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January 2015




Geology and geologo-prospecting works


L.A. Anisimov, I.B. Fedotov (VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Volgograd, RF, Volgograd), S.V. Deliya (LUKOIL-Nizhnevolzhskneft LLC, RF, Astrakhan), O.I. Kuzilov (LUKOIL-Kaliningradmorneft LLC, Kaliningrad)
Shale play prospects in European Russia

Key words: shale, oil, gas, resources.

Prospects of the unconventional resources have been considered for the European Russia. Some principal criteria have been proposed for the resource estimation. Shale maturation, enrichment of SiO2 and CaCO3 create fracturing and increase the shale capacity. Shale decompaction is a result of fault tectonics and this process creates the secondary capacity. The program of resource estimation is proposed

References
1. Bochkarev V.A., Suchok S.N., Lashmanov E.V., Geologiya, geofizika i
razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 7, pp. 22-29.
2. Dobrynin V.M., Martynov V.G., Geologiya nefti i gaza – The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1979, no. 7, pp. 36-43.
3. Pedersen J.H., Karlsen D.A., Lie J.E., Brunstad H., Palaeozoic petroleum systems of Southern Scandinavia, Presentation. GEO 2006.
4. Kiipli Tarmo, Einasto Rein, Kallaste Toivo et al., Geochemistry and correlation of volcanic ash beds from the Rootsik¸ la Stage (Wenlock-Ludlow) in the Eastern Baltic, Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, 2011, V. 60, no. 4, pp. 207-219.
5. Valyaev B.M., Collected papers “Degazatsiya Zemli i genezis neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy” (Degassing of the Earth and the genesis of oil and gas fields) (the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician Kropotkin P.N.), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2011, pp. 390- 404.
6. Anisimov L.A., Repey A.M., Roggelin I.Yu., Collected papers “Geologiya i
razrabotka mestorozhdeniy Nizhnego Povolzh'ya i Severnogo Kaspiya” (Geology and field development the Lower Volga and Northern Caspian), Volgograd, 2011, pp. 174-182.
7. Sharafutdinov V.F., Sharafutdinov F.G., Magomedov A.Kh., Geologiya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti oligotsen-nizhnemiotsenovykh otlozheniy Dagestana (Geology and petroleum potential of the Oligocene-Lower Miocene
deposits of Dagestan), Makhachkala: Geolkom RD Publ., 1999, 224 p.
8. Naryzhnyy P.S., Collected papers “Prognozirovanie geologicheskogo
razreza i poisk slozhno ekranirovannykh lovushek” (Prediction of the geological section and search for hard-shielded traps), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1986, pp. 126-130.
9. Vasil'ev Yu.M., Obryadchikov O.S., Perspektivy neftegazonosnosti pliotsenovykh otlozheniy Prikaspiyskoy vpadiny (Petroleum potential of the Pliocene deposits of the Caspian Depression), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Pub., 1962, 180 p.
10. Unconventional gas: Potential Energy Market Impact in the European
Union/A report by the Energy Security Unit of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, European Union, 2012, 324 p. 

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I.S. Putilov, D.V. Potekhin (PermNIPIneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Perm, RF, Perm)
Creating technological polivariation 3D modeling with quality control of the models realization for raising reliability

Key words: collector prognosis, geologic-geophysical model, petroleum reservoir.

The article presents a method of technological polivariation 3D modeling with quality control of models realization. Realization of petroleum reservoir forecast is based on the geologic-geophysical model of the oil field of the Perm territory.
References
1. Certificate of authorship no. 2013610410, Avtorskoe svidetel'stvo ob ofitsial'noy registratsii programmy dlya EVM. Mnogovariantnyy prognoz kollektorov na osnove teorii nechetkikh mnozhestv (Certificate of authorship of official registration of computer software. Multivariate prediction of collectors based on the theory of fuzzy sets), author: Putilov I.S.
2. Putilov I.S., Tekhnologii seysmorazvedki – Seismic Technologies, 2013, no. 1, pp. 59–64.
3. Putilov I.S., Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh
mestorozhdeniy, 2013, no. 3, pp. 33–37.
4. Putilov I.S., Geologiya geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh
mestorozhdeniy, 2012, no. 4, pp. 22–25.
5. Certificate of authorship no. 2013661302, Mnogovariantnoe geologicheskoe 3D modelirovanie s kontrolem kachestva realizatsiy po seysmicheskim dannym (Multivariate 3D geological modeling with quality control of implementations on seismic data), authors: Putilov I.S., Potekhin D.V.
6. Dubrule O., Geostatistics for Seismic Data Integration in Earth Models, Tulsa, Oklahoma: Society of Exploration Geophysicist, 2003. 

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A.R. Kudayarova, M.V. Rykus, N.R. Kondrateva, A.S. Dushin, A.V. Melnikov (BashNIPIneft LLC, RF, Ufa)
Methods of geological and hydrodynamic modeling tournaisian carbonate deposits of Znamenskoye field (the Republic of Bashkortostan)

Key words: carbonate collector, Tournaisian stage, lithological type, petrophysical class, geological and hydrodynamic modeling, reservoir properties.

Carbonate reservoirs of Tournaisian stage are studied, in terms of the links between existing geological heterogeneity and prediction of the wells. The methodology of the study is a detailed study of the geological features of the reservoir formation, comparing them with the data of geophysical, petrophysical studies and comparing the received information with the characteristics of the wells. The main results of the work is the systematization of carbonate reservoirs, the allocation of petrophysical classes and lithotypes, address using petrophysical relationships for each lithology type.

References
1. Lucia F.J., Carbonate reservoir characterization: an integrated approach,
Springer, 2007, 336 p.
2. Tyurikhin A.M., Masagutov R.Kh., Effect of structural-facies conditions and epigenesis on formation the collectors of Kizelovskij horizon of South-Tatar arch (In Russ.), Proceedings of BashNIPIneft', 1997, V. 93, pp. 108-123.
3. Syundyukov A.Z., Litologiya, fatsii i neftegazonosnost' karbonatnykh otlozheniy Zapadnoy Bashkirii (Lithology, facies and oil and gas potential of carbonate sediments of Western Bashkiria), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1975, 174 p.
4. Proshlyakov B.K., Kuznetsov V.G., Litologiya (Lithology), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1991, 444 p. 

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V.I. Galkin, I.A. Kozlova, M.A. Nosov, S.N. Krivoshchekov (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Solutions to regional problems of forecasting oil bearing according to geological and geochemical analysis of dispersed organic matter of Domanic type rocks

Key words: geochemical parameters, disseminated organic matter, bitumens, probabilistic model, the generation, accumulation, Domanic stratum , the forecast oil and gas potential.

The paper based on the study of geochemical parameters of dispersed organic matter of Domaniс type rocks. Processes of hydrocarbons accumulation are modelled and the complex probabilistic criterion is obtained for oil potential in the Paleozoic sediments. For various tectonic elements in Perm region authors estimated the ratio of hydrocarbons generation and accumulation for each horizon of studied strata. A regional scheme of oil and gas prospects is constructed.
References
1. Voevodkin V.L., Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Krivoshchekov S.N., Kozlov A.S., Hydrocarbons migration volumes within the limits of Solikamsk Depression (Pre- Ural Deflection) and possibilities of its use for the oil and gas content forecast (In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2010, no. 12, pp. 6-11.
2. Kozlova I.A., Galkin V.I., Krivoshchekov S.N., Study of specific markers of the generation and migration of hydrocarbons Riphean-Vendian strata in Perm region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 12, pp. 88-90.
3. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kochnev A.A., Sannikov I.V., Oil and gas prospects of Domanic sediments in Perm krai (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 18-26.
4. Kozlova I.A., Galkin V.I., Vantseva I.V., Evaluation of petroleum potential of Solikamsk Depression based on geological and geochemical characteristics
of oil and gas source rocks (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2010, no. 7,
pp. 20-23.
5. Krivoshchekov S.N., Kozlova I.A., Sannikov I.V., Estimate of the petroleum potential of the western Solikamsk depression based on geochemical and geodynamic data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 6, pp. 12-15.
6. Galkin V.I., Kozlova I.A., Melkishev O.A., Shadrina M.A., Geochemical indicators of dispersed organic matter (DOM) of rocks as criteria of hydrocarbon potential evaluation (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2013, no. 9, pp. 28- 31.
7. Kozlova I.A., Krivoshchekov S.N., Zykova L.Yu. et al., Geological and geochemical assessment of oil and gas in the Upper Proterozoic possibility sediments in the Perm Region (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 5, pp. 55-59.

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E.A. Korolev, V.P. Morozov, A.N. Kolchugin, A.A. Eskin, E.M. Nurieva (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Changing of carbonate reservoir rocks on the final phase evolution petroleum geofluid systems

Key words: Tournaisian stage, oil, reservoir rocks, oil-water zones.

The authors studied conditions of changing carbonate reservoir rocks of Tournaisian stage in phase of water-flooding of oil reservoirs. We studied the sequence of changes in the pore volume in the limestone caused by oil oxidation products and identified three stages of change rocks: 1) increase of porosity, caused by activation of dissolution processes in mineral skeleton of rocks; 2) formation at the periphery of cavities thin crusts of calcite, which reduces of pore volume; 3) filling of open pore space large grains of calcite. These stages correspond to bitumen, water-bitumen and water subzones in structure of water-oil contact zones. Involvement in the development oxidized parts of oil reservoirs is important direct in oil exploration industry, today. Regularities identified in the work can help to choose methods of impact on the oil reservoir with heavy oil and bitumen.
References
1. Helgeson H.C., Knox A.M., Owens C.E., Shock E.L., Petroleum, oil field waters, and authigenic mineral assemblages. Are they in metastable equilibrium in hydrocarbon reservoirs, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 1993, V. 57(14), pp. 3295–3339.
2. Kolchugin A.N., Morozov V.P., Korolev E.A., Diagenesis of carboniferous carbonate rocks reservoirs case study: (Central part of Volga-Ural Basin), World Applied Sciences Journal, 2013, V. 24 (6), pp. 712–718.
3. Belonin M.D., Gol'dberg I.S., Gribkov V.V., Iskritskaya N.I., Improving the efficiency of the integrated development of metalliferous heavy oil and bitumen deposits (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 1990, no. 9, pp. 2–4.
4. Yulbarisov E.M., On enhanced oil recovery the waterflood reservoirs (In
Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1981, no. 3, pp. 36–40.

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R.Kh. Musin, R.Z. Musina (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Heterogeneity of filtration in the upper part of the geologic cross-section in Vostochno-Zakamsky oil region of the Republic of Tatarstan

Key words: oil fields, coefficient of filtration, sandstones, limestones.

In Tatarstan continuous oil mining has caused large scale pollution of underground water in upper part of the geological section. As a result, there is the increasing problem of quality drinking water supply in many settlements. In this connection, we examined the nature and major filtration heterogeneity Nizhnekazanskogo aquifer. This is the most productive part of the section on underground water for drinking water.Comprehensive review of a variety of data allowed us to establish five main factors: geological, structural, hypsometric, geomorphological and facial. Their combination forms an increased filtration background of rocks. First of all, results allow to choose optimal position of the new water wells and rational planning and exploration work for the underground drinking water.
References
1. Geologiya i razrabotka krupneyshikh i unikal'nykh neftyanykh i neftegazovykh
mestorozhdeniy Rossii (Geology and development of large and
unique oil and gas fields in Russia): edited by Gavura N.N., Part 1, Moscow:
Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1996, 281 p.
2. Gidrogeoekologicheskie issledovaniya v neftedobyvayushchikh rayonakh
Respubliki Tatarstan (Hydrogeoecological research in oil-producing areas of
the Republic of Tatarstan): edited by Korotkov A.I., Uchaev V.K., Kazan': Publ. of Reper NPO, 2007, 300 p.
3. Musin R.Kh., On hydrogeoecological features and problems of Tatarstan oil province (In Russ.), Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Geologiya i
razvedka, 2012, no. 2, pp. 48–53.
4. Gosudarstvennyy doklad o sostoyanii prirodnykh resursov i ob okhrane
okruzhayushchey sredy Respubliki Tatarstan v 2005 g. (Public report on the state of natural resources and environmental protection of the Republic of Tatarstan in 2005): edited by Torsuev N.P., Kazan': Publ. of MENR of RT, 2006, 494 p.
5. Geologiya Tatarstana: Stratigrafiya i tektonika (Geology of Tatarstan: Stratigraphy and tectonics): edited by Burov B.V., Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2003, 402 p.
6. Voytovich E. D., Gatiyatullin N. S., Tektonika Tatarstana (The tectonics of
Tatarstan), Kazan': Publ. of KSU, 1998, 140 p.
7. Belousov V.V., Osnovy geotektoniki (Fundamentals of geotectonics),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1989, 382 p.

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O.I. Kataev, I.A. Larochkina (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), K.S. Reytyukhov (RITEK JSC, RF, Moscow)
Topical issues of the search for new oil fields in the Volga-Ural province

Key words: the Riphean-Vendian complex, Oilgasbeuring, Trap, Channels, seismic exploration.

Volga-Ural oil and gas province is characterized by late-stage development of mineral resources, but to date has a significant reserve of planned and prospective oil resources. From the number of the license areas of Tatarstan, Udmurtia and the Samara region shows that as a result of detailed seismic survey and drilling exploratory wells in recent years has successfully opened oil fields controlled by intraformational system Kama-Kinel troughs. These deposits are generally characterized by a buried mode of occurrence in the traps of different genetic types. The use of attribute analysis to interpret the boundaries of karst erosion Visean-cuttings for the optimum placement of exploratory wells productive Bobrikovian shown in a section of the Samara region. Raw materials, the results of exploration work in recent years in the central part of the Volga-Ural province, geological conditions indicate the need for detailed geological research area in order to identify new deposits and growth of hydrocarbon reserves.
References
1. Varlamov A.I., Afanasenkov A.P., Pyr'ev V.I. et al., Osnovnye zadachi po
vosproizvodstvu uglevodorodnogo syr'ya i prioritetnye napravleniya GRR v sisteme Rosnedr (The main tasks for reproduction hydrocarbon raw materials
and priority directions of exploration in the Rosnedr system), All-Russian conference “Metodicheskie problemy geologorazvedochnykh i nauchno-issledovatel'skikh rabot v neftegazovoy otrasli” (Methodological problems of exploration and research works in the oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nauka
Publ., 2013.
2. Sitchikhin O.V., Structure and oil-and-gas content of the riphean rocks of the North-East part of Volga-and-Ural sedimentary basin (Perm Kray) (In Russ.), http://scilance.com/gotourl url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ogbus.ru%2Fauthors% 2FSitchikhin%2FSitchikhin_1.pdf
3. Larochkina I.A., Kontseptsiya sistemnogo geologicheskogo analiza pri
poiskakh i razvedke mestorozhdeniy nefti na territorii Tatarstana (The concept
of systemic geological analysis in prospecting and exploration of oil fields in
Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2013, 232 p.
4. Larochkina I.A., Dokuchaeva N.A., Sukhova V.A. et al., Evolyutsiya, osobennosti tektonicheskogo stroeniya i predposylki neftegazonosnosti rifeyskovendskogo i paleozoyskogo osadochnykh kompleksov v Kamsko-Bel'skom avlakogene na territorii Tatarstana (Evolution, features of the tectonic structure and prerequisites for oil and gas potential of Riphean-Vendian and Paleozoic sedimentary complexes in the Kama-Belaya aulacogen in Tatarstan), Kazan': Fen Publ., 2013, 136 p.

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Drilling of chinks


V.A. Shmelev, A.I. Sukharkov (VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC in Volgograd, RF, Volgograd)
Cost reduction for oil well construction by means of use of drilling rigs

Key words: well life cycle, complex of function of the drilling rig, drilling rig functional structure, structure-function and cost analysis.

The issues of optimal functional structure for drilling rigs used at the oil wells construction have been covered upon in the paper. One of the main principles for drilling equipment selection is minimization of production cost and reduction of wells construction time cycle. Determination of correlation between mining and geological conditions of oil wells drilling and technical and economic parameters of drilling rigs allows to optimize their use in accordance with the minimization criterion of production cost.
References
1. Safronov A.F., Goloskokov A.N., Burenie i neft', 2010, no. 12, pp. 48-51.
2. Arutyunov V.S., Promyshlennye vedomosti, 2006, no. 1-2, p. 3.
3. Kudinov V.I., Savel'ev V.A., Bogomol'nyy E.I. et al., Stroitel'stvo gorizontal'nykh skvazhin (Construction of horizontal wells), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2007, 688 p.
4. Shmelev V.A., Serdobintsev Yu.P., Stroitel'stvo neftyanykh i gazovykh
skvazhin na sushe i na more, 2012, no. 1, pp. 4-9.
5. Shmelev V.A., Serdobintsev Y.P., Decision support system for the selection of drilling rigs, World Oil, 2011, V. 232, URL: http://208.88.130.69/October-2011- Decision-support-system-for-the-selection-of drilling-rigs.html
6. Marca D.A., McGowan C.L., SADT Structured analysis and design technique, McGraw-Hill, 1988.
7. Okulesskiy V.A., Funktsional'noe modelirovanie – metodologicheskaya osnova realizatsii protsessnogo podkhoda (Func tional modeling - methodological basis for the implementation of process approach), Moscow: Publ. of NITs CALS-tekhnologiy, 2001, 156 p.

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Yu.A. Kashnikov, S.G. Ashihmin, D.V. Shustov, S.E. Chernyshov (Perm National Research Polytechnical University, RF, Perm)
Evaluation of borehole stability with lack of reliable information about geomechanical characteristics of rocks

Keywords: geomechanics, well, geomechanical modeling, method of final elements, stability.

Results of modeling stability of controlled directional wells borehole drilled through the unstable beds with lack of reliable information about geomechanical characteristics of rocks are presented. The program complex in which is realized the elasto-plastic transversal-isotropic medium with Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion and taking into account possibility of shifts by bedding was used.

References
1. Bulychev N.S., Mekhanika podzemnykh sooruzheniy (Mechanics of underground constructions), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1982, 270 p.
2. Zoback M., Reservoir geomechanics, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
3. Morales R.H., Marcinew R.P., Fracturing of high-permeability formations:
mechanical properties correlations, SPE 26561, 1993.
4. Fjær E., Holt R.M., Horsrud P. et al., Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, Elsevier, 2008, Part 1, Paris: Editions Technip, 1993, 360 p.
5. Charlez F.R., Rock Mechanics, Petroleum applications, 1997, V. 1, 2.
6. Christensen H.F., Kågeson-Loe N., Plischke B. et al., Impact of the intermediate principal stress on rock strength: polyaxial testing and numerical simulations, Proceeding of North American Rocks Mechanics Symposium, no. 04- 469 Houston, TX, 2004.
7. Plischke В., Kågeson-Loe N., Havmøller O. et al., Analysis of MLW open
hole junction stability, American Rock Mechanics Association, 2004,
ID ARMA-04-454.
8. Kashnikov Yu.A., Ashikhmin S.G., Mekhanika gornykh porod pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya (Rock mechanics in the development of hydrocarbon fields), Moscow: Nedra Biznes-tsentr Publ., 2007, 476 p.
9. Ashikhmin S.G., Kukhtinskiy A.E., Simulation of stress-deformed state of open well (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2014, no. 11, pp. 99–104.

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Shelf development


V.F. Shtyrlin, A.V. Fomkin (VNIIneft OAO, RF, Moscow), V.V. Plynin (Zarubezhneft JSC, RF, Moscow)
The results of SOTGDIS technology implementation for drilling location in the shelf area of Vietnam

Key words: basement, offshore, development, well testing, fracturing
Traditionally, well testing is used to determine flow properties for development targets, to get information about reservoir intervals and various reservoir compartment relationship. In addition, the results of these types of studies are increasingly used for construction of hydrodynamic models, especially structurally complex reservoirs. The method proposed by the authors goes to direct logging of thermohydrodynamic well testing data while developing voids model and filtration flows of fractured reservoirs. Based on the developed model the wells were sel ected and then drilled which proved high production potential for selected sites with initial flow rates of more than 200 tons per day. This proved efficiency of the selected approach and gave an impetus to apply this approach for other development targets.
References
1. Areshev Ye.G., Plynin V.V., Popov O.K., Shtyrlin V.F., Nature of anomalous date in thermohydrodynamic studies of oil wells, Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 3, pp. 41–47.
2. Areshev Ye.G., Plynin V.V., Popov O.K., Shtyrlin V.F. et al., Results of interpreting anomalous data in thermohydrodynamic well studies, Neftyanoe
Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2000, no. 8, pp. 43–46.
3. Areshev Ye.G., Plynin V.V., Shtyrlin V.F., New opportunities for interpreting anomalous data fr om thermo-hydrodynamic well studies, Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2001, no. , pp. 69–72.
4. Plynin V.V., Shtyrlin V.F., Technological development of thermo-hydrodynamic visualization of fractures in the oil-bearing granites (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 5, pp. 78–80.
5. Shtyrlin V.F., Fomkin A.V., Plynin V.V., Termohydrodynamic fracture visualization in comparison with the new 3D seismic data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 6, pp. 36–37.
6. Gorshenev V.S., Shtyrlin V.F., Fomkin A.V., Plynin V.V., New approach to definition of made water-oil contact in oil-bearing granites (In Russ.), Neftyanoe Khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006, no. 6, pp. 44–46.





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Working out and operation of oil deposits


M.M. Khasanov, O.Yu. Melchaeva, A.P. Roshchektaev, O.S. Ushmaev (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Steady-state flow rate of horizontal wells in a line drive pattern

Key words: horizontal wells, field development system selection.

This paper describes a new function to determine the optimal parameters of the field development system with horizontal and fractured vertical wells. Also an expression presented for the estimation of a steady-state flow rate towards horizontal wells in a field development system.
References
1. Borisov Yu.P., Pilatovskiy V.P., Tabakov V.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh i
gazovykh mestorozhdeniy gorizontal'nymi i mnogozaboynymi skvazhinami
(Development of oil and gas fields using horizontal and multilateral wells),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, 320 p.
2. Joshi S.D., Augmentation of well productivity with slant and horizontal wells, SPE 1537, 1988, V. 40, no. 6, pp. 729–739.
3. Renard G, Dupuy J.M., Formation damage effects on horizontal-well flow
efficiency, SPE 19414, 1991, V. 43, no. 7, pp. 768–869.
4. Babu D.K., Odeh A.S., Productivity of horizontal well, SPE 18298, 1989, V. 4, no. 4, pp. 417–421.
5. Suprunowicz R., Butler R.M., The productivity and optimum pattern shape
for horizontal wells arranged in staggered rectangular arrays, Journal of
Canadian petroleum technology, 1992, V. 31, no. 6, pp. 41–46.
6. Kristia N., Podzemnaya gidravlika (Underground hydraulics): translated
from Romanian, Part 2, Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1962, 490 p.

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S.N. Zakirov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow), D.K. Shaikhutdinov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Estimated and actual production rates of horizontal wells

Key words: Dupuis formula, skin-factor, absolute permeability, production rate, formation volume factor, horizontal well.

This paper discusses the reasons for discrepancy between production rates of horizontal wells calculated by analytic formulas and actual well rates from the Romashkino field. It has been found that analytical formulas derived on the basis of total pore volume concept based on absolute gas permeabilities do not consider formation volume and skin factors. Randomly assumed dimensions of a specific drainage volume model affect simulated results. Besides, analytic formulas do not consider reservoir heterogeneity and transient fluid flow observed after putting a well on stream. Therefore, such formulas should be used mainly for qualitative evaluation. The authors recommend using 3D sector or full-field reservoir models to predict horizontal well rates.
References
1. Grigoryan A.M., Vskrytie plastov mnogozaboynymi i gorizontal'nymi
skvazhinami (Drilling-in using horizontal and multilateral wells), Moscow:
Nedra Publ., 1969, 190 p.
2. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidromekhanika (The Underground hydromechanics), Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1948, 196 p.
3. Polubarinova-Kochina P.Ya., About directional and horizontal wells of finite length (In Russ.), Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika, 1956, V. 20, no. 6, pp. 95–108.
4. Tabakov V.P., Determination of flow rate and the effectiveness of multilateral wells in layered reservoir (In Russ.), Proceedings of VNII, Moscow: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1960, V. 10, pp. 47–50.
5. Borisov Yu.P., Pilatovskiy V.P., Tabakov V.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh
mestorozhdeniy gorizontal'nymi i mnogozaboynymi skvazhinami (Development of oil fields using horizontal and multilateral wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1964, 154 p.
6. Bady W.J., Odeh A.S., Productivity of horizontal well, SPERE, 1989, Nov.,
pp. 417–421.
7. Besson J., Performance of slanted and horizontal wells on an anisotropic
medium, Paper presented at European Petroleum Conference, 21-24 October,
The Hague, Netherlands, Oct. 22-24, 1990 (SPE-20965-MS).
8. Joshi S.D., Horizontal well technology, Tulsa, PennWell Books, 1991, 533 p.
9. Khakimzyanov I.N., Teoriya i praktika razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy skvazhinami s gorizontal'nym okonchaniem (Theory and practice of oil field development using horizontal wells): Thesis of doctor of technical science, Bugul'ma: TatNIPINeft', 2012.
10. Zakirov S.N. et al., Novye printsipy i tekhnologii razrabotki mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (New principles and technologies of development the oil and gas fields), Part 2, Moscow – Izhevsk: Publ. of Institute of Computer Science, 2009, 484 p.
11. Ibatullin R.R., Salimov V.G., Nasybullin A.V., Salimov O.V., Estimating productivity of horisontal wells with longitudinal hydraulic fractures, Hydraulic Fracturing Quarterly, 2014, V. 1, no. 1, pp. 79–83.

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T.S. Yushchenko, A.I. Brusilovsky (Gazpromneft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Effective method for creating and adapting PVT-model of reservoir fluid of gas-condensate deposits and gas cap for oil-gas-condensate reservoirs

Key words: reservoir gas condensate mixture, pVT-model, equation-of-state, gas-oil ratio, z-factor, CVD process.

The article is considering a new engineering method for creating PVT-models of natural gas condensate mixtures. The method can be applied for fluids of gas condensate reservoirs and gas cap of two-phase deposits. The method is based on the reproducing of the results of field measurements and basic laboratory studies of representative samples in thermodynamic modeling using equation of state. The procedure of equation of state parameters consequent setting was developed. PVT-models created on the base of the proposed method, provide reliable information on the properties of a reservoir fluid in development of flow simulation both using a reservoir simulation compositional models and using pseudo models “black oil” with “wet gas”. The method is illustrated by the example of creation of the adequate PVT-models of various regions of Russia reservoir condensate field’s mixtures.
References
1. Tokarev D.K., Fateev D.G., Kozubovskiy A.G., Efimov A.D., Adaptation
scheme of creation of adequate models of gas-condensate systems (for example, the Achimov deposits of the Urengoy gas condensate field) (In Russ.), Territoriya Neftegaz, 2012, no. 12, pp. 46-53.
2. Brusilovskiy A.I., The methodology of the application of cubic state equations for the simulation of natural gas condensate mixtures (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2004, no. 4, pp.16-19.
3. Shchebetov A.V., Galkin M.V., Quality assessment and modeling of gas
condensate studies in conditions of input data uncertainty (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost' = GAS Industry of Russia, 2009, no. 9, pp. 40-44.
4. Aguilar Z.R., McCain W.D. Jr., An efficient tuning strategy to calibrate cubic EOS for compositional simulation, SPE 77382, 2002.
5. Schebetov A., Rimoldi A., Piana M., Quality check of gas-condensate PVT
studies and Eos modeling under input data uncertainty, SPE 133258, 2010.
6. Hosein R., McCain W.D. Jr., Extended analysis for gas condensate systems,
SPE Reservoir Evalution and Engineering, 2009.
7. Joergensen M., Stenby E.H., Optimization of pseudo-component selection
for compositional studies of reservoir fluids, SPE 30789, 1995.
8. Brusilovskiy A.I., Nugaeva A.N., Khvatova I.E., A rational approach to the formation of reservoir oils models for hydrodynamic calculations in the design
and monitoring of field development (In Russ.) Vestnik TsKR Rosnedra, 2009, no. 4, pp. 48-57.
9. Whitson C.H., Characteristing hydrocarbon plus fraction, SPE. – 1983.
10. R Gazprom 2-3, 3-303-2009, Rukovodstvo po issledovaniyu prirodnykh
gazokondensatnykh sistem s tsel'yu podscheta balansovykh i izvlekaemykh
zapasov komponentov prirodnogo gaza, proektirovaniya, analiza i kontrolya
za razrabotkoy mestorozhdeniy OAO “Gazprom” (Guidelines for the study of
natural gas condensate systems for calculate the balance and recoverable
reserves of natural gas components, design, analysis and monitoring of development of Gazprom's fields), Moscow: Publ. of Gazprom, 2009, 39 p.
11. Brusilovskiy A.I., Fazovye prevrashcheniya pri razrabotke mestorozhdeniy nefti i gaza (Phase transformations in the development of oil and gas fields), Moscow: Graal' Publ., 2002, 575 p.
12. Poroskun V.I., Gabrielyants G.A., Podturkin Yu.A. et al., Principles of classification and accounting of reserves and resources of oil and combustible
gases (In Russ.), Annex to the journal “Nedropol'zovanie XXI vek”, 2007, 40 p.
13. Whitson C.H., Fevang O., Yang T., Gas condensate PVT – What’s really important and Why, IBC conference Optimisation of gas condensate fields,
London, 1999.
14. Whitson C.H., Brule M.R., Phase behavior, SPE, 2000.

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R.K. Yarullin (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), A.S. Valiullin, M.S. Valiullin, I.N. Tikhonov PCF GIS Nefteservice LTD, RF, Ufa), R.N. Asmandiyarov, E.R. Nazargalin RN-Yuganskneftegas LLC, RF, Nefteyugask)
The first experience of geophysical studies in long horizontal wells with using ESP bypass system

Key words: well logging, Y-tool, horizontal wells, multi-stage hydraulic fracturing.

Western Siberian and Volga region oil fields, as a rule, are characterized with low reservoir pressure and exploitation by the method of mechanized extraction, that does not allow to assess the productivity in steady mode of fluid output (extraction) (flow rate), that is easily implemented in gushing wells. That’s why, geophysical surveys (GS) are performed in overhaul periods, after stopping the well and extraction borehole equipment глушения скважин (поменял структуру предложения чуток). In that case, is sufficiently disrupted work mode of well and reservoir, depression and flow rate created with GS does not correspond to the operating mode. Increasing the number of horizontal wells shows the urgency of the problem of assessing the efficiency of the multistage hydraulic fracturing. To eliminate these restrictions can be applied the technology of ESP bypasses (Y-Tool), where the borehole equipment is delivered on the CT below the depth of descent pump in horizontal wellbore interval.

References
1. Valiullin R., Yarullin R., Yarullin A. et al., Razrabotka kriteriev vydeleniya rabotayushchikh intervalov v nizkodebitnykh gorizontal'nykh skvazhinakh
na osnove fizicheskogo eksperimenta i skvazhinnykh issledovaniy (Development of criteria for selection of operating intervals in low-rate horizontal wells based on physical experiments and well studies), Proceedings of Rossiyskaya tekhnicheskaya neftegazovaya konferentsiya i vystavka SPE
po razvedke i dobyche 2010 (Russian SPE Oil & Gas Technical Conference
and Exhibition on exploration and production in 2010), 2010, October
26–28, DOI 12.2118/136272-RU, URL: https://www.onepetro.org/ conference- paper/SPE-136272-RU.
2. Valiullin R.A., Yarullin R.K., Gordeev Ya.I., Maslov S.O., Peculiarities of field geophysical tests in running horizontal wells of the Upper Chonskoe oil and gas condensate field (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2012, V. 220, no. 10, pp. 12–29.
3. Valiullin R.A., Yarullin A.R., Glebocheva N.K., Tikhonov A.G., Peculiarities of logging in running horizontal wells at the late stage of oil field operation (In Russ.), Karotazhnik, 2010, V. 190, no. 1, pp. 5-16.
4. Murdygin R.V., Ganichev D.I., Mikhaylov A.G. et al., The experience of
the geophysical studies on determination of the profile and composition
of RN-Purneftegaz LLC horizontal wells stream (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 3, pp. 64–69.
5. Valiullin R.A., Yarullin R.K., Sharafutdinov R.F., Sadretdinov A.A., Presentday procedures of geophysical studies applied at the Russian fields
(In Russ.), Neft'. Gaz. Novatsii, 2014, no. 2, pp. 21–25.
6. Valiullin R.A., Yarullin R.K., Peculiarities of geophysical research in running horizontal wells (In Russ.), Vestnik Akademii nauk Respubliki Bashkortostan, 2014, V. 19, no. 1, pp. 21–28.
7. Yarullin R., Valiullin R., Sharafutdinov R., Mnogodatchikovye tekhnologii
issledovaniya gorizontal'nykh skvazhin. Tekushchee sostoyanie i opyt
primeneniya na mestorozhdeniyakh Rossii (Multi-sensor technologies for research the horizontal wells. Current status and application experience in
the Russian fields), Proceedings of Rossiyskaya tekhnicheskaya neftegazovaya konferentsiya i vystavka SPE po razvedke i dobyche (Russian SPE Oil & Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition on exploration and production in 2010), October, 2014, URL: http://www.russianoilgas.ru/ru/Sessions/5919/ 

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M.A. Silin, L.A. Magadova , V.L. Zavorotniy , D.N. Malkin (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), O.V. Akimov (RN –Yuganskneftegas LLC, RF, Nefteyugansk), V.P. Anufriyev , M.A. Lopukhov (Moscow office of FSI International Services Ltd., RF, Moscow)
Advanced technologies for wells killing

Key words: bottomhole formation zone, wells killing, washing fluid, polysaccharide fluids for wells killing, emulsion- and hydrocarbon-based wells killing fluids.

An overview of water- and emulsion-based wells killing and washing fluids, developed in Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, is given. The possibility of using the modern brine plant facilities of the FSI International Services Ltd. manufacturing for qualitative process fluids production is shown. A comprehensive solution to the problem of wells killing with low-impact killing fluids and special equipment for their preparation will allow to eliminate the problems associated with trouble-free maintenance work execution and will preserve the recovery wells productivity.
References
1. Patent no. 2246609 RF, Well killing polysaccharide gel composition and
method for producing the same, Inventors: Magadova L.A., Magadov R.S.,
Marinenko V.N., Silin M.A., Gaevoy E.G., Rud' M.I., Zaytsev K.I., Zavorotnyy A.V.
2. Khismetov T.V., Bernshteyn A.M., Kriman E.I., Shaymardanov A.F., Andrianov A.V., Yatsenko G.G., Silin M.A., Magadov R.S., Magadova L.A., Research of influence of kill fluids and acid solutions on muddy terrigenous reservoirs (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2007, no. 3, pp. 92–95.
3. Kuryatnikov E., Savasteev V., Rakhimov N., et al., Experience of using complex Himeko-V in the hydraulic fracturing technology and well killing (In Russ.), Neft' i kapital = Oil & Capital, 2004, no. 2, pp. 2–3.
4. Patent no. 2330942 RF, Method of killing wells with abnormal low formation pressure, Inventors: Magadova L.A., Magadov R.S., Silin M.A., Gaevoy E.G., Efimov N.N., Nazyrov R.R., Larchenko Yu.A., Gur'yanov O.V.
5. Silin M.A., Magadova L.A., Gaevoy E.G. et al., Application of killing fluids on the polysaccharide base in wells with low pressure and after fracturing (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 4, pp. 104–106.
6. Bulatov A.I., Makarenko P.P., Budnikov V.F., Basarygin Yu.M., Teoriya i praktika zakanchivaniya skvazhin (Theory and practice of well completion): edited by Bulatov A.I., Part 5, Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1998, pp. 181–242.
7. Tokunov V.I., Saushin A.Z., Tekhnologicheskie zhidkosti i sostavy dlya
povysheniya produktivnosti neftyanykh i gazovykh skvazhin (Process fluids
and compositions for increasing the productivity of oil and gas wells),
Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2004, 711 p.
8. Shadymukhamedov S.A., Smykov Yu.V., Vakhitov T.M., Safuanova R.M.,
Analysis of state-of-the-art engineering solutions of well killing and flushing-out jobs (In Russ.), Issledovano v Rossii: elektronnyy zhurnal, 2008, Article no. 68, pp. 724–736, URL: http://zhurnal.ape.relarn.ru/articles/2008/068.pdf.
9. Patent no. 2357997 RF, Blocking fluid "ZhG-IER-T", Inventors: Silin M.A., Magadov R.S., Gaevoy E.G., Rud' M.I., Zavorotnyy V.L., Magadova L.A., Efimov N.N., S Shishkov.N., Zavorotnyy A.V.
10. Patent no. 2200056 RF, Emulsifier for invert emulsions, Inventors: Silin M.A., Magadov R.S., Gaevoy E.G., Rud' M.I., Zavorotnyy V.L., Magadova L.A., Sidorenko D.O., Zavorotnyy A.V.
11. Gilaev G.G., T.V. Khismetov, A.M. Bernshteyn, V.L. Zavorotnyy et al., Application of heat-resistant killing fluids on the basis of oil emulsions (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2009, no. 8, pp. 64-67.
12. Magadova L.A., Silin M.A., Gaevoy E.G. et al., Killing and flushing fluids preserving reservoir properties (In Russ.), Vremya koltyubinga, 2009, no. 1–2 (027), pp. 56–64.
13. Silin M.A., Magadova L.A., Nizova S.A. et al., A polysaccharidic fluid for
well killing operation and cleanout (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza, 2010,
no. 3 (68), pp. 50–53.

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I.B. Ivanishin (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), E.V. Shelyago, I.V. Yazynina (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)
Task statement for physical and mathematical modeling of fluid behavior in porous media

Key words: modeling, filtration, x-ray, tomography, core.

The article presents research results of liquid properties near the solid surface. The object of these researches is basically water and some one component organic liquids. Their example shows changes of liquid physical properties under the solid surface influence: density, viscosity, phase transition temperature, electrical properties. The necessity of additional experimental information is concluded. Tasks of surface phenomenon in porous void quantitative experimental research method creation, linking of surface phenomenon and traditional core sample research results are announced.
References
1. Kvlividze V.I., Krasnushkin A.V., Zlochevskaya R.I., Poverkhnostnye plenki vody v dispersnykh strukturakh (Surface water film in dispersed structures), Moscow: Publ. of MSU, MGU, 1988, 278 p.
2. Shelyago E.V., Yazynina I.V., Tumanyan B.P., State of hydrocarbon systems interface layers (In Russ.), Tekhnologii nefti i gaza = Science and Technology of Hydrocarbons, 2010, no. 4, pp. 32 – 37.
3. Rakhmukov B.Kh., Seliverstova I.I., Serginevskiy V.V., Fomkin A.A., Adsorption on microporous adsorbents along the liquid-vapor equilibrium (zeolite NaX - water) (In Russ.), Izvestiya Akademii nauk SSSR. Seriya khimicheskaya = Bulletin
of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Division of Chemical Sciences, 1979, no. 11, pp. 2419–2422.
4. Anderson D.M., Low P.F., Hoekstra P., The density of water absorbed by lithium-, sodium- and potassium-bentonite, Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America, 1958, 22, pp.99-103.
5. Bradley W.F., Density of water sorbed on montmorillonite, Nature, 1959,
V. 183, pp.1614-1615.
6. Deeds C.T., van Olphen H., Density studies on clay-liquid systems, I. The density of water absorbed by expanding clays, Advances in Chemistry, 1961,
V. 33, pp. 332-340.
7. Deryagin V.B., Krylov N.A., Novik V.F., The dielectric constant of the intracrystalline water films in the swollen Na-montmorillonite (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal = Colloid Journal, 1970, V. 193, no. 1, pp. 126-130.
8. Hoekstra P., Doyle W.T., Dielectric relaxation of surface adsorbed water,
J. Colloid Interface Sci, 1971, V. 36, no. 4, pp. 513-521.
9. Tovbina Z.M., The viscosity of aqueous solutions in the capillaries of silica gel (In Russ.), Collected papers “Issledovaniya v oblasti poverkhnostnykh sil” (Research in surface forces), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1967, pp. 24–30.
10. Low P., Viscosity of interlayer water in montmorillonite, Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., 1979, V. 43, no. 5, pp. 651–660.
11. Apel' P.Yu., Kolikov V.M., Kuznetsov V.I., Mchedlishvili B.V., Potokin N.I., Porous structure, selectivity and productivity of nuclear filters with ultra-thin selective layer (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal = Colloid Journal, 1985, V. 47, no. 1, pp. 3–8; no. 4., pp. 772–776.
12. Markhasin I.L., Fiziko-khimicheskaya mekhanika neftyanogo plasta (Physical and chemical mechanics oil reservoir), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1977, 214 p.
13. Churaev N.V., Thin layers of liquids (In Russ.), Kolloidnyy zhurnal = Colloid Journal, 1996, V. 58, no. 6, pp. 725–737.

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I.F. Khatmullin, E.I. Khatmullina, A.T. Khamitov (Ufa SciTechCenter LLC, RF, Ufa), R.A. Gimaletdinov, S.E. Mezikov (Gazpromneft – Noyabrskneftegas JSC, RF, Noyabrsk)
Identification of zones with poor displacement in fields with hard-to-recover reserves

Key words: well stimulation planning, fuzzy logic, membership function maps.

The paper describes the automated technique for identification of under recovered zones with high production potential, if proper field management activities were provided (e.g. sidetracking operations). Presented method is based on the fuzzy description of the current recovery distribution incorporating different decision making criteria to elaborate better field management strategies. For this end fuzzy-criteria based procedure is developed to provide the determination of most perspective zones with high movable residuals, but poor recovery. The practical aspects of the technique application are discussed using the actual results of sidetracking planning.

References
1. Khasanov M.M., Mukhamedshin R.K., Khatmullin I.F., Computer technology for solutions the multicriteria problems of monitoring the oil fields development (In Russ.), Vestnik inzhiniringovogo tsentra YuKOS, 2001, no. 2, pp. 26–29.
2. Usmanov T.S., Khatmullin I.F., Mukhamedshin R.K. et al., Decrease of risks at performance of repair - insulating works (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 8, pp. 86-89.
3. Mukhamedshin R.K., Khatmullin I.F., Sveshnikov A.V. et al., Analysis of inactive fund with use of adaptive models of oil pools (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2005, no. 10, pp. 60–63.
4. Zoveidavianpoor M., Samsuri A., Shadizadeh S.R., Development of a fuzzy
system model for candidate-well selection for hydraulic fracturing in a carbonate reservoir, SPE Oil and Gas India Conference and Exhibition, 28–30
March 2012, Mumbai, India.
5. Dinghong Cao, Yuwei Ni, Fei Yao et al., Application and realization of fuzzy method for selecting wells and formations in fracturing in Putaohua oilfield: production and operations: diagnostics and evaluation, SPE Technical Symposium of Saudi Arabia Section, 21–23 May 2006, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
6. Zadeh L.A., The concept of a linguistic variable and its application to approximate reasoning. Information Sciences, 1975-1976.
7. Altunin A.E., Semukhin M.V., Modeli i algoritmy prinyatiya resheniy v
nechetkikh usloviyakh (Models and algorithms for decision making in fuzzy
conditions), Tyumen': Publ. of TSU, 2000, 352 p.
8. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Khasanov M.M., Bakhtizin R.N., Modelirovanie protsessov
neftegazodobychi (Modeling of processes oil and gas extraction),
Moscow, 2004, 368 p.
9. Khasanov M.M., Khatmullin I.F., Galeev R.M. et al., Adaptive control methods of development of reserves (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 1998, no. 6, pp. 7–9.
10. Kostrigin I.V., Khatmullin I.F., Khatmullina E.I., Zagurenko T.G., Rapid evaluation of the waterflooded reservoir energy and production potential forecasting (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 11, pp. 39–41.
11. Khasanov M.M., Kostrigin I.V., Khatmullin I.F., Khatmullina E.I., The accounting of data on carrying out of operating repairs in wells for an estimation of a energy state of a layer (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 9, pp. 52–55.
12. Kostrigin I.V., Khatmullin I.F., Khatmullina E.I., Adaptive control technology of water flooding (In Russ.), SPE 138055-RU. 

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A.M. Svalov (Oil and Gas Research Institute of RAS, RF, Moscow)
Problems of capillary pressure definition in samples of rocks by centrifugation method (part 2)

Key words: capillary pressure, centrifugation method, data processing.

In paper laws of expulsion of wetting fluid from samples of rocks are investigated at centrifugation method application for capillary pressure definition. It is erected, that at a standard centrifugation method achievement of the capillary pressures exceeding one atmosphere is physically impossible. Advancing of the method envisioning increase of initial stress in core holder of a centrifuge is offered. Abundant errors are analyzed at interpretation of centrifugation data and the method raising reliability of treating of these data is tendered.

References
1. Collins R.E., Flow of fluids through porous materials, Tulsa, Oklahoma: Petroleum Publishing-Reinhold, 1961.
2. Tul'bovich B.I., Metody izucheniya porod-kollektorov nefti i gaza (Methods of study of oil and gas reservoir rocks), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1979, 199 p.
3. Gudok N.S., Bogdanovich N.G., Martynov V.G., Opredelenie fizicheskikh
svoystv neftevodosoderzhashchikh porod (Determination of physical properties of oil-water-bearing rocks), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2007, 592 p.
4. Tiab D., Donaldson E C., Petrophysics: theory and practice of measuring
reservoir rock and fluid transport, Elsevier Inc., 2004, 926 p.
5. Svalov A.M., Problemy dobychi nefti i gaza. Kapillyarnye effekty v podzemnoy gidrodinamike: Novye rezul'taty (Problems of oil and gas production. Capillary effects in underground hydrodynamics: New results), Moscow: Librokom Publ., 2013, 112 p. 

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Technics and technology of oil recovery


G.I. Kelbaliyev, G.Z. Suleymanov (Institute of Catalysis and Inorganic Chemistry, ANAS, Azerbaijan, Baku), R.N.Bakhtizin (Academy of Science of the Republic of Bashkortostan, RF, Ufa), Ab.G.Rzayev (Institute of Control Systems, ANAS, Azerbaijan, Baku), S.R. Rasulov, L.V. Guseynova (Azerbaijan State Oil Academy, Azerbaijan, Baku)
Modeling of sedimentation phenomena of asphalt-resin substances in the process of production, transporting and preparation of oil

Key words: sedimentation speed, migration-gravitational mechanism, diffusion process, mass-transfer adsorption layer, oil emulsion.

Condition and mechanism of sedimentation of asphalten-resin substances in the processes of production, transporting and preparation of oil have been analyzed in the given investigation. Models of description of sedimentation processes of asphalten-resin substances in horizontal and vertical conveying pipes, models of change of porosity in oil layers and on the surface of water in oil emulsion have been offered. It has been mentioned that mainly mechanism of sedimentation of particles is characterized by migration-diffusion transfer of the particles to the surface in laminar and turbulent flow. Possible variants of comparison of experimental and calculation values have been shown.
References
1. Ivanova L.V., Burov E.A., Koshelev V.N., Asphaltene-resin-paraffin deposits in the processes of oil pro-duction, transportation and storage
(In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal “Neftegazovoe delo” = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2011, no. 1, URL:
http://ogbus.ru/authors/IvanovaLV/IvanovaLV_1.pdf
2. Mirzayi B., Mousavi-Dehghani S.A., Behruz–Chakan M., Modeling of asphaltene deposition in pipeline, Petroleum Science and Technology, 2013,
V. 3, no. 2, pp. 15–23.
3. Alexander L.G., Coldern C.L., Droplet transfer suspending air to duct walls,
Ind. and Eng. Chem, 1951, V. 43, no. 6, pp. 1325−1331.
4. Montgomery T.L., Corn M.V., Aerosol deposition in a pipe with turbulent air flow, J. Aerosol Sci., 1970, V.1, no. 30, pp. 185−213
5. Sarimeseli A., Kelbaliyev G.,Deposition of dispersed particles in isotropic turbulent flow, Dispersion Science and Technology, 2008, no. 29, pp. 307–315.
6. Kelbaliev G.I., Ibragimov Z.I., Kasimova R.K., Deposition of aerosol particles in vertical channels from an isotropic turbulent flow (In Russ.), Inzhenerno– fizicheskiy zhurnal = Journal of Engineering Physics and Thermophysics, 2010, V. 83, no. 5, pp. 1–9.
7. Kelbaliev G.I., Guseynova L.V., Rasulov S.R., Suleymanov G.Z., Modeling of process of different-nature particles precipitation on pipelines surface
(In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2014, no. 5, pp. 25–29.
8. Mednikov E.P., Turbulentnyy perenos i osazhdenie aerozoley (Turbulent
transport and aerosols depo-sition), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1980, 176 p.
9. Sarimeseli A., Kelbaliyev G., Sedimentation of solid particles in turbulent
flow in horizontal channels, Powder Technology. Technology, 2004, no. 140,
pp. 79–85.
10. Laurinat J.E., Hanratty T.J., Film thickness distribution for gas-liquid annular in a horizontal pipe, Phys. Chem. Hydrodynamics, 1985, no. 5, pp. 179−195.
11. Ermakov S.A., Mordvinov A.A.,On the influence of asphaltenes on the stability of oil-water emulsions (In Russ.), Elektronnyy nauchnyy zhurnal “Neftegazovoe delo” = The electronic scientific journal Oil and Gas Business, 2007, no. 1, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Ermakov/Ermakov_1.pdf.

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Designing of arrangement of deposits


I.A. Shcherbinin, I.Z. Fakhretdinov, S.S. Ivanov, I.A. Zholobov (Giprotyumenneftegaz, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Giprotyumenneftegaz engineering solutions for construction of oil and gas industrial facilities in permafrost areas (part 1)

Key words: permafrost soil, thermal design, safety methods permafrost.

To date, due to the increased volume of construction in permafrost areas and unstable soils, the urgency of developing new methods of construction of buildings and structures is constantly increasing. Existing construction methods require further development and updating in accordance with the new requirements.

References
1. Strategiya razvitiya Arkticheskoy Zony Rossiyskoy Federatsii i obespecheniya natsional'noy bezopasnosti do 2020 goda (Strategy of development of the Russian Arctic and national security up to 2020), URL:
http://www.government.ru/docs/22846/
2. Obshchee merzlotovedenie (geokriologiya) (The general permafrostology
(geocryology)): edited by Kudryavtseva V.A., Moscow: Publ. of MSU, 1978,
464 p.
3. Tsytovich N.A., Mekhanika gruntov (Soil mechanics), Moscow: Vychislitel'- naya shkola Publ., 1973, 280 p.
4. Vakulin A.A., Osnovy geokriologii (Basics of geocryology), Tyumen': Publ. of TSU, 2011, 220 p.
5. Utility patent no. 130613 RF, Ustroystvo osnovaniya dlya fakel'noy ustanovki (Construction of basements of flare unit), Inventors: Shcherbinin I.A., Fakhretdinov I.Z., Zaytsev V.S. et al.
6. Kondrat'ev V.G., Perekupka A.G., Primakov S.S., Petrova A.S., The measures of heat exchange variation on the earth surface and their influence on the temperature distribution in the soil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 10, pp. 122-125. 

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The oil-field equipment


V.A. Klimov, V.M. Valovsky (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
On operational efficiency of sucker rods

Key words: overhaul period of wells, downhole pumping equipment, sucker rod, rod string, stress-strain conditions, residual stress, non-destructive inspection, diagnostics, defect, operational damage, reliability, rate of failure, repair rate, run time, service life.

The paper considers ways to improve efficiency of beam-pumping wells by means of enhanced reliability of sucker rods. The proposed method for operation of sucker rods relies on technical condition of pumping equipment rather than purpose of application. Achievement of the best economic balance between reliability of rod strings and service life of sucker rods combined with technical-condition evaluation maximizes efficiency of downhole pumping equipment. Besides, this method ensures the utmost overhaul period which is defined by natural physical constraints.
References
1. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy K.V., Valovskiy V.M., Nugaybekov R.A.,
Akhmadiev N.A., Improvement of downhole pumping equipment maintenance system (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010, no. 7, pp. 52-54.
2. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy K.V., Valovskiy V.M., Trusov P.V., Zubko I.Yu., On the physics of failures, methods of reliability calculations, and efficient performance of rod string in a well (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2011, no. 7, pp. 66-69.
3. Urazakov K.R., Ekspluatatsiya naklonno napravlennykh nasosnykh
skvazhin (Operation of directional pumping wells), Moscow: Nedra Publ.,
1993, 169 p.
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sucker rods (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 9,
pp. 38-39.
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Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, Neftyanoe khozyaystvo, 2003, no. 1,
pp. 54-56.
6. Puzenko V.I., Analysis of the causes of low durability of sucker rods and increasing their operational reliability (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo,
2002, no. 11, pp. 88-91.
7. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy K.V., Valovskiy V.M., Trusov P.V., Shveykin A.I., Reducing
the risk of rod breakage with improved methods of qualitative and
quantitative assessment of the remaining life (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2009, no. 7, pp. 60-64.
8. Klimov V.A., Valovskiy K.V., Gavrilov V.V., Ishmurzin R.R., Voronkov V.S., Results of complex tests of pumping rods technical diagnostic tools in Tatneft OAO from the point of view of quality of the system of maintenance service and their practical importance (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil
Industry, 2009, no. 4, pp. 94-98.
9. Valovskiy V.M., Valovskiy K.V., Klimov V.A., Perfection of engineering and technology of oil recovery in the complicated conditions in OAO Tatneft
(In Russ.), Burenie i neft', 2009, no. 2, pp. 34-36.
10. Ryazantsev A.O., Razrabotka metoda vibroakusticheskoy diagnostiki
nasosnykh shtang v protsesse ekspluatatsii (Development of a method of
vibro-acoustic diagnostics of sucker rods during operation): Thesis of the
candidate of technical science, Ufa, 2000.
11. Valovskiy V.M., Valovskiy K.V., Tsepnye privody skvazhinnykh shtangovykh nasosov (Chain drives of sucker-rod pumps), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2004, 492 p.
12. Arzamasov B.N., Makarova V.I., Mukhin G.G. et al., Materialovedenie
(Materials science): edited by Arzamasov B.N., Mukhin G.G., Moscow:
Publ. of Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2002, 648 p.
13. Trusov P.V., Shveykin A.I., Teoriya opredelyayushchikh sootnosheniy (The theory of constitutive relations), Part 2. Teoriya plastichnosti (The theory of plasticity), Perm': Publ. of Perm State Technical University, 2008, 243 p.
14. Ivanovskiy V.N., Nikolaev N.M., Darishchev V.I., Sabirov A.A., Kashtanov V.S., Technique of hardening and to determine the strength characteristics of sucker rods (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2000, no. 12, pp. 16-21.
15. Latypov R.I., Lobanov K.V., Nepreryvnaya kolonna nasosnykh shtang
COROD® (Continuous rod string COROD®), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2014,
no. 5, pp. 46-50.

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V.B. Sadov, A.L. Shestakov (South Ural State University, RF, Chelyabinsk)
Automatic control of sucker rod pump

Key words: sucker rod pump, automatic control of oil extracting, criterion of control, predictive control.

The article presents an approach to the formation of criterion of automatic control of sucker rod pump based on economic parameters of oil extracting. Use of predictive control for the decision of a problem of search of an extremum of the generated criterion is shown. Results of simulation of the generated algorithm are given, conclusions on efficiency of the resulted approach are made.
References
1. Ignat'ev M., Intellektual'nye sistemy upravleniya, Neftegazovaya vertikal' – Oil&Gas Vertical, 2010, no. 13–14, pp. 73–88.
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control station. VFD), URL: http://lufkin.ru/rus/pdf/Lufkin_VSD.pdf.
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5. Sistemy privodov dlya uvelicheniya dobychi nefti i gaza. Danfoss (Drive systems to increase oil and gas production. Danfoss), URL: http://www.danfoss. com/NR/rdonlyres/90BCF710-9C97-4F9C-9EF5-F9274DA9A842/0/ salt_broshyura.pdf.
6. Sadov V B., Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta.
Seriya Komp'yuternye tekhnologii, upravlenie, radioelektronika, 2013, V. 13,
no. 2, pp. 33–41.
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theory), Moscow: Energoatomizdat Publ., 1994, 344 p.
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10. Dombrovskiy V.V., Ob"edko T.Yu., Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Upravlenie, vychislitel'naya tekhnika i informatika – Tomsk State University Journal of Control and Computer Science, 2010, no. 3(12), pp. 5–11.
11. Loktev A., Bolgov I., Kosilov D., Novator, 2012, no. 1 (47), pp. 16–20.

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Ye.V. Proskurkin (Osada State Research Tube Institute, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk), I.V. Petrov, A.Yu. Zhuravlev (SPO Neotsink JSC, RF, Lyubertsy), M.P. Polikarpov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow), V.I. Bolshakov, T.A. Dergach (Prydniprovs'ka State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk)
The ways of improvement of operational reliability and extension of service life of threaded joints in oil-country tubes

Key words: tubing, tubing couplings, threaded joint, diffusion zinc coating, corrosion resistance, International Standard.

Comprehensive studies and in-field tests established that one of promising ways of protection of tubes and equipment for oil and gas production is application of thermochemical diffusion zinc coating. High field-performance data of diffusion zinc coated tubing and their threaded joins and prospects of their use in difficult conditions of oil and gas production were demonstrated. A new standard for diffusion zinc coatings is developed by International Standard Organization with participation of Ukraine and Russia. It is expected to be in force in 2015.
References
1. Status and prospects of pipe production in Russia (In Russ.), Metallurg = Metallurgist, 2003, no. 5, pp. 2-3.
2. Karpov N.A., Yankovskiy V.M., Zikeev V.N., Steel for oil country tubular goods, resistant to hydrogen sulfide cracking (In Russ.), Chernaya metallurgiya, 1981, V. 21 (905), pp. 18-31.
3. Pogorelova I.G., Issledovanie strukturnykh osobennostey i razrabotka sposoba povysheniya prochnosti i korrozionnoy stoykosti stali pri kombinirovannoy termicheskoy obrabotke (Research the structural features and development of method for increasing strength and corrosion resistance of steel at a combination of heat treatment): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Rostov na Donu, 2009.
4. Degay A., New generation pipes of Seversky Pipe Plant (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal' = Oil&Gas Vertical, 2001, no. 4, pp. 73-75.
5. Zhukova S.Yu., Termomekhanicheskaya i termicheskaya obrabotka trub iz
malouglerodistykh i nizkolegirovannykh staley (Thermo-mechanical and thermal processing of pipes made of carbon and low-alloy steels): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Tol'yatti, 2002.
6. Patent no. 2132396 RF, C21D8/10, C21D9/08, Process of manufacture of
pipes from carbon steel, Inventors: Brizhan A.I., Grekhov A.I., Zhukova S.Yu., Krivosheeva
A.A., Marchenko L.G., Medvedev A.P., Mukhin M.Yu., Popovtsev
Yu.A., Tetyueva T.V., Usov V.A., Sin T.Z.
7. Ryzhkov M.A. Osobennosti fazovykh i strukturnykh prevrashcheniy v ratsional'no legirovannykh stalyakh dlya proizvodstva vysokoprochnykh trub, stoykikh k vozdeystviyu sred, soderzhashchikh serovodorod (Features of phase and structural transformations in the rational alloyed steel for the production of high-strength pipe, resistant to fluids containing hydrogen sulfide): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Ekaterinburg, 2009.

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M.P. Peshcherenko (Novomet-Perm АО, RF, Perm), М.О. Perelman (New Lift Solutionis B.V., RF, Perm), S.N. Peshcherenko (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm)
Universal separation performance indicator for centrifugal gas separators

Key words: centrifugal gas separator, gas-liquid mixture, gas separation coefficient, universal separation curve

This paper analyses separation process of gas-liquid mixture in submersible centrifugal gas separators. Gas separation coefficient is a monotonic function of two non-dimensional variables. Values of the function at the boundaries of variation range are found. Approximation of gas separation coefficient by the function satisfying these conditions is obtained. For gas separators of different designs the suggested characteristic curve was correlated to experimental information. It is shown that average approximation error did not exceed 10%.
References
1. Drozdov A.N., Tekhnologiya i tekhnika dobychi nefti pogruzhnymi nasosami v oslozhnennykh usloviyakh (Technology and equipment of oil production using submersible pumps in extreme environments), Moscow:
MAKS Press, 2008, 312 p.
2. Patent no. 2075654 RF, F04D13/10, F04F5/54, F04B51/00, Method of tests
of hydraulic machines and electric motors to them and test bed for realizing
the method, Inventors: Drozdov A.N., Dem'yanova L.A.
3. Patent no 2398205 RF, MPK7 G01M19/00, F04D13/10, Method of testing
gas separators of oil production downhole oil pump units and computeraided
test bench to this end, Inventors: Kudinov M.A., Mochalov P.V., Shul'-
ga A.A., Shul'ga A.F.
4. Patent no. 2425254 RF, MPK7 F04D13/10, Hydraulic test bench for gas
separators of pump units for supply of formation fluid, Inventors: Kalan V.A.,
Petrov V.I., Isaev G.A., Trulev A.V.
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M.O., Peshcherenko S.N.
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Nauka Publ., 1986, 736 p.
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mixture from well and submersible pumping unit for realization of this
method, Inventor: Drozdov A.N., Ageev Sh.R., Den'gaev A.V. et al.
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tank, Inventors: Peshcherenko S.N., Peshcherenko M.P., Perel'man M.O.
et al.
9. Patent no. 2363842 RF, E21D43/38, Abrasion resistant gas separator, Inventors: Peshcherenko S.N., Peshcherenko M.P., Perel'man M.O. et al.

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