock-Eval III oil show analyzer to
the study of gaseous hydrocarbons in an Oklahoma gas well, Proceedings of
187th ACS National Meeting, St. Louis, Missouri, 1984, URL: http://wwgeochem.
com/references/JarvieandBaker1984ApplicationofRock-Evalforfindingbypassed
payzones.pdf (accessed November 12, 2010).
3. Beletskaya S.A., Pervichnaya migratsiya nefti (The primary oil migration),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1990, 288 p.
4. Lopatin N.V., Zubairaev S.L., Kos I.M. et al., Unconventional oil accumulations
in the upper jurassic Bazhenov black shale formation, West Siberian
basin: a selfsourced reservoir system, Journal of Petroleum Geology, 2003,
V. 26 (2), April, pp. 225244.
5. Dakhnova M.V., Slavkin V.S., Koloskov V.N. et al., Geochemical methods for
solving tasks as concern oil pools development in Bazhenov suite in the west
of Latitudinal Priobie (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and
Gas Geology, 2007, no. 6, pp. 3943.
6. Kostenko O.V., Blocking nature of distribution of high-molecular compounds
of bitumoid in pore system of Bazhenov formation (West Siberian
basin) (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika, 2014, no. 1,
pp. 113.

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553.98.061.32
V.Yu. Kerimov, R.N. Mustaev, S.S. Dmitrievsky (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow), V.A. Zaitsev (Lomonosov Moscow State University, RF, Moscow)
Evaluation of secondary filtration parameters of low-permeability shale strata of the Maikop series of Central and Eastern Ciscaucasia by the results of geomechanics modeling

Keywords: Maikop series, the Caucasus, geodynamic processes, shale hydrocarbons, geomechanics modeling

Development of hydrocarbons resources of shale formations is one of the most promising trends in the modern global oil and gas industry. In the context of the progressive reduction of proven hydrocarbon reserves in traditional fields, exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources are very important. In this regard, evaluation of the secondary filtration parameters of low permeability shale strata of the Maikop series of central and eastern Ciscaucasia is the highly relevant. Within Central and Eastern Ciscaucasia fracture rocks Khadum suite has a significant impact on the degree of its permeability, which is determined by the type of deposits, the degree of their disturbance and tectonic stress field. Three-dimensional geomechanics model of the study area allowed to assess the permeability of rocks Khadum secondary suite, which is a layer of oil source. The identified areas of higher permeability values are the most favorable for the production of shale oil and gas accumulations.

   References

1. Prishchepa O.M., Aver'yanova O.Yu., Il'inskiy A.A., Morariu D., Neft' i gaz

nizkopronitsaemykh slantsevykh tolshch rezerv syr'evoy bazy uglevodorodov

Rossii (Oil and gas is low-permeability shale strata - a reserve of raw material

base of hydrocarbons in Russia), Proceedings of VNIGRI, 2014, 323 .

2. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Dmitrievskiy S.S. et al., The shale hydrocarbons

prospects in the low permeability Khadum formation of the Pre-Caucasus

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 10, pp. 5053.

3. Zaytsev V.A., Ispol'zovanie geomekhanicheskoy modeli neftegazovogo

mestorozhdeniya dlya otsenki vtorichnoy pronitsaemosti (The use of geomechanical

model of oil and gas field for the secondary permeability evaluation),

Proceedings of nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii Problemy

razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy v usloviyakh sil'nykh plastovykh i flyuidal'nykh

neodnorodnostey (Problems of development of oil deposits in the

conditions of strong formation and fluidal heterogeneities), Tyumen', 2015,

pp. 5-7.

4. Zaytsev V.A., Panina L.V., Neotectonics and geodynamics of the Sciphean

plate (In Russ.), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 4: Geologiya =

Moscow University Geology Bulletin, 2011, no. 1, pp. 37.

5. Kerimov V.Yu., Averbukh B.M., Mil'nichuk V.S., The tectonics of the northern

Caspian Sea and oil and gas potential (In Russ.), Otechestvennaya geologiya,

1990, no. 7, p. 23.

6. Panina L.V., Zaytsev V.A., Geodynamics of the Scythian Plate (In Russ.), Prostranstvo

i Vremya, 2016, V. 11, no. 1, pp. 116, URL: http://www.jspacetime.

com/actual%20content/t11v1/2227-9490e-aprovr_e-ast11-

1.2016.11.php

7. Kerimov V.Yu., Serikova U.S., Mustaev R.N., Guliev I.S., Deep oil-and-gas

content of South Caspian Basin (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2014, no. 5, pp. 5054.

8. Kerimov V.Yu., Mustaev R.N., Serikova U.S., Hydrocarbon generation-accumulative

system on the territory of Crimea Peninsula and adjacent Azov and

Black Seas (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3,

pp. 5660.

9. Koronovskiy N.V., Zaytsev V.A., Panina L.V., Sovremennaya geodinamika

Skifskoy plity po dannym tektonofizicheskogo modelirovaniya (Modern geodynamics

of Scythian plate according to tectonic physical modeling), Collected

papers Tektonika i geodinamika skladchatykh poyasov i platform

fanerozoya (Tectonics and geodynamics of Phanerozoic fold belts and platforms),

2010, V. 1, pp. 372376.

10. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu, Mustaev R.N., Fundamental problems of oil and

gas potential of the South Caspian Basin, Doklady Earth Sciences, 2016,

V. 471, no. 1, . 168171.

11. Rachinsky M.Z., Kerimov V.Yu., Fluid dynamics of oil and gas reservoirs, USA,

Scrivener Publishing Wiley, 2015, 613 .

12. Guliev I.S., Kerimov V.Yu., Ultradeep hydrocarbon systems and their forecasting

techniques (In Russ.), Teoreticheskie osnovy i tekhnologii poiskov i

razvedki nefti i gaza, 2012, no. 1, pp. 24.


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553.98.061.4
I.A. Larochkina (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow)
Influence of the late Proterozoic of the Kama-Belsky aulacogen on the formation of the types of traps the oil in the Paleozoic sediments in Aktanysh-hishmy sag

Keywords: oil-and-gas province, trap, deflection, tectonic structure, field

The oldest in the Volga-Ural oil and gas province of Russia in the last years a trend of steady increase in oil reserves due to geological exploration work. High efficiency of exploration works associated here primarily with the Kama-Kinel system deflections. Aktanysh-Chishmy sag in the Eastern part of Tatarstan and in the Western part of Bashkortostan is considered. Mapping of geological structure in two fragments of Aktanysh-Chishmy deflection, shows that between them there are significant differences. The root cause are different mechanisms of their formation. In terms of morphogenesis Aktanysh-Chishmy deflection on the territory of Bashkortostan was influenced by an active tectonic regime at the same time the two basement Kama-Belsky and Sergius-Abdulinskiy and the Paleozoic in the setting of inherited high dynamics of tectonic movements that created the geological conditions conducive to the formation of various genetic types of oil traps. In the formation of Aktanysh-Chishmy deflection on the territory of Tatarstan high tectonic stress covered only the North-East side and the greater part of the axial zone, controlled by the Kama-Belsky aulacogen by. The South-Western side of the Flex zone and the adjoining smaller part of the axial zone, located on the slopes of the South-Tatar arch, formed in a calm tectonic setting.

Thus, the prospects of tectonic elements of different orders in Aktanysh-Chishmy deflection to a certain extent depend on the extent of the impact of Kama-Belsky and Sergius-Abdulinskiy aulacogens and on the formation of sedimentary strata of Paleozoic sediments and the formation of types of traps in the productive complexes.

The highest prospects for the discovery of new oil fields are in the productive horizons in the Paleozoic sediments in Aktanysh-Chishmy deflection on the territory of Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in the part, which is planned in accordance with the late Proterozoic aulacogens.
References
1. Solov'ev B.A., Kondrat'ev A.N., Present state and development trends for
geologic exploration and prospects for unexplored hydrocarbon potential
realization for Volga-Ural oil and gas province (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza
= The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2015, no. 5, pp. 414.
2. Lozin E.V., Geologiya i neftenosnost' Bashkortostana (Geology and oil bearing
Bashkortostan), Ufa: Publ. of BashNIPIneft', 2015, 704 p.
3. Larochkina I.A., Dokuchaeva N.A., Sukhova V.A. et al., Evolyutsiya, osobennosti
tektonicheskogo stroeniya i predposylki neftegazonosnosti rifeyskovendskogo
i paleozoyskogo osadochnykh kompleksov v Kamsko-Bel'skom
avlakogene na territorii Tatarstana (Evolution, features of the tectonic structure
and oil and gas potential preconditions of Riphean-Vendian and Paleozoic
sedimentary complexes in the Kama-Belsk aulacogene in Tatarstan),
Kazan': FEN Publ., 2013, 136 p.

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550.83.pdf
Z.M. Slepak, E.R. Ziganshin (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Methodology of geophysical research for solving problems of petroleum geology and hydrocarbon accumulations prediction

Keywords: petroleum geology, geophysics, gravity prospecting, modeling, oil-bearing structures

The article presents a new method for geological and geophysical modeling developed by the authors and results of its application in Volga-Ural oil and gas region. In contrast to the commonly used practice of qualitative interpretation of transformed anomalies maps containing significant errors, the new method allows quantitative interpretation of gravity field without its separation into components. The method is to solve the inverse linear gravimetry problem, in which simultaneously with the selection of the theoretical and measured fields the density models of objects are forecasting. The results are density models of the oil-bearing structures has the high geological reliability confirmed by aprioristic information on rock density, determined from the core samples and well. The example of South Tatar crest shows high physical and geological confidence of gravity modeling for the geological studies of the oil-bearing structures.

Over basement faults in the sedimentary strata there are relative decreasing of the density. These faults connected with a natural rocks decompression traceable across the sedimentary complex over the oil deposits. It shows the local gravity anomalies, identified by high-precision gravity surveys. The interpretation of these anomalies by gravity modeling allows predict oil and gas structures and the possible accumulation of hydrocarbons in the basement.
References
1. Slepak Z.M., Innovative high-precision gravity prospecting technologies in
petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 12, pp. 8083
2. Slepak Z.M., Innovative high-precision gravity prospecting technologies in
petroleum geology and hydrocarbon exploration (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 3, pp. 3133
3. Slepak Z.M., Gravirazvedka. Novye tekhnologii prognozirovaniya
neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Gravity prospecting. New technologies of oil
deposits forecasting), Kazan: Publ. of KSU, 2015, 168 p.
4. Slepak Z.M., Gravirazvedka v neftyanoy geologii (Gravity prospecting in
petroleum geology), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2005, 222 p.
5. Slepak Z.M., Primenenie gravirazvedki pri poiskakh nefteperspektivnykh
struktur (The use of gravity prospecting in prospecting for oil-bearing structures),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 200 p.
6. Starostenko V.I., Ustoychivye chislennye metody v zadachakh gravimetrii
(Stable numerical methods in gravimetry problems), Kiev: Naukova dumka
Publ., 1978, 228 p.
7. Strakhov V.N., Strakhov A.V., Osnovnye metody nakhozhdeniya ustoychivykh
priblizhennykh resheniy sistem lineynykh algebraicheskikh uravneniy,
voznikayushchikh pri reshenii zadach gravimetrii i magnitometrii (The main
methods for finding stable approximate solutions of systems of linear algebraic
equations arising in solving the problems of gravimetry and magnetometry),
Moscow: Publ. of IPE RAS, 1999, 52 p.
8. Ivannikov V.I., Kuznetsov. Yu.I., Oil: the history, origin, placement patterns
(In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2010, V. 9(198), pp. 114146.
9. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee
(Oil recovery: past, present, future), Kazan': FEN Publ., 2012, 663 p.
10. Andreev B.A., Klushin I.G., Geologicheskoe istolkovanie gravitatsionnykh
anomaliy (Geological interpretation of gravity anomalies), Leningrad:
Gostoptekhizdat Pub., 1962, 495 p.

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551.24
M.V. Osipova (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Srednebotuobinskoye field (Siberian Platform) case study: tectonic history and water-oil contact considerations

Keywords: Nepsko-Botuobinskaya anteclise, Botuobinsky horizon, oil-water contact, tectonics, paleo-accumulation, dissolution
The work describes the causes of existence of the assumed tilted oilwater contact (OWC) of Botuobinsky horison to update its position in a poorly-drilled part of the field. The paleo-tectonic analysis answers the questions regarding the field structure and its evolution and was performed by the author in the present work in order to define the time of trap formation and accumulation. The paleo-tectonic analysis revealed that at the time of dissolution of Charskaya Formation salts in the eastern part of the field, there existed a paleo-accumulation corresponding to the modern zone of the maximum oil-saturated thickness. Applying the salt level of Charskaya Formation for paleo-tectonic reconstructions is based on the hypothesis that specified nominal surface, controlled by the basis of underwater revetment, had the sub-horizontal character in a process of forming. Afterwards, forming of modern boundaries of Srednebotuobinskiy uplift, took place at the end of the Paleozoic- in the beginning of the Mezozoic. As a result, water-oil contact became tilted. Aligning of OWC was interrupted by the bottom level of high viscosity oxygenated oil. It is proved by the close correlation relationship between the modern structural points of OWC and salt level of Charskaya Formation within the paleo-dome. Apparently, new lots of hydrocarbons were received in the structural trap after formation of modern structural plan of Srednebotuobinskiy uplift. As a result, gas cap was formed and oil rim area was extended. Extension of oil rim area in subsequent stages of accumulation formation can be proved by zero correlation between modern points of OWC and salt level outside the paleo- dome.
References
1. Kontorovich A.E., Surkov V.S., Trofimuk A.A., Geologiya nefti i gaza Sibirskoy
platformy (Oil and gas geology of the Siberian Platform), Moscow: Nedra
Publ., 1981, 552 p.
2. Shemin G.G., Geologiya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti venda i nizhnego
kembriya tsentralnykh rayonov Sibirskoy platformy (Nepsko-Botuobinskaya,
Baykitskaya anteklizy i Katangskaya sedlovina) (Geology and oil and gas potential
Vendian and Lower Cambrian deposits of central regions of the Siberian
Platform (Nepa-Botuoba, Baikit anteclise and Katanga saddle)), Novosibirsk:
Publ. of SB RAS, 2007, 467 p.
3. Nikishin A.M., Sobornov K.O., Prokopiev A.V., Frolov S.V., Tectonic evolution
of the Siberian Platform during the Vendian and Phanerozoic, Moscow University
Geology Bulletin, 2010, V. 65, no. 1, pp. 116.
4. Neyman V.B., Teoriya i metodika paleotektonicheskogo analiza (Theory
and methods of paleotectonic analysis), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 89 p.

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550.834.072
S.K. Turenko (Tyumen Industrial University, RF, Tyumen), E.A. Cherepanov (KogalymNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Development of methodical ensuring modeling acoustic and density parameters in wells for creation of seismogeological models oil and gas objects of Western Siberia

Keywords: well logging, seismic geological models, modeling of sonic and density logs, quality of modeling acoustic and density parameters

The authors consider the creation of seismic models of oil and gas objects using well logging and seismic data. Methodological support is offered for modeling acoustic and density parameters in wells using well logging data. We analyzed the experience of LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC in application of the routine methods for modeling acoustic and density parameters using well logging data. The methodical scheme was developed to solve of practical tasks using mentioned methods. An important element of the offered scheme is the formalized quality evaluation of model curves. The formalized method is offered for curves quality evaluation considering quality of both basic data and methods of data reconstruction.

Developed methodological support can be effectively used to solve practical tasks of seismic modeling on objects of Western Siberia, as well as to form a basis for further methodological support improvement with the information accumulation and transition to new objects.
References
1. Kozhevnikov D.A., Kovalenko K.V., Deshenenkov I.S., Acoustic stiffness evaluation
from the results of adaptive well logging data interpretation (In Russ.),
Karotazhnik, 2011, no. 10(208), pp. 3447.
2. Turenko S.K., Cherepanov E.A., Using the data of neutron logging for constructing
seismic and geological models of oil and gas in Western Siberia objects
(In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Neft' i gaz, 2016, no. 2, pp. 2732.
3. Faust L.Y., A velocity function including lithologic variations, Geophysics,
1953, V. 18, pp. 271287.
4. Turenko S.K., Cherepanov E.A., An adaptive approach to processing well
logging data when building seismic models of oil and gas objects (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 5, pp. 3437.
5. Gardner G.H.F., Gardner L.W., Gregory A.R., Formation velocity and density
the diagnostic basics for stratigraphic traps, Geophysics, 1974, V. 39, no.
12, pp. 770780.

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Drilling of chinks

622.244
Ya.M. Kurbanov, T.V. Zaykovskaya, N.A. Cheremisina (ZapSibBurNIPI Branch of SIC Nedra JSC, RF, Tyumen), O.F. Danilov (Industrial University of Tyumen, RF, Tyumen)
Drilling of parametric borehole on the Zheldonskaya area under conditions of diverse lithological and stratigraphic section and uncertainty of geological and technical conditions

Keywords: conduction of borehole, complications, saline deposits, drilling fluid

Now the most prospective objects to perform exploration works are deep horizons of Eastern Siberia. Specific feature of penetration in these conditions is the presence of abnormal reservoir pressures and relatively low reservoir temperatures. Should be noted the presence of rocks of hard drillability as well as heterogeneous rocks interlayered with soft rocks, and also the presence in section of thick halite layers and other unstable chemogenic rocks. Such complex alternation of deposits causes occurrence of various complications (inability to go down and sticking of drilling tools and casing, lost circulation, poor cementing of casing, casing collapse, etc.)

Zheldonskaya parametric borehole is founded in the north-west of the Irkutsk region in the territory of Ust-Ilim region. Purpose of drilling - identifying hydrocarbon reservoirs of fractured and cavernous type at the top of Riphean strata, as well as porous reservoirs in Vendian sandstones; assessment of their prospects for finding oil and gas.

Technological parameters of drilling fluid had been designed taking into account a set of core tasks that must be dealt with during drilling borehole, and taking into account geological features. Task was complicated by presence in section of saline rocks and intercalations of salts of different thickness, excluding the possibility of application of fresh-water drilling fluids, and by presence of cavernous limestone, in which catastrophic absorptions are probable. Composition and properties of drilling mud must also ensure prevention of landslides and sloughing, formation of minimum filtrate invaded zone in promising horizons, while rheology parameters must facilitate optimization of technological process of washover and quality cuttings removal.

In article are proposed technological solutions for conducting deep parametric borehole in difficult conditions of diverse lithologic and stratigraphic section and uncertainty of geological and technical conditions that allowed to drill a borehole with a 5-column construction and to execute a complex of geological, geophysical and technological studies for solving parametric tasks.  Also are reviewed issues of cementing of casing and principles of selection of recipes of cement slurries taking into account the lithologic and stratigraphic structure and chemical composition of the rocks and fluids in intervals of cementing.

The proposed systems of drilling fluids and compositions of cement slurries allowed to ensure conduction of deep parametric borehole under conditions of diverse lithologic and stratigraphic section and uncertainty of geological and technical conditions, to ensure execution of geological task and for the first time to study section of sedimentary rocks of Zheldonskaya borehole to a depth of 4500 m.

References

1. Mardyuk A., Geological uncertainty and difficulties in drilling in

Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Oil & Gas Journal Russia, 2009, no. 78,

pp. 4851.

2. Gladkov E.A., Main problems during drilling of oil & gas condensate

fields of Eastern Siberia (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2013, no. 1,

pp. 2831.

3. Ryabokon' S.A., The basic directions of boring in Eastern Siberia

(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 6, pp. 6671.

4. Kurbanov Ya.M., Zaykovskaya T.V., Neviditsina O.V., Zima E.Yu.,

Features of drilling fluids technological parameters control when

making a hole of the appraisal well Arakaevskaya (In Russ.), Izvestiya

vuzov. Neft' i Gaz, 2012, no. 2, pp. 3037.

5. Kurbanov Ya.M., Loginov Yu.F., Zaykovskaya T.V. Features of the application

of drilling fluids for parametric ultradeep well SG-7 targeting

(In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i

na more, 2005, no. 1, pp. 4245.

6. Kurbanov Ya.M., Zaykovskaya T.V., Cheremisina N.A., Some specific

features of control of drilling fluids rheological properties when drilling

En-Yakhinsky super-deep parametric well SG-7 (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo

neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2015, no. 7,

pp. 1319.

7. Belyakov A.Yu., Chernokalov I.A., Makarov A.P., Gorbov A.N., Mud

loss elimination in highly trappean doleritic intrusives of Srednebotuobinskoe

field (In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2016, no. 2, pp. 4446.


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622.244.47
A.M. Gaydarov, A.A. Khubbatov, A.D. Norov, M.M-R.Gaydarov (Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC, RF, Moscow)
The experience of the application of weighted cationic drilling muds

Keywords: argillaceous minerals, drilling fluid, stability, cationic system, properties

Traditional freshwater and saltwater weighted drilling fluids are vulnerable under the influence of various aggressive factors that cause different complications. Historically, domestic and foreign fluids with water dispersion medium are the argillaceous suspensions, stabilized with anionic and non-ionic polymers.

Specialists of Gazprom VNIIGAZ LLC have developed an improved method for preparation of cationic drilling fluids called Katburr, which are more effective than all existing anionic-nonionic systems. Katburr has many advantages, such as high inhibiting and strengthening properties, low-component composition, simplicity of preparation and control of its characteristics, lack of dependence of technological properties on pH, high resistance to thermal, saline, carbonic acid, hydrogen sulfide and enzymatic aggressions, compatibility of freshwater and saltwater systems.

One of Katburr modifications was used to drill well  939 on the Astrakhan gas condensate field. It was found that salt doesnt affect Katburr properties they remain stable, filtration rate of the fluid lowered to 0 because of positive effect of halite, anhydrites and gypsum on properties. No chemical treatments were made during the drilling, so it allowed to reduce the consumption of reagents considerably. The economic effect was garnered.

Results indicate the possibilities and necessity of expanding the use of cationic drilling fluids during construction of wells under various complex geological and technical conditions. The plan of the near future is a mass using of improved Katburr modifications during drilling of operational wells in the post-salt and salt sediments on the Astrakhan gas-condensate field.
References
1. Gaydarov M.M-R., Norov A.D., Golovin V., Khubbatov A.A., Some features
of supra-structures formation in drilling fluids (In Russ.), Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i
gazovykh skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2012, no. 6, pp. 3842.
2. Patent no. 2148702 RF, E21 V33/13, S09K7/02, Method for drilling unstable
clayey depositions in bore-hole, Inventors: Mavljutov M.R., Khakimov F.M., Kateeva
R.I., Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Giljazetdinov Z.F., Saitgaraev R.Z.
3. Patent no. 2109032 RF, C09K7/02, Method for inhibiting ferment-assisted decomposition
of polysaccharides in drilling fluids, Inventors: Muslimov R.Kh.,
Jusupov I.G., Kateev R.I., Sharafutdinov Z.Z., Zubarev V.I.
4. Drilling fluids, Water base mud & completion, Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc, 1991,
93 p.
5. Drilling fluids, New developments seminar, Baroid Drilling Fluids, Inc., 1993, 68 r.
6. Reznichenko M.N., Bulatov A.I., Ryabokon' S.A. et al., Utyazhelenie
burovykh i tamponazhnykh rastvorov (Weighting of drilling mud and grouting
mortars), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1978, 301 p.
7. Andreev V.P., Gaydarov M.M., Experience of preventing oil gas shows during
well drilling in conditions of anomalously high pore pressure (In Russ.), Burenie,
1987, no. 2, pp. 57.
8. Gorodnov V.D., Fiziko-khimicheskie metody preduprezhdeniya oslozhneniy
v burenii (Physical and chemical methods of prevention of complications in
drilling), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1984, 229 p.
9. Perepelichenko V.F, Bilalov F.R., Enikeeva M.I. et al., Razrabotka neftegazokondensatnykh
mestorozhdeniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (Development of oil
and gas fields of the Caspian Basin), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1993, 364 p.

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Working out and operation of oil deposits

622.276.1/.4
V.S. Afanacjev (MGRI-RSGPU, RF, Moscow), R.S. Khasanov (Tatneft PJSC, RF, Almetyevsk)
New experimental data of bound water volume change during long reservoir production of Pashiskiy horizon and theoretical explanation of its phenomena

Keywords: connate water, oil reservoir, fresh water injection, water salinity in pore space, long oilfield production history, adsorbtion process
A new set of data is proposed regarding change of residual oil saturation in oil reservoir with long production history under water injection with fresh water. Under the circumstances the injected water is getting mixed with higher salinity reservoir water in rock pore space. As a result the amount of connate water in rock pores is increasing while dynamic change of adsorbtion process parameters is taking place. This behavior is evaluated by well logging data in wells drilled within a period of 50 years oilfield production history. Theoretical background of the event is given that will help to optimize oil displacement and production in reservoirs.
References
1. Afanasyev V.S., Afanas'ev A.V., Afanas'ev S.V., The adsorptive activity of
porous space in the terrigenous rock (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2013, no. 11(233),
pp. 5996.
2. Afanasyev V.S., Afanas'ev A.V., Determining the structure of geological
reserves of oil and gas on the basis of three-dimensional geological modeling
extension of the information to ensure the development of hydrocarbon
deposits in clastic sections (In Russ.), Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek,
2015, no. 5, pp. 54-63.
3. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (The new principles and technologies
of oil and gas fields development), Moscow Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of
Computer Science, 2009, 484 p.
4. Muslimov R.Kh., Nefteotdacha: proshloe, nastoyashchee, budushchee
(optimizatsiya dobychi, maksimizatsiya KIN) (Oil recovery: Past, Present, Future
(production optimization, maximization of recovery factor)), Kazan': FEN
Publ., 2014, 570 p.
5. Khisamov R.S., Vysokoeffektivnye tekhnologii osvoeniya neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy (Highly efficient technology of development of oil field),
Moscow: Publ. of Tekhinput, 2005, 540 p.
6. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po podschetu zapasov nefti i gaza obemnym
metodom. Otsenka kharaktera nasyshchennosti po dannym GIS
(Guidelines for the calculation of reserves of oil and gas by volumetric
method. Assessment of the nature of saturation according to well logging):
edited by Petersile V.I., Poroskun V.I., Yatsenko G.G., Moscow Tver: Publ. of
VNIGNI, 2003.
7. RD 153-39.0-047-00, Reglament po sozdaniyu postoyanno
deystvuyushchikh geologo-tekhnologicheskikh modeley neftyanykh i
gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Regulation on the creation of permanent
geological and technological models of oil and gas field), Moscow: Publ. of
Mintopenergo RF, 2000, 130 p.
8. Dobrynin V.M., Vendelshteyn B.Yu., Kozhevnikov D.A., Petrofizika (Fizika
gornykh porod) (Petrophysics (Physics of rocks)): edited Kozhevnikov D.A.,
Moscow: Neft I gaz Publ., 2004, 368 p.
9. Afanasyev A.V., Afanas'ev V.S., Principles for correction for adsorptive deformation
of the terrigenous rock in petrophysical models for log interpretation
(In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2009, no. 11(188), pp. 139157.
10. Afanasyev S.V., Technology of advanced interpretation of log data in
terms of construction 3-D geological model (In Rus s.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2005, no. 2, pp. 1217.
11. Deryagin B.V., Churaev N.V., Muller V.M., Poverkhnostnye sily (Surface
forces), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1987, 398 p.

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622.276.031.011.433
E.S. Zakirov, I.M. Indrupskiy, I.V. Vasiliev, D.P. Anikeev, T.N. Tsagan-Mandzhiev (OGRI RAS, RF, Moscow), A.E. Rodionov (NIS Gazprom neft, Serbia, Novi Sad), D.S. Lachugin (SamaraNIPIneft, RF, Samara), V.S. Afanasiev, S.V. Afanasiev, A.A. Antonovich (GIFTS LLC, RF, Moscow)
Complex well test study to evaluate relative permeability functions to oil and water and displacement efficiency in conditions of abnormally low reservoir injectivity (part 1)

Keywords: well testing, pulse neutron logging, displacement efficiency, relative permeability, salinity, two-phase flow, inverse problem

The paper presents methodology and implementation results for a complex well test survey to evaluate displacement efficiency and relative permeability in-situ. Test procedure includes several injection-production cycles with brines of different salinity. Dynamic well data are supplemented by periodical water saturation measurements by pulse neutron logging methods and analyses of produced water composition.

The principles of well test design are discussed. Technical solutions are validated for controllable brine injection in conditions of low well injectivity. A complex interpretation procedure is developed for the set of measured logging, geochemical and dynamic flow data. Numerical multiphase flow simulations and optimal control (adjoint) methods are used for solution of the inverse problem to evaluate reservoir properties and relative permeability.

The test survey was implemented on an oil well in conditions of arctic climate and full autonomy. The obtained experience and results made it possible to evaluate in-situ displacement efficiency and relative permeability dynamics, as well as to tryout and improve the methodology of the well test. Unconventional effects in two-phase reservoir flow processes were revealed.
References
1. Amyx J.W., Bass D.M., Whiting R.L., Petroleum reservoir engineering, Mc-
Graw-Hill Book Company, 1960.
2. Zakirov E.S., Upscaling v 3D komp'yuternom modelirovanii (Upscaling in 3D
computer modeling), Moscow: Kniga i Biznes Publ., 2007, 344 p.
3. Kamal M.M. et al., Determination of Insitu reservoir absolute permeability
under multiphase flow conditions using transient well testing, SPE 175012-MS,
2015.
4. Kremenetskiy M.I., Ipatov A.I., Gulyaev D.N., Informatsionnoe obespechenie
i tekhnologii gidrodinamicheskogo modelirovaniya neftyanykh i
gazovykh zalezhey (Information support and technologies of hydrodynamic
modeling of oil and gas deposits), Moscow Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer
Science, 2012, 896 p.
5. Mikhaylov N.N., Ostatochnoe neftenasyshchenie razrabatyvaemykh plastov
(Residual oil saturation of developed reservoirs), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1992, 240 p.
6. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S., Anikeev D.P., New approach toward
wells and formations surveys (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2002, no. 6, pp. 113115.
7. Chen S., Li G., Peres A., Reynolds A.C., A well test for in-situ determination of
relative permeability curves, SPE 96414, 2008.
8. Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S., Anikeev D.P. et al., ln-situ relative permeability
evaluation (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 5,
pp. 3842.
9. Kuchuk F. et al., Determination of in situ two-phase flow properties through
downhole fluid movement monitoring, SPE 116068, 2010.
10. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S. et al., Well test for in-situ determination
of oil and water relative permeabilities (in russ.), SPE 162011, 2012.
11. Afanas'ev S.V., Technology of advanced interpretation of log data in
terms of construction 3-D geological model (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo
= Oil Industry, 2005, no. 2, pp. 5359.
12. Zakirov S.N., Indrupskiy I.M., Zakirov E.S. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii
razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (The new principles and technologies
of oil and gas field development), Part 2., Moscow -Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute
of Computer Science, 2009, 484 p.
13. Zakirov E.S., Trekhmernye mnogofaznye zadachi prognozirovaniya, analiza
i regulirovaniya razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Three-dimensional
multiphase problems of predict, analyze and control of oil and gas field development),
Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2001, 303 p.

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622.276.43
I.V. Vladimirov, E.M. Almuhametova, E.M.Veliyev (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Conditions of the effective use of hot water flooding for development of heavy oil deposits with non-uniform permeability

Keywords: thermal recovery, heavy oil, layer-by-layer heterogeneous reservoir, water production, negotiationsthe, relative permeability of oil

Isothermal filtration processes in layered inhomogeneous permeability heavy oil reservoir are considered. The results of hydrodynamic calculations are given. It is shown that thermal treatment of layered inhomogeneous permeability reservoirs are almost always results in positive technological effect. In case of non-uniform permeable stratum, when permeability of layers differs a lot, thermal treatment allows to significantly increase oil recovery, and the effect is quickly growing. At the same time a volume of liquid withdrawals rises. This type of collector is the most favorable for thermal recovery. For such collectors in the long-term prospect the effectiveness of thermal treatment doesnt depend on the entry level of water-cut. However, to quickly process a positive effect of hot water injection it is recommended to implement thermal recovery from the beginning of deposits development. If the collector consists of the high permeability layers only, when permeability differs by two times or less, the effect of thermal exposure insignificant in magnitude and increases slowly. This case is characterized by a significant dependence on the entry level of water-cut. The largest increase of oil recovery factor is achieved in a variant when the injection of hot water begins at high water-cut.

References

1. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi

plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery),

Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.

2. Ponomarev A.I., Povyshenie effektivnosti razrabotki zalezhey uglevodorodov

v nizkopronitsaemykh i sloisto-neodnorodnykh kollektorakh (Improving

the efficiency of the development of hydrocarbon deposits in low permeability

and layered reservoirs), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2007, 236 p.

3. Muslimov R.Kh., Sovremennye metody upravleniya razrabotkoy neftyanykh

mestorozhdeniy s primeneniem zavodneniya (Modern methods of development

of oil fields with the use the waterflooding), Kazan: Publ. of Kazan University,

2003, 596 p.

4. Vladimirov I.V., Problemy vyrabotki zapasov nefti iz neodnorodnykh po

pronitsaemosti kollektorov pri ikh zavodnenii (Problems of development of oil

reserves of inhomogeneous permeability reservoir during the flooding), Collected

papers Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy s trudnoizvlekaemymi

zapasami nefti (Problems of development of deposits with hard to recover

reserves): edited by Kryanev D.Yu., Zhdanov S.A., Proceedings of VNIIneft',

V. 144, Moscow: Publ. of VNIIneft', 2011, 158 p.

5. Vladimirov I.V., Veliev E.M., Studying the non-isothermal filtration processes

in porous reservoirs when applying thermal techniques to develop viscous oil

deposits (In Russ.), Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov,

2014, no. 2 (96), pp. 2739.


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622.276.652
P.V. Vinogradov, O.V. Nadezhdin, U.M. Abutalipov, A.R. Latypov, E.I. Sergeev, (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), S.E, Zdolnik, V.M. Veselov (Bashneft PJSOC, RF, Ufa)
Organization of the reservoir pressure maintenance system at Roman Trebs oilfield under the conditions of full implementation of the WAG technology

Keywords: water alternating gas (WAG) injection, reservoir pressure maintenance system, multiphase flow, water-gas mixture, injection well
The article is devoted to technical and technological support of the operation of the reservoir pressure maintenance pipeline system and injection wells at Roman Trebs oilfield under the conditions of implementation of the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection technology. Reservoir pressure maintenance system is a branched double-tube network, which provides water and gas delivery to multiwall pads of injection wells. Water and gas are mixed in mixing devices, which are individually installed for each injection well. Control for mixing and water-gas injection processes is realized by means of flow meters and pressure gauges used as for each phase, as for water-gas mixture. Control valves mounted on water and gas lines are used in order to manage process of water-gas mixture injection. The results of studies of the operation regimes of injection wells for water-gas flow pumping are presented. Characteristic of system injection well bottomhole - reservoir was found. Influence of tube size on hydraulic characteristic of well was defined. The principles of organization of management system for water-gas mixture injection are considered on basis of PID-regulators for water and gas lines. It was described a problem, which takes place in realization of non-stationary processes and which is related with increase of wellhead pressure up and above pressure in water and gas pipelines. A method of automatic control of process of water-gas injection is proposed to prevent realization of this effect. The analysis of the factors complicating the operation of the reservoir pressure maintenance system in terms of WAG injection is presented. Ways to reduce the risks of complications are considered.
References
1. Zaynulin A.V., Mozhchil' A.F., Efimov D.V., Savichev V.I., Technological requirements
estimate for reservoir pressure maintenance system under WAG
conditions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 4,
pp. 6063.
2. Nadezhdin O.V., Lutfurakhmanov A.G., Vinogradov P.V. et al., Development
of algorithms to control the RPM system under full implementation of
the swag injection technology at Roman Trebs' oilfield (In Russ.), SPE 176644-
RU, 2015.

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622.276.1/.4.001.57
D.V. Efimov, A.G. Lutfurakhmanov, P.V. Vinogradov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa), A.V. Zaynulin (Bashneft PJSC, RF, Ufa), V.I. Savichev (Bashneft-Polyus LLC, RF, Ufa)
Integrated modeling tool to optimize development on Roman Trebs oilfield in case of SWAG injection technology

Keywords: integrated modeling, optimization, oilfield development, SWAG injection technology

This paper is devoted to development of integrated modeling tool for Roman Trebs oilfield. Realization of SWAG injection technology on this field causes a series of technical and technological problems. Some of them are forecasting of oil, water, gas production rates, forecasting of water, gas injection rates, and determination of loads on elements of surface facilities. Material flow motion in the field is characterized by conjugation and cyclicality, i.e. production rates affect injection rates which in their turn govern filtration processes in a reservoir. These features of considered object are reflected in the developed integrated model of the field. The paper describes the methods for calculation of various elements in computation scheme. Some of these algorithms have been modified to improve the accuracy of the calculations. The solution to the problem of history matching or calibrating the model against the actual data is also discussed.

References

1. Awan A.R., Teigland R., Kleppe J., EOR survey in the North Sea, SPE 99546,

2006.

2. Christensen J.R., Senby E.H., Skauge A., Review of WAG field experience,

SPE 71203, 2001.

3. Efimov D.V., Shlychkov K.E., Savichev V.I., Joint compositional modeling of

gas and oil treatment facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2012, no. 4, pp. 75-77.

4. Peng D.-Y., Robinson D.B., A new two-constant equation of state, Ing. Eng.

& Chem. Fund., 1976, V. 15, no. 1, pp. 59-64.

5. Beggs H.D., Brill J.P., A Study of two-phase flow in inclined pipes, SPE 4007,

1973.

6. Ansari A.M., Sylvester N.D., Sarica C. et al., Comprehensive mechanistic

model for upward two-phase flow in wellbores, Trans. AIME., 1994, V. 297,

p. 297.

7. Zhang H.-Q., Wang Q., Sarica C., Brill J.P., Unified model for gas-liquid pipe

flow via slug dynamics, Part 1: Model development, Journal of Energy Resources

Technology, 2003, V. 125, pp. 266-273.

8. VSN 51-3-85 Mingazproma, VSN 51-2.38-85 Minnefteproma. Proektirovanie

promyslovykh stal'nykh truboprovodov (Design of field steel pipelines),

Moscow, 1985, 75 p.

9. STO Gazprom 2-3.5-051-2006, Normy tekhnologicheskogo proektirovaniya

magistral'nykh gazoprovodov (Norms of technological design of trunk

pipelines), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIgaz, 2006, 187 p.

10. VNTP-3 85, Normy tekhnologicheskogo proektirovaniya ob"ektov sbora,

transporta i podgotovki nefti, gaza i vody neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Norms

of technological design of the collection facilities, transportation and treatment

of oil, gas and water of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 146 p.


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622.276.63:622.276.432
.P.Kondakov, S.V. Gusev, O.G.Narozhnyi (Tyumen Branch of SurgutNIPIneft, RF, Tyumen)
The results of large-volume matrix acidizing treatments in injection wells in JS2 formations at the Surgutneftegas OJSC fields

Keywords: treatments, acid compositions, coiled tubing, injectivity, injection well

The article presents the results of pilot injection wells treatments with a large volume of acid compositions, using a coiled tubing unit in JS2 formations of the Surgutneftrgas OJSC.

One of the problems in JS2 formations development is the difficulty of organizing a system of pressure maintenance, due to the low initial injectivity of new injectors and the fast falling injectivity of the active injection wells. The reasons for this are the low permeability and porosity of the JS2 formation, its complex geological structure, and drilling mud formation damage at the stage of well construction.

The basic method of well injectivity recovery is the treatment of the bottom-hole formation zone by the various acid compositions.

The acid treatments are aimed at restoring the filtration properties of the bottom-hole formation zone due to dissolution of the injected solids, carbonate and ferrous deposits, aggregates of interstitial clay. Average folds of increase in injectivity of the injectors in JS2 formation after acid treatments are 2.8-3 times, but the duration of the effect is small 3-4 months on average. Fast falling injectivity is due to a range of reasons, among which the low penetrability of the acid compositions, secondary sedimentation, a small volume of injected acid and the absence of the flush stage of the bottom-hole formation zone in conventional treatments could be highlighted.

To increase the effect duration of acid treatments it was proposed to treat the bottom-hole formation zone with increased volumes of acid compositions compared to the conventional treatments, using a coiled tubing unit. Pilot tests of the given technology were conducted in 2013 2014, the results have shown that it allows to significantly increase the injectivity of the injectors compared to conventional treatments. This paper presents the criteria for well-candidates selection for large-volume treatments and moreover the prospects for further development of technology are noted.

References

1. Kondakov A.P., .Gusev S.V., Surnova T.M., Experience of the use of physical

and chemical methods of enhanced oil recovery of YuS2 layers of Surgutneftegs

OJSC fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013,

no. 9, pp. 4749.

2. Aleksandrov A.A., Gabdraupov O.D., Devyatkova S.G., Sonich V.P., Petrophysical

basis and assessment of the influence of argillaceous rock of formation

and sieves on the formation development parameters (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2016, no. 2, pp. 3843.


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622.276.432
A.I. Shchekin, E.N. Grishchenko, Sh.R. Lotfullin, A.S. Klevtsov (Vietsovpetro JV (Vietsovpetro JV, the Socialist Republic Vietnam, Vung Tau), A.A. Lubnin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Applying statistical and oilfield methods in predicting waterflood induced hydraulic fractures in the injection wells

Keywords: injection wells, waterflood induced hydraulic fracture, fracture initiated by injection, minimum principal horizontal stress, falloff test

Currently, there is loss of flooding efficiency due to premature inundation of production wells in the Vietsovpetro JV, when new areas related to the Lower Miocene sediments begin to be developed in the block 09-1 offshore fields in Vietnam. A detailed analysis of the causes of inundation wells shows that in addition to water filtering which is pumped into highly permeable streaks, the main aggravating factor is formation of waterflood induced hydraulic fractures in the injection wells (fracture initiated by injection). In order to improve the efficiency of water flooding system in the oilfields of Vietsovpetro JV the issues of identifying and predicting the formation of w-induced hydraulic fractures were analyzed using statistical and field research data of the wells.

Using actual mini-frac data and reservoir pressure measurements in production wells on the Block 09-1 offshore Vietnam, the statistical dependence was designed to evaluate the initial minimum principal horizontal stress (pressure of fracturing initiated by injection). Verification of established dependence was performed by comparing the calculated values of pressure of fracture initiated by injection with the actual data, obtained as a result of hydrodynamic research of injection wells at steady state regime.

the analysis of changes of the minimum principal horizontal stress, based on the data of falloff test in injection wells with waterflood induced hydraulic fracture, was performed to study the possibility of control the development of cracks and to prevent its re-opening. It was determined that under the influence of periodic regime of the injection wells within conditions when bottom hole pressure exceeds the pressure of fracture initiated by injection, the considerable modification of the stress-strain state of the formation takes place. This accompanies with decrease of the minimal principal horizontal stress values, which increases the risk of uncontrolled crack growth and premature inundation of wells.
References
1. Afanas'eva A.V., Gorbunov A.T., Shustef N.N., Zavodnenie neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy pri vysokikh davleniyakh nagnetaniya (Water flooding of oil
fields at high injection pressure), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1975, 215 p.
2. Zoback M.D., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, 2007,
504 p.
3. Ching H.Y., Mechanics of hydraulic fracturing, Gulf Publishing Company,
1997, 182 p.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits

622.276.012
K.I. Povyshev, A.S. Koptelov (Gazprom Neft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg
The peculiarity of oil-gas-condensate fields development

Keywords: scheme of arrangement, gas-liquid ratio (GLR), gushing method of extraction, oil and gas field

The main feature of the development and operation of oil-gas-condensate fields is the extraction of oil from oil rims with subsequent extraction of gas, this situation requires a special approach to the construction of infrastructure to ensure maximum economic benefit and ensure safe operation. Significant differences in physical and chemical properties of oil and gas (viscosity, density, compressibility) lead to very different approaches to the formation of a system of collection and preparation of crude production to oil and gas fields. The typical scheme of oil field development is characterized by: artificial oil lift with a short water-free production period or its absence; pressure in oil gathering system up to 4.0 MPa; collector and collection system; technological processes of oil processing (separation, dehydration, desalting, and oil stabilization). The typical scheme of arrangement of natural gas fields is characterized by: free-flow production method; pressure in gas gathering system of 6.0 MPa or more; radial or mixed collection system; technological processes of gas treatment: (separation, dewatering water, separation of heavy hydrocarbons (C3+), condensate preparation and stabilization).

Thus, when designing a gathering and treatment system for oil-gas-condensate fields the task is to combine oil and gas production processes while ensuring safety and economic efficiency.

Yaro-Yakhinskoye oil-gas-condensate field is located in the North-Eastern part of Purovsky district of Yamalo-Nenetskiy autonomous region. Recoverable reserves in categories C1 and C2 exceed 225 million tons of oil and 415 billion m3 of gas. Main development objects layers BT represent oil-gas-condensate deposits with a massive gas cap and underlying water, oil-saturated thicknesses range from 3 to 11 m and are characterized by a high degree of vertical heterogeneity and weak vertical anisotropy. The saturation pressure is equal to formation pressure (30.6-33.5 MPa). The gas factor varies from 195 to 206 m3/m3, while production is complicated by the presence of gas breakthrough gas cap, the contents of which at the mouth can reach up to 5000 m3/m3.

According to the results of feasibility calculation of variants of the Yaro-Yakhinskoye field arrangement we can draw the following conclusions. The most economically viable and technically safe is a variant of the two-pipe system for gathering well production: low pressure (up to 4.0 MPa up to gas breakthrough gas cap to the producing wells) and high pressure (up to 10.0 MPa after gas breakthrough gas cap to the producing wells). The economic effect is achieved due to the design of the target bottomhole pressures, and as a result, the production profiles of oil and gas. The proposed solution provides the flexibility and reliability of the collection system, the entire period of operation of the field.



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Information technology

681.518:622.24
I.P. Zaikin, K.V. Kempf, V.I. Gorshenin, D.V. Shkarin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Drilling management information system engineering experience at Zarubezhneft JSC

Keywords: drilling management information system (DMIS), drilling works efficiency improvement, management levels, electronic database, program blocks, technical and economical drilling indicators

Russias oil and gas industry is living through a tough time experiencing a significant drop in oil price and sanctions imposed against it. Therefore, a focus on expenditures optimization and performance quality enhancement is of particular importance. Zarubezhneft has solved its objective to enhance the drilling performance through creation of the drilling management information system (DMIS).

This paper describes formation of a single information space and tools for the well construction design, control and management at all management levels of the Zarubezhneft Group by means of introducing the DMIS. It also specifies issues that the company had at the moment of taking the decision on DMIS introduction. Then it presents an actually build DMIS functional scheme indicating the objectives to be solved at each management level.

Review of the whole complex of DMIS software blocks discovers major technical characteristics and capabilities of this software program. A special attention has been paid to the description of the block called Drilling Remote Monitoring, as it is the programs main informational component ensuring the formation and delivery of the required information from the drilling sites to the management levels. Also this paper describes in detail the capabilities of the analytical blocks that, based on information received from the drilling remote monitoring, allow formation of the required reports on technical and economic indicators for wells, fields, subsidiaries and for Zarubezhneft as a whole.

At the moment of writing this paper, DMIS has been introduced at all drilling facilities of the Zarubezhnefts Russian subsidiaries, as well as at the corporate design institute Giprovostokneft JSC.

There is a plan of its further introduction in the territory of Vietnam, namely, at the joint Russian-Vietnamese company Vietsovpetro.

Summarizing the first results of the DMIS operation at the company allows us to assess its efficiency that was proved by the downward trends in overall drilling rates and the cost per meter indicators. 

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681.518:622.276
D.A. Ivlev (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
Regional forecast for zones of oil inflow from Bazhen-Abalak formation in KhMAO-Yugra region of Russia by machine learning method

Keywords: Bazhen-Abalak formation, machine learning, genetic algorithm, decision tree, rules retrieval, regional forecast for zones of oil inflow

An approach to the regional forecast for zones of oil inflow from Bazhen-Abalak formation has been formalized and tested. The task was to classify the spatial attributes by machine learning through precedents by algorithm of single decision tree with the genetic selection of combination of such attributes. The rules have been retrieved and the factors have been identified which influence the forecast for zones of oil inflow from Bazhen-Abalak formation intervals. The results are shown in the regional forecast scheme with identification of Bazhen-Abalak formation sweet spots in KhMAO-Yugra region of Russia. Such sweet spots can be correlated with perspective zones to get the inflow from the Bazhen-Abalak formation.

References

1. Brekhuntsov A.M., Nesterov I.I. Jr., Nechiporuk L.A., Bituminoznye glinistye otlozheniya

bazhenovskogo gorizonta prioritetnyy strategicheskiy ob"ekt

neftedobychi v Zapadnoy Sibiri (Bituminous clay deposits of Bazhenov horizon

priority strategic facility of oil production in Western Siberia), URL:

http://oilgasjournal.ru/vol_10/brekhuntsov.pdf

2. Breiman L., Friedman J., Olshen R., Stone C., Classification and regression

trees, Wadsworth & Brooks, Pacific Grove, CA, 1984, 368 .

3. Hastie T., Tibshirani R., Friedman J., The elements of statistical learning: data

mining, inference, and prediction, 2009, 739 p.

4. Quinlan R., Programs for machine learning, San Mateo: Morgan Kaufmann,

1993, 302 p.

5. Poli R., Langdon W.B., McPhee N.F., A field guide to genetic programming,

2008, 250 p.

6. Standardized Verification System (SVS) for Long-Range Forecasts (LRF),

New attachment II-9 to the Manual on the GDPS (WMO-No. 485), 2002, V. I,

pp. 1420.


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Technics and technology of oil recovery

622.276.6
A.E. Altunin, A.O. Gordeev, Yu.V. Zemtsov, P.V. Zimin, M.V. Semukhin (TNNC LLC, RF, Tyumen)
Development of an automated matching algorithms geological and technical measures and criteria Well-ranking candidates on the basis of fuzzy sets

Keywords: well interventions, criteria, fuzzy sets

Maintaining the production at mature fields in Western Siberia and the Volga-Ural region, including rolling-out the new technologies is one of the important work areas of Rosneft Oil Company. The quality of the selection technology and the professional skills of experts who form the well interventions program affect the performance of the measures. The current approach to the selection of well interventions is accompanied by a large scope of routine work and requires the use of a wide range of databases and archives. The lack of a single selection method leads to significant time-consuming efforts, the formation of a sub-optimal well interventions program, unsystematic operations, and lack of transparency and subjectivity of the decisions, the complexity of monitoring and control, and missing the expected technical and economic effect.

This paper proposes a fundamentally different approach, which takes the bulk of the routine work, leaving the user with a direct selection of the proposed candidates. The method of selection of well interventions has been proposed allowing, in the automated mode and using a software module, to rank the wells and make recommendations on conducting the well interventions. The authors developed the original sets of geological and technological criteria for the selection of well- candidates for several types of well interventions (BH treatment, remedial cementing, and recompletions). The membership functions have been built for these criteria and their weights have been determined. The algorithm and software module for ranking candidate wells and automated selection of well interventions has been implemented on the basis of fuzzy logic and fuzzy sets theory. In addition, it is possible to assess the most appropriate type of well interventions for a particular well. A preliminary testing of the algorithm, the criteria and the methodologies have been performed on a few selected wells with the actual well interventions. A satisfactory results convergence has been obtained for the well intervention type with the actual successful operations. After that, about 500 wells of one of the oil fields in Western Siberia underwent the experimental test processing. In the process of testing and expert discussion, a list of criteria has been adjusted; the wording of criteria and the range of parameter values have been updated.

The value for the Company is determined by the improved quality of selection and validation of wells-candidates for well intervention, minimized probability of missing data because of the large volume of information, as well as saved time, effort, and resource. The main value for the Company is the increased production, which results from the multiple choice of well interventions ranked by the types and costs. In addition, it gives improved quality of the selection of wells by eliminating the mistakes of inexperienced staff and a reduction in time to prepare management decisions by allowing mass processing of large fields.
References
1. Baykov V.A., Badykov I.Kh., Timonov A.V. et al., Digital experimentation
reservoir laboratory (In Russ.), Nauchno-Tekhnicheskiy Vestnik OAO NK Rosneft',
2012, no. 3, pp. 4347.
2. Galiullin M.M., Zimin P.V., Vasil'ev V.V., Methodology selection of wells for
stimulation of the production usage mathematical tools fuzzy logic (In Russ.),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 120123.
3. Galiullin M.M., Shabarov A.B., Application of the fuzzy sets theory for selection
of wells with a view to wellwork on oil fields (In Russ.), Vestnik Tyumenskogo
gosudarstvennogo universiteta = Tyumen State University Herald, 2011,
no. 7, pp. 3037.
4. Perminov D.E., Valeev S.V., Cluster analysis using elements of fuzzy logic to
automatically search for geological and technical operations candidates
(In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik OAO NK Rosneft', 2013, no. 1,
pp. 35.
5. Strikun S.M., Grachev S.I., Mayer S.V., Increasing efficiency of hydrodinamic
simulator Tecscheme application for planning of geological-technical activities
(In Russ.), Territoriya NEFTEGAZ, 2013, no. 8, pp. 62-66.
6. Akhmedov K.S., Arshinova N.M., Semenyak A.A., Information system for
planning and evaluation of geological and technical measures on the well
stock of Gazprom OJSC (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry
of Russia, 2012, no. 7, pp. 5155.
7. Zadeh L.A., The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate
reasoning, Information Sciences, 1975-1976.
8. Altunin A.E. Semukhin M.V., Raschety v usloviyakh riska i neopredelennosti v
neftegazovykh tekhnologiyakh (Calculations under risk and uncertainty in oil
and gas technology), Tyumen': Publ. of TSU, 2005, 220 p.

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622.276.8:543.422.25
D.L. Melnikova, O.I. Gnezdilov, V.D. Skirda (Kazan Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Application of PFG NMR in spectral resolution mode to study water-oil emulsions

Keywords: emulsion, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), diffusion, pulsed field gradient (PFG)
The main purpose of current work is the detailed investigation of the opportunities of modern PFG NMR methods for studying the dynamic and structural properties of emulsions. As the example of emulsion for this study, the sample of direct emulsion MC-90, which contains 8, 90 and 2 % of oil, water and surfactant (SAS) respectively, has been created. The molecular composition of this mixture is similar to the composition of direct water-oil emulsion, which allows to use obtained results on real water-oil emulsions. To determine nuclear magnetic relaxation times 2D relaxometry methods have been used. It has been defined, that all molecular components have similar values of corresponding relaxation times (T1/T2~1). Thereby, all components satisfy the high-temperature approximation, i.e. have small correlation times of molecular motion. In particular, it has been found, that the equal diffusion coefficients for surfactant and water components - is the necessary and sufficient condition for existence of direct emulsion in the system. At the same time, by PFG NMR in spectral resolution mode it has been shown, that the feature of the investigated emulsion structure is a bimodal size distribution of dispersed in water oil-SAS formations. These results demonstrate the unique capabilities of PFG NMR for studies of complex disperse molecular structures, which include water-oil emulsions.
References
1. Nebogina N.A., Prozorova I.V., Yudina N.V., Research of emulsion formation
and precipitation in highly paraffinaceous oils (In Russ.), Oil&Gas Journal,
2008, no. 6, pp. 9497.
2. Gamal M. E., Mohamed A.-M.O., Zekri A.Y., Effect of asphaltene, carbonate,
and clay mineral contents on water cut determination in water oil
emulsions, J. Petrol. Sci. Eng., 2005, V. 46, no. 3, pp. 109224.
3. Zimon A.D., Leshchenko N.F., Kolloidnaya khimiya (Colloid chemistry),
Moscow: AGAR Publ., 2001, 320 p.
4. Levchenko D.N., Begshteyn N.V., Nikolaeva N.M., Tekhnologiya obessolivaniya
na nefteperabatyvayushchikh predpriyatiyakh (Desalination technology
in oil refineries), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1985, 168 p.
5. Panteleeva A.R., Lodochnikov V.G., Popov K.A. et al., Implementation of
reagent Reapon-IK for in-tube demulsification and separator oil conditioning
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 3, pp. 9395.
6. Chizhik V.I., Yadernaya magnitnaya relaksatsiya (Nuclear magnetic relaxation),
St.Petersburg: Publ. of St. Petersburg University, 2004, 388 p.
7. Farrar T.C., Becker E.D., Pulse and Fourier Transform NMR, Acad. Press, 1971.
8. Song Yu-Q., Venkataramanan L., Hurlimann M.D. et al., T1-T2 correlation
spectra obtained using a fast two-dimensional Laplace inversion, Magn.
Reson. J., 2002, no. 154, pp. 261268.
9. Peemoeller H., Shenoy R.K., Pintar M.M., Two-dimensional time evolution
correlation spectroscopy in wet lysozyme, J. Magn. Reson., 1981, no. 45,
193 p.
10. Skirda V.D., Maklakov A.I., Pimenov G.G. et al., Development gradient
NMR in studies of st ructure and dynamics of complex molecular systems
(In Russ.), Struktura i dinamika molekulyarnykh sistem, 2008, no. 2, pp. 16.
11. Maklakov A.I., Skirda V.D., Fatkullin N.F., Samodiffuziya v rastvorakh i rasplavakh
polimerov (Self-diffusion in solutions and polymer melts), Kazan': Publ.
of KSU, 1987, 224 p.
12. Arkhipov R.V., Kosarev V.E., Nurgaliev D.K. et al., Features of coupling between
rheological properties of oil and natural bitumen and the self-diffusion
data obtained by NMR method (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,
2013, no. 6, pp. 6063.
13. Skirda V.D., Arkhipov R.V., Shkalikov N.V., Metodika opredeleniya opredelenie
massovoy doli vody i lineynykh razmerov kapel' vody v syrykh neftyakh i
vodno-neftyanykh emul'siyakh (Methods determination of mass fraction of
the water and the linear dimensions of the water droplets in crude oil and
water-oil emulsions), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2011, 11 p.
14. Pretsch E., Bhlmann P., Badertscher M., Structure determination of organic
compounds - Tables of spectral data, Softcover, 2009, 491 p.
15. Khaliullina A.V., Filippov A.V., Issledovanie samodiffuzii belkov v rastvore
metodom YaMR (The study of self-diffusion of proteins in solution by NMR),
Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 2013, 47 p.

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The oil-field equipment

622.276.53.054.23:621.67-83
V.S. Verbitsky, K.A. Goridko, A.E. Fedorov, A.N. Drozdov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas (National Research University), RF, Moscow)
Experimental studies of electric submersible pump performance with ejector at pump inlet when liquid-gas mixture delivering

Keywords: electric submersible pump (ESP), liquid-gas ejector (LGE), liquid-gas mixture (GLM)

For improving of the efficiency of multi-stage centrifugal pumps (ESPs) in the presence of free gas at the intake different technologies and design techniques are used: the appltcation of dispersants, gas separators, tapered pumps, impellers of special designs, pump-ejector systems and other methods, one of which is the installation of the ejector in the ESP inlet.

In this paper we investigated regularities of ESP operation with an upstream gas-liquid ejector (LGE) on the gas-liquid mixtures (GLM) water gas low foaming ability, simulating the conditions of watered oil and gas wells. The bench facility and the method of research were created, which allow to obtain the characteristics of submersible multistage centrifugal pumps on GLM, depending not only on the gas content, the pressure at the entrance, the pump operation mode, but also on the dispersion of the mixture in a wide range of regime parameters. For the first time the ESP characteristics were received which depending on the dispersion of the GLM created using LGE, in a wide range of heads and delivery rates. The research of ESP characteristics with upstream ejector at low foaming liquid mixture water gas, to show the influence of various parameters and design LGE at the pump, were performed. With increasing pressure at the entrance to the pump effect of the gas on ESP performance decreases, and with an increase in gas content and the average diameter of the bubbles above a certain values - increases. The pump characteristics on GLM bent down in the left side. It was found that the strongest influence on the size of the bubbles has a gas content of the mixture. With its increase an average diameter of the bubbles is growing and this kind of dependence is determined by the layout of the flow part of LGE. Increased pressure has a positive effect on the dispersion of GLM, the average size of the bubbles is reduced, the stability of the dispersion system is increased. The deterioration of pressure-capacity parameters of ESP operation is enhanced by increasing the average diameter of the bubbles over 0.9-1.2 mm.
References
1. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami
v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (The technology and technique of oil production
by submergible pumps in the complicated conditions: Teaching aid for universities),
Moscow: MAKS press Publ., 2008, 312 p.
2. Drozdov A.N., Razrabotka metodiki rascheta kharakteristiki pogruzhnogo
tsentrobezhnogo nasosa pri ekspluatatsii skvazhin s nizkimi davleniyami u
vkhoda v nasos (Development of methodology for calculating the characteristics
of submersible centrifugal pump during operation of wells with low
pressure at the entrance to the pump): thesis of candidate of technical science,
Moscow, 1982.

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622.276.5.05.002.56
O.V. Muravieva, V.A. Strizhak, D.V. Zlobin, S.A. Murashov, A.V. Pryakhin, Yu.V. Myshkin (Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, RF, Izhevsk)
Acoustic guided wave testing of downhole pumping equipment elements

Keywords: pump-compressor tubes, pump rods, defects, acoustic guided wave testing

The article presents approaches to development of acoustic guided wave technology for rod blanks, pump rods and oil well tubing non-destructive testing and the results of industrial application of ADNSH and ADNKT defect detector developed at manufacturer companies and downhole pumping equipment elements service workshops.

The acoustic defect detector ADNSH designed for rod blanks and pump rods testing uses the pulse-echo method allowing to detect large local defects like dints, corrosion damage, overlaps, rolling skins. The acoustic defect detector ADNKT designed for pump-compressor pipes testing additionally uses the multiple reflection method based on receiving the echo-pulses multiply (510 times) reflected fr om external and internal defects and opposite ends of a pipe. The multiple reflections method allows to identify both local and extended along the pipe defects, improves the sensitivity to small-sized defects and decreases the uncontrollable dead-zone at the pipe end from wh ere the acoustic signal is radiated, whereby the testing is carried out only from one end of the pipe.

The industrial implementation of new acoustic guided wave testing technologies applied to pump rods and pump-compressor pipes makes it possible to eliminate the operation admission for elements with a reduced service life and to increase the service life of downhole pumping equipment; to extend the wells operation overhaul period due to the reduction in the number of underground repairs caused by pump rod breakages and pump-compressor pipe depressurizations; to get the increase in oil production by reducing the equipment downtimes and number of underground repairs; to raise the level of industrial and environmental safety in the enterprise.

The technology for acoustic guided wave testing of extended objects developed offers the following advantages: it doesnt need the scanning procedure, the use of contact or immersion fluids and the tested object surface preparation; it has an excellent productivity; its sensitivity to defects is high enough regardless of their bedding depth and distance from the transducer; it allows to identify the most dangerous defects affecting the cyclic durability of pump rods and pump-compressor pipes.
References
1. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy V.M., On operational efficiency of sucker rods
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1, pp. 9497.
2. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy K.V., Gavrilov V.V. et al., Results of complex tests of
pumping rods technical diagnostic tools in Tatneft OAO from the point of view
of quality of the system of maintenance service and their practical importance
(In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 4, pp. 9498.
3. Proskurkin E.V., Petrov I.V., Zhuravlev A.Yu. et al., The ways of improvement
of operational reliability and extension of service life of threaded joints in oilcountry
tubes (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 1,
pp. 102104.
4. Grakhantsev N.M. Kanyuk O.P., Nagaev R.F., Evaluation of technical risks
and improving the reliability of oilfield equipment and oil transportation systems
of Belkamneft (In Russ.), Promyshlennaya i ekologicheskaya bezopasnost',
okhrana truda, 2007, no. 7(9), pp. 5256.
5. Bykov I.Yu., Yushin E.S., Stand for tests of tubing thread connections at
screwing and unscrewing in corrosive and abrasive environments (In Russ .),
Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 8, pp. 9899.
6. Younho Cho, Model-Based guided wave NDE: The evolution of guided
wave NDE from Magic to Physically Based Engineering Tool, J. Nondestruct.
Eval., 2012, V. 31, no. 4, pp. 324338.
7. Alleyne D.N., Vogt T., Cawley P., The choice of torsional or longitudinal excitation
in guided wave pipe inspection, Insight, 2009, V. 51, no. 7, pp. 373377.
8. Budenkov G.A., Nedzvetskaya O.V., Lebedeva T.N., Technology for defect
detection in equipment in metal and petroleum-producing industries
(In Russ.), Tyazheloe mashinostroenie, 2004, no. 11, pp. 1823.
9. Budenkov G.A., Korobeynikova O.V., Kokorin N.A., Strizhak V.A., Experience
of acceptance acoustic control and hardening of sucker rods during servicing
(In Russ.), V mire nerazrushayushchego kontrolya, 2007, no. 4, pp. 1419.
10. Murav'eva O.V., Strizhak V.A., Zlobin D.V. et al., Technology of acoustic
waveguide inspection of pumping and compression pipes (In Russ.), V mire
nerazrushayushchego kontrolya, 2014, no. 4, pp. 5156.
11. Budenkov G.A., Nedzvetskaya O.V., Principal regularities of Pochhammerwave
interaction with defects (In Russ.), Defektoskopiya = Russian Journal of
Nondest ructive Testing, 2004, no. 2, pp. 3346.
12. Murav'eva O.V., Zlobin D.V., The acoustic path in the method of multiple
reflections during nondestructive testing of linearly extended objects
(In Russ.), Defektoskopiya = Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, 2013,
no. 2, pp. 4351.
13. Murav'eva O.V., Murashov S.A., Use of torsional waves for detection of operational
defects in pump rods and tubing (In Russ.), Vestnik Izhevskogo gosudarstvennogo
tekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2011, no. 2, pp. 149154.
14. Ibragimov N.G., Development of methods of column NKT protection from
asphalt-tar-paraffin sediments on Tatarstan fields (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 6, pp. 110112.
15. Gus'kova I.A., Gil'manova D.R., Analysis of the application of mechanical
methods to control asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits in Tatneft (In Russ.), Geologiya,
geografiya i global'naya energiya, 2010, no. 2(37), pp. 160162.

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Transport and oil preparation

622.276.8
S.V. Panteleev, A.S. Khoroshev (Giprovostokneft JSC, RF, Samara), V.I. Falovsky (Samara State Technical University, RF, Samaha)
The use of mobile metering station and formation fluid test unit for translation of produced volume of unstable condensate to stable condensate volume

Keywords: mobile metering station, formation fluid test station, gas condensate production, unstable condensate quantity, translation of produced unstable condensate volume to stable condensate volume, severance tax, unstable condensate shrinkage volume factor

When gas condensate and oil come from wells into field gathering system it is difficult to obtain reliable data on the volume of stable condensate and oil because direct measurement of stable condensate volume is impossible. It is necessary to know exact volume of gas condensate so that severance tax could be applied to condensate, not to oil.

To resolve the problem, unstable condensate volume change test was developed. Amount of unstable condensate is measured at wellhead by mobile test separator. The work included three stages: field tests; laboratory tests of gas and unstable condensate samples; systematization and generalization of materials obtained during first two stages. It was discovered that shrinkage factor is related to well parameters. The relationship was established empirically. For better correlation of field tests and laboratory test of different well samples, results were adjusted using correction system. Adjustments and statistical analysis of test results were embodied in the analytical form. Obtained materials help evaluate the difference of gas amount in unstable condensate calculated by formula, and actual gas amount discovered in samples from mobile test separator. Correlation was found between experimental data and test results of field laboratory. This will allow the use of mobile test separator to establish shrinkage volume factors for all producing wells.
References
1. Gritsenko A.I., Aliev Z.S., Ermilov O.M. et al., Rukovodstvo po issledovaniyu
skvazhin (Guidance on the study of wells), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1995, 523 p.
2. Stepanova G.S., Fazovye prevrashcheniya uglevodorodnykh smesey
gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy (Phase transformations of hydrocarbon
mixtures of gas condensate fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1974, 224 p.
3. Namiot A.Yu., Fazovye ravnovesiya v dobyche nefti (Phase equilibria in oil
production), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1976, 183 p.
4. Brusilovskiy A.I., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy
nefti i gaza (Phase transformations in the development of oil and gas fields),
Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2002, 575 p.
5. Katz D.L., Cornell D., Kobayashi R., Poettmann F.H., Vary J.A., Elenbaas J.R.,
Weinaug C.F., Properties of natural gases and volatile hydrocarbon liquids, In:
Handbook of natural gas engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959.
6. Zaydel' A.N., Oshibki izmereniy fizicheskikh velichin (Measurement errors of
physical quantities), Leningrad: Nauka Publ., 1974, 108 p.

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Power supply

622.276.012:621.311
B.N. Abramovich, Y.A. Sychev (Saint-Petersburg Mining University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Energy safety of technological processes of oil extraction

Keywords: energy safety, energy saving, energy efficiency, power supply system, quality, reliability, energy costs, oil production

The article is devoted to the problem of complex ensuring of energy safety of oil production enterprises. The basic technical requirements for energy safety ensuring at oil production enterprises are given. The main factors, which influence on energy safety level at power supply of oil production enterprises, are detected.  The evaluation of energy safety level should be provided on the base of the analysis of positive and negative influence of factors, which presence is caused by the effects, occurring in power systems of different structure, and by means of modern information technologies of monitoring and control. The necessity of centralized power supply systems reliability improving for energy safety ensuring is proved. The most sensitive to short-time power supply interruptions oil production consumers are detected. The results of experimental researches of reliability and power quality factors at oil production enterprises are presented. The main technical devices and decisions for rising of energy safety level, which may be recommended for application in power supply systems of oil production enterprises, are detected. Among the detected technical devices and decisions the key role plays dynamic voltage restorers, fast devices of multistage automatic reserve input, active and hybrid correction systems of voltage and current value and harmonic spectrum. The possibility and reasonability of complex application of distributed generation systems on the base of alternative and renewable energy sources for energy safety level improvement of oil production technological objects is proved. The method of complex evaluation of oil production losses or oil production level decreasing, caused by power supply malfunctions is created. The results of theoretical and experimental researches for energy safety level improvement are effectively applied in the set of leading oil production enterprises.

 References

1. Short T.A., Distribution reliability and power quality, Taylor & Francis Group,

2006, 269 p.

2. Abramovich B.N., Sychev Yu.A., Medvedev A.V., Starostin V.V., Abolemov

E.N., Polishchuk V.V., Power factor correction by means of active filter in

networks of oil and gas enterprises (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry,

2008, no. 5, pp. 88-90.

3. Abramovich B.N., Sychev Yu.A., Burchevskiy V.A., Vyrva A.A., Ul'baev R.A.,

Polishchuk V.V., The shunt active filters implementation for power quality increasing

in electrical networks of Priobskoye deposit (In Russ.), Neftyanoe

khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 6, pp. 130-132.

4. Abramovich B.N., Ustinov D.A., Polyakov V.E., Dynamic stability of operating

modes electrocentrifugal pumps installations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo

= Oil Industry, 2010, no. 9, pp. 104-106.

5. Bollen M.H. J., Yu-Hua Gu I., Signal processing of power quality disturbances,

John Wiley & Sons, 2006, 882 p.

6. Ovseychuk V.A., The reliability and quality of electricity supply to consumers.

Justification of rationing (In Russ.), Novosti elektrotekhniki = Electrical

Engineering News, 2013, no. 3(81), pp. 50-53.

7. Zhukovskiy Yu.L., Increased reliability of mining enterprises power supply by

sectioning through connections 6-10 kV using reclosers (In Russ.), Gornoe

oborudovanie i elektromekhanika, 2006, no. 6, pp. 25-28.

8. Gamazin S.I., Pupin V.M., Zelepugin R.V., Sabitov A.R., Current methods of increasing

the reliability of electric supply of the customer with a voltage of 10,

6, and 0.4 kV (In Russ.), Promyshlennaya energet ika, 2008, no. 8, pp. 20-23.

9. Sumper A., Baggini A., Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications,

John Wiley & Sons, 2012, 420 p.

10. Abramovich B.N., Ustinov D.A., Sychev Yu.A., Shklyarskiy A.Ya., The methods

of voltage dips and distortion compensation in electrical networks of oil

production enterprises (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014,

no. 8, pp. 110-112.

11. Gamazin S.I., Kudrin B.I., Tsyruk S.A., Spravochnik po energosnabzheniyu i

elektrooborudovaniyu promyshlennykh predpriyatiy i obshchestvennykh

zdaniy (Handbook of energy supply and electric equipment of industrial enterprises

and public buildings), Moscow: Publ. of Moscow Power Engineering

Institute, 2010, 748 p.

12. Polyakov V.E., Sistema garantirovannogo elektrosnabzheniya energeticheskikh

ob"ektov syr'evogo kompleksa (System of uninterruptible power supply

of raw complex power objects), Proceedings of IX International conference

Novye idei v naukakh o Zemle (New Ideas in Earth Sciences), Moscow:

Publ. of RGGRU, 2009, p. 248.

13. Grainger J.J., Stevenson W.D., Power system analysis, McGraw-Hill, Inc.,

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Ecological and industrial safety

502.36:622.276
N.V. Pakhomova, A.V. Khoroshavin (Saint-Petersburg State University, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
New environmental management tools of ISO 14001:2015 as a factor of oil and gas Russian enterprises sustainable development

Keywords: environmental management system, sustainable development, ISO 14001:2015, life cycle assessment, risk management

The article analyzes the new requirements and guidelines of the international standard ISO 14001 version 2015 for environmental management systems in the context of sustainable business development with emphasis on its environmental component. The authors studied the experience a number of Russian oil and gas companies in the implementation of the programs and the principles of sustainable development, as well as related issues, the elimination of which should be in the focus of attention of business and regulators in the transition period for the implementation of the standard. Among them we considered the specificity of national environmental legislation, lack of development of environmental infrastructure, a significant depreciation of fixed assets environmental protection, requiring a significant investment in the transition to the best available technology (BAT). The authors analyze the implementation of new environmental management tools introduced ISO 14001: 2015, including the following: the process approach to management, the analysis of the context of the organization and stakeholders requirements, risk analysis in management, life cycle management of products / services, the introduction of environmental performance indicators, management leadership. Special attention is paid to strengthening the complexity in the management of sustainable development of the organization by bringing in a uniform manner and 'baseline' maintenance systems for environmental and energy management, as well as quality and safety control.

A new generation of environmental management tools intended to support the implementation of the strategic objectives of enterprises, enhance their competitiveness and sustainable development in a changing macro and microenvironments and more stringent requirements of stakeholders.
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approaches to solving environmental problems (In Russ.), Ekologiya
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