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September 2014




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Information technology


G.G. Gilaev, O.V. Gladunov, D.R. Izmailov (Samaraneftegas JSC, RF. Samara), E.S. Golovina, A.V. Komogorov (SamaraNIPIneft LLC, RF, Samara)
Building Information Model – change-over to new ideology

Key words: building information model, 3D simulation, facility life cycle

In order to evaluate application of Building Information Modelling (BIM) for the facilities of Samaraneftegas JSC, SamaraNIPIneft LLC has completed a project to design the information model of an existing facility to minimize risks during implementation of the innovative procedure. The change-over from design paradigm to application of an information model will inevitably require more effective and more complete interaction between the Customer and the Contractor and this will finally enable further EPCM contract idea development and will make it realized.

References
1. Weygant R.S., BIM content development: Standards, strategies, and best
practices, USA, Hoboken, New Jersey: Jhon Wiley&Sons Inc., 2011, 464 p.
2. Eastman Ch., Teicholz P., Sacks R., Liston K., BIM handbook: A guide to building information modeling for owners, managers, designers, engineers and contractors, USA, Hoboken, New Jersey: Jhon Wiley&Sons Inc., 2011, 648 p.  

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L.D. Zubova, E.I. Sidorova, T.N. Gilmutdinova (Giprovostokneft OJSC, RF, Samara)
Equipment Database as a key components for integrated computer-aided design system

Key words: integrated computer-aided design system (ICAD), equipment database, computer-aided design, mini-catalogue, bill of equipment.

The article presents implementation experience of the software package Equipment Dat abase (EDB), which is one of key components for Giprovostokneft integrated computer-aided design system (ICAD). The authors review issues of EDB software package integration with Giprovostokneft information and CAD systems, present EDB data structure, data storage and updating procedure, scope of EDB software package (SWP), analyses advantages of EDB SWP in design. 


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S.V. Chizhikov, E.A. Dubovitskaya, M.A. Tkachenko, I.E. Yunusov (Ingenix Group, RF, Moscow)
Conceptual design of oil & gas cost estimation software product line for the different project stages

Key words: feasibility study, cost engineering, cost estimation, economic
efficiency, upstream IT-solutions.
This article covers different approaches to automatization of cost estimation
process at all stages of oil and gas upstream project. Depending on
tasks and requests of the experts different software applications can be
designed for each project stage with individual set of functions and technical
solutions.

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A.V. Khodyaev, A.V. Lapushov, P.Yu. Redko (RN-KrasnoyarskNIPIneft LLC, RF, Krasnoyarsk)
Cloud computing appliances at Rosneft’s Corporate Seismic Data Store

Key words: corporate seismic data store, cloud computing, Software as a Service (SaaS), seismic data visualization, private cloud.

The results of the cloud computing implementation in the processes of storage and processing of seismic data at the Rosneft’s Corporate Seismic Data Store are presented. Examples of data processing technology in a private cloud based on the ‘Software as a Service’ model in the preliminary analysis and visualization of seismic data are described.

References
1. Khodyaev A.V., Lapushov A.V., Moskvich V.N., Organization of storage of
seismic data in Rosneft OJSC (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2009, no. 1, pp. 48–50.
2. Pozdnyakov V.A., Lapushov A.V., Khodyaev A.V., Structure of corporate
seismic data storage (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2010,
no. 9, pp. 38–40.
3. Khodyaev A.V., Lapushov A.V., Moskvich V.N., Some aspects of using of
spatial data storage technology when creating a data bank of geological
and geophysical information (In Russ.), Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik
OAO “NK “Rosneft'”, 2009, no. 4, pp. 40–41.
4. Lapushov A.V., Moskvich V.N., Khodyaev A.V., Red'ko P.Yu., Using cloud computing concept when storing seismic data at Rosneft’s Corporate Seismic Data Store (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 11, pp. 64 –66.


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A.N. Muryzhnikov (Bashneft-Dobycha LLC, RF, Ufa)
Hardware for bottom level of oil fields development monitoring system

Key words: monitoring system, router ZigBee, coordinator ZigBee, communicator ZigBee-Ethernet.

The author considers perspective options of hardware of automated process control systems, as bottom level of oil fields development monitoring system. The concept of the unified hardware of monitoring system for all objects of oil production is offered and approved.

References
1. Muryzhnikov A.N., Muryzhnikov A.A., The use of ZigBee wireless communication channel for security and alarm systems of oil production facilities (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 6, pp. 129–133.
2. Muryzhnikov A.N., Alkin I.G., Latypov I.R., Muryzhnikov A.A., Application of ZigBee modems to transmit SRP and ESP power parameters to control roomat of Oil and Gas Production Department (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 10, pp. 104–107. 

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V.Z. Kuzenkov, A.A. Napryushkin, D.O. Medvedchikov (TomskNIPIneft JSC, RF, Tomsk)
Application of GIS technologies for oil field computer aided design, topographical and land use works

Key words: geoinformation systems, design works, landuse works.

The paper describes the experience of TomskNIPIneft JSC of applying a new geoinformational approach to oil infrastructure computer aided design and recently developed new solutions for topographical and land use works. It is focused on main work directions on GIS-based automation of oil field construction design. The basic results obtained while introducing the GIS solutions into design process are demonstrated as well as the perspectives of future development of the proposed geoinformational approach are discussed.
References
1. Napryushkin A.A., Application of GIS-technologies for oil and gas field
construction design (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2006,
no. 8, pp. 83–85.
2. MacDonald A., Building a Geodatabase, USA, Redlands, California:
ESRI, 2001, 466 r.
3. GIS best practices. Enterprise GIS, USA, Redlands, California: ESRI,
2007, 52 p.


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I.S. Korovin, V.I. Shmoylov (Scientific research institute of multiprocessor computing systems, RF, Taganrog) , M.V. Khisamutdinov (Neuronetwork technologies Ltd., RF, Taganrog)
Oilfield equipment state classification using the methods of linear algebra

Key words: oilfield equipment, classification, forecasting, chain fractions, linear algebra.

An approach to solving the problem of oilfield equipment state classification, based on the construction of systems of linear algebraic equations of high dimensionality, is considered. A fundamentally new algorithm for solving the systems of linear algebraic equations, using the so-called corresponding chain fractions, which is often referred to as proper C-fractions, is suggested. The proposed algorithm for solving the systems of linear algebraic equations, although based on the classical iterative algorithms of Jacobi and Seidel, belongs to the category of exact algorithms, providing the solving systems in a finite number of operations . It is shown that the developed algorithm allows to solve ill-conditioned systems of linear algebraic equations, as well as systems with random matrices. The efficiency of the algorithm for solving the systems of linear algebraic equations is confirmed by comparison with the algorithms of simple Gauss – Seidel iteration.

References
1. Korovin Ya.S., Tkachenko M.G., Kononov S.V., Oilfield equipment's state diagnostics on the basis of data mining technologies (In Russ.), Neftyanoe
khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2012, no. 9, pp. 116–118.
2. Korovin Ya.S., Tkachenko M.G., Method of calculation of coordinates of
height of products in system of contactless definition of raznovysotnosti tvs of
the active zone of the reactor (In Russ.), Izvestiya Yuzhnogo Federal'nogo Universiteta. Tekhnicheskie nauki = Izvestiya SFedU. Engineering sciences, 2010, V. 113, no. 12, pp. 172–178.
3. Korovin Ya.S., Khisamutdinov M.V., Tkachenko M.G., Forecasting of oilfield equipment work conditions with the application of evolutionary algorithms and artificial neural networks (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 128–133.
4. Feraud R., Clerot F., Simon J.L. et al., Kalman and neural network approaches for the control of a VP bandwidth in an ATM network, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer-Verlag Gmb., 2000, V. 1815, pp. 0655.
5. Korovin I.S., Khisamutdinov M.V., The application of evolu-tionary algorithms in the artificial neural network training process for the oil-field equipment malfunctions’ forecasting, Proceedings of 2nd International Symposium on Computer, Communication, Control and Automation, Atlantis Press, 2013, pp. 253–257.
6. Korovin I.S., Khisamutdinov M.V., Hybrid method of dynamograms wavelet analysis for oil-production equipment state identification, Advanced Materials Research, V. 909, pp. 252–259.
7. Shmoylov V.I., Nepreryvnye drobi i r/ϕ algoritm (Continued fractions and
r/ϕ algorithm), Publ. of TTI YuFU, 2012, 608 p.
8. Shmoylov V.I., Nepreryvnye drobi. Part. 2: Raskhodyashchiesya nepreryvnye drobi (Continued fractions. Part. 2: Divergent continued fractions), L'vov: Merkator Publ., 2004, 558 p.
9. Rutiskhauzer G., Algoritm chastnykh i raznostey (The algorithm of private
and differences) (tr. from German), Moscow: IIL Publ., 1960, 93 p.
10. Shmoylov V.I, Kovalenko V.B., Some applications of the summation algorithm of divergent continued fractions (In Russ.), Vestnik Yuzhnogo nauchnogo tsentra RAN, 2012, V. 8, no. 4, pp. 3–13.
11. Shmoylov V.I., Savchenko D.I., Some applications of the summation algorithm of continued fractions, Algoritm summirovaniya raskhodyashchikhsya nepreryvnykh drobey (In Russ.), Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. Fizika. Matematika, 2013, no. 2, pp. 258–276. 

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Decreasing of power efficiency in the system to maintain of reservoir pressure and enhance of oil recovery through pump stations optimization
Decreasing of power efficiency in the system to maintain of reservoir pressure and enhance of oil recovery through pump stations optimization

Key words: pump station, frequency regulated electrical drive, power efficiency.

The problem of reducing energy consumption in formation pressure maintenance and reservoir repressuring in oil and gas industry solves through process control of pumping stations. The software package OIS PIPE "Pump Station", integrated a module OISPIPE «Hydraulic calculation" and intended for assessment the effectiveness and optimize operating conditions for the purpose of reduce a power efficient, is developed based a rigorous mathematical model. The advantages of the suggested methodology are taking into account ceiling physical factors and components as well as the opportunity to take into accout compatibility pipe network with the pumping station pipeline network allowing reduce energy consumption by time-varying pumping requirements for the mode. The developed method was tested on the some field in Western Siberia. 
References
1. Shakaryan Yu.G., Nil'skiy N.F., Instruktsiya po raschetu ekonomicheskoy effektivnosti primeneniya chastotno-reguliruemogo elektroprivoda (Instructions for cost-effectiveness analysis of using the variable frequency drive), Moscow: Publ. of MEI, 1997, 12 p.
2. Vasil'ev G.G., Korobkov G.E. Korshak A.A. et al., Truboprovodnyy transport nefti (Oil pipeline transport): edited by Baynshtok S.M., Part 1, Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2002, 407 p.
3. Elin N.N., Nassonov Yu.V., Ashkarin N.I. et al., Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya matematicheskikh modeley sistem obustroystva neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Development and exploitation of mathematical models of oil fields development systems), Ivanovo, Publ. of IGKhTU, 2006, 272 p.
4. Turk V.I., Karelin V.Ya., Minaev A.V., Nasosy i nasosnye stantsii (Pumps and pumping stations), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 304 p.

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V.N. Kostyukov, A.V. Kostyukov (SPC Dynamics, RF, Omsk)
Real-time monitoring of machinery operation hazards

Key words: monitoring, hazard, management, machinery, condition.

The article is devoted to real-time monitoring of the equipment failure omission risk using data from computer systems for accidents prevention and equipment health monitoring. To prove availability of connection between the equipment operating time in different states and the consequences that arise from adverse events, the necessity to determine such events and specify their consequences, as well as to calculate their occurrence frequency depending on operating time, has been shown. The article includes assessment of possible and probable failures consequences for the units being operated in an unacceptable technical state according to results of the monitoring systems implementation at Russian refineries. The authors have concluded that the automatic calculation and real-time monitoring of the units failure omission risk at hazardous production facilities can be performed only by stationary systems for the equipment health monitoring and presented to all the refinery management levels. This allows the management not only assumes but knows the existing risk level, which is conditioned by the prevailing housekeeping, as well as to make decisions aimed at risk decrease, i.e. to provide the most effective strategy of risk management.
References
1. Makhutov N.A., Gadenin M.M., Rationing strength and risk parameters
to technogenic safety (In Russ.), Khimicheskaya tekhnika, 2011,
no. 1, pp. 12-18.
2. Kostyukov V.N., Monitoring bezopasnosti proizvodstva (Monitoring production safety), Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 2002, 224 p.
3. Kostyukov V.N., Boychenko S.N., Kostyukov A.V., Avtomatizirovannye
sistemy upravleniya bezopasnoy resursosberegayushchey ekspluatatsiey
oborudovaniya neftepererabatyvayushchikh i neftekhimicheskikh
proizvodstv (ASU BER – KOMPAKS®) (Automated control systems for resource saving exploitation of refining and petrochemical equipment
(ACS BER - COMPACS®)): edited by Kostyukov V.N., Moscow: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1999, 163 p.
4. Shor Ya.B., Kuz'min F.I., Tablitsy dlya analiza i kontrolya nadezhnosti (Tables for analysis and control of reliability), Moscow: Sovetskoe radio
Publ., 1968, 288 p.
5. Kostyukov A.V., Kostyukov V.N., Povyshenie operatsionnoy effektivnosti
predpriyatiy na osnove monitoringa v real'nom vremeni (Increase of
operational efficiency on the basis of real-time monitoring), Moscow:
Mashinostroenie Publ., 2009, 192 p.
6. URL: http://www.gosnadzor.ru/activity/control/folder/index.php?sphrase_id=10357

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A.V. Zlotov (Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of RAS, RF, Moscow), D.V. Samorodkin (Association the Constant LLC, RF, Moscow)
Estimation of residual resources of the equipment operation at dangerous industrial object on the basis of dynamic model of deterioration and ageing

Key words: residual resources, risks of damages, dynamic model of deterioration and ageing.

Procedure of an estimation of a residual resource of operation of the equipment of the industrial object, providing a minimum of the sum of the resulted specific operational expenses and risks of damages from probable failures is considered. For the decision of a task the dynamic model of deterioration and ageing of the equipment is under construction on the basis of logic settlement circuits of risks. Estimations can serve as additional information support for the persons accepting the decision according to directive documents of the Russian Federation.

References
1. RD 03-14-2005. Poryadok oformleniya deklaratsii promyshlennoy bezopasnosti opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektov i perechen' vklyuchaemykh v nee svedeniy (The procedure for registration of the declaration of industrial safety of hazardous production facilities and the list of included information), Moscow: Publ. of FGUP NTO Promyshlennaya bezopasnost', 2006.
2. RD 03-418-01.Metodicheskie ukazaniya po provedeniyu analiza riska opasnykh promyshlennykh ob"ektov (Guidelines for risk analysis of hazardous industrial facilities), Moscow: Publ. of FGUP NTO Promyshlennaya bezopasnost', 2002.
3. RD 03-409-01. Metodika otsenki posledstviy avariynykh vzryvov toplivnovozdushnykh smesey (Methods of assessing the effects of accidental explosions of fuel-air mixtures), Moscow: Publ. of FGUP NTO Promyshlennaya bezopasnost', 2002.
4. RD 03-496-02. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po otsenke ushcherba ot
avariy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh (Guidelines for the assessment of damage against accidents at hazardous production
facilities),Moscow: Publ. of FGUP NTO Promyshlennaya bezopasnost', 2002.
5. Livanov Yu.V., Samorodkin D.V., Samorodkin V.D., Zlotov A.V., Development of methodology for the analysis of industrial safety for construction facilities and operation of oil and gas wells (In Russ.), Upravlenie kachestvom v neftegazovom komplekse, 2006, no. 4, pp. 48–53.
6. Church A., Introduction to mathematical logic, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956.
7. RD 03-484-02. Polozhenie o poryadke prodleniya sroka bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii tekhnicheskikh ustroystv, oborudovaniya i sooruzheniy na opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektakh (Regulations on the procedure of extending the safe operation of technical devices, equipment and facilities at hazardous production facilities), Moscow: Publ. of FGUP NTO Promyshlennaya bezopasnost', 2003.
8. RD 26.260.004-91. Metodicheskie ukazaniya. Prognozirovanie ostatochnogo resursa oborudovaniya po izmeneniyu parametrov ego tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya pri ekspluatatsii (Methodical instructions. Prediction of residual life of the equipment to change the parameters of its technical condition in the operation), Moscow: Publ. of Khimmash, 1992.  

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Standardization and technical regulation


S.S. Primakov (TyumenNIIgiprogaz, RF, Tyumen), I.A. Zholobov (Giprotyumenneftegaz OAO, HMS Group, RF, Tyumen)
Measurement of the thermal conductivity of frozen soils in the range of practically significant temperature

Key words: permafrost soil, thermal conductivity, laboratory measurements, thermal characteristic of permafrost soil, developing of instrument for measure thermal conductivity.

Heat engineering calculations provide a reliable and safe operation of buildings and structures on permafrost soils. The initial data for the calculations are thermalphysic properties of soils, determining the velocity of propagation, form halos thawing, etc., some of which, such as the thermal conductivity of the frozen soil poorly defined by indirectly method and require laboratory measurements. This measurement of the thermal conductivity of the frozen soil should be carried out in the actual temperature range for the given conditions of permafrost, which is associated with a number of technical problems due to the complex behavior of frozen soils at temperatures close to the beginning of freezing. In this article we propose a method and instrument for solving this task.
References
1. Primakov S.S., Zholobov I.A., On the need for laboratory measurements of
thermalphysic properties of permafrost soil (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 2, pp. 82–84.
2. Tsytovich N.A., Mekhanika gruntov (kratkiy kurs) (Soil Mechanics (short
course)), 2nd ed., Moscow: Vychislitel'naya shkola Publ., 1973, 280.
3. Certificate of authorship no. 989419, Ustroystvo dlya opredeleniya teploprovodnosti tverdykh materialov (Device for determining the thermal conductivity of solid materials), Authors: Danielyan Yu.S., Zaytsev V.S.; 1989.
4. Vakulin A.A., Osnovy geokriologii (Fundamentals of Geocryology), Tyumen': Publ. of Tyumen State University, 2011, 220 p.

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Economy, management, the legal right


V.V. Ponkratov (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, RF, Moscow)
Tax maneuver in Russian oil production industry

Key words: taxation of oil production, mining tax, customs duty, tax maneuver.

In this article options of tax maneuver in oil industry and consequences of their realization for the Russian economy are analyzed. The main option of tax maneuver is to increase base rate of mineral extraction tax and simultaneously to decrease export customs duty rates on crude and light oil products. Over next years, countries of the Customs Union shell develop a common policy in fuel and energy complex and harmonize systems of export customs duty on oil and products of its processing. The author formulated suggestions how to improve taxation of oil extraction in Russia. For example, it was suggested to remove connection between mineral extraction tax and world oil prices and to transfer the main fiscal effect to the mechanism of the export customs duty. It will allow to avoid price increase for fuel and production of the petrochemical industry in domestic market and to ensure adequate flow of funds to the budget.

References
1. Informatsiya ob ispolnenii konsolidirovannogo byudzheta tsentral'nogo
pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2013 god (Information about the implementation of the consolidated budget of the central government of
the Russian Federation for 2013), URL: http://www.roskazna.ru/konsolidirovannogo- byudzheta-rf/
2. Proekt Osnovnykh napravleniy nalogovoy politiki Rossiyskoy Federatsii
na 2015 god i planovyy period 2016 i 2017 godov (The project of Main Directions for the tax policy of the Russian Federation for 2015 and the planning period of 2016 and 2017), URL: http://www.minfin.ru/ru/tax_relations/ policy/index.php
3. Nalogovogo shoka dlya neftyanikov ne budet (Will not tax shock for oil
industry), URL: http://www.vedomosti.ru/finance/news/27057241/nalogovogo-shoka-dlya-neftyanikov-ne-budet
4. Letter of the Federal Tax Service no. DG 4-3 / 13807 of July 16, 2014 “O
dannykh, neobkhodimykh dlya ischisleniya NDPI v otnoshenii nefti, za iyun'
2014 goda” (About the data required for the calculation of the severance
tax on oil for June 2014).
5. Ponkratov V.V., Improving the system of taxation of oil and gas production
based on the hydrocarbon potential of the Russian economy (In
Russ.), Nalogi i finansovoe pravo, 2012, no. 7, pp. 227.
6. Ponkratov V.V., Improving the taxation of oil production (In Russ.), Finansy, 2011, no. 6, pp. 40. 

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V.L. Ulanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, RF, Moscow)
Criterion for stratedgic development: targeting and responsibility

Key words: enterprise value, targeting, responsibility.

The article deals with analysis of the value of the company as a criterion for its development. The impact of fundamental factors, biased estimates, individual's irrational behavior in the market etc. on the cost is analyzed. Management based on targeting and consolidation of areas of responsibility is recommended.


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Geology and geologo-prospecting works


V. Yu. Kerimov, E.A. Lavrenova, M.V. Kruglyakova, A.A. Gorbunov (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF Moscow)
Oil and gas prospects of Crimea and West part of Sea of Azov

Key words: Sea of Azov, Crimea, Petroleum Systems, Transitional complex, basin modeling, source rocks, geological risks

Crimea's possible pods of active source rocks able to fill traps, located at west part of Sea of Azov, have been detected based on basin modeling. Paleozoic and Cretaceous deposits are expected to be source rocks. Regularity of oil and gas accumulation and prospects of Sea of Azov were studied as result of the investigations.

References
1. Lavrenova E.A., Kruglyakova M.V., Results of two-dimensional basin modeling of the Azov eastern water area due to the problem of the Azov ridge gas deposits origin (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2009, no. 4, pp. 30-35.
2. Lavrenova E.A., Possible origin of Cenozoic gas accumulations of Azov ridge In Russ.), Geologiya, geofizika i razrabotka neftyanykh i gazovykh mestorozhdeniy, 2009, no. 6, pp. 30-36.
3. Lavrenova E.A., Results of basin modeling of eastern part of Azov sea
(In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2009, no. 4, pp. 47-54.
4. Senin B.V., Lavrenova E., Kruglyakova M., Gorbunov A., Evolution of the NE Black Sea paleobasin during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, Abstract book of the AAPG European Region Annual Conference, Exploration in the Black Sea and Caspian regions, Kiev, 2010, URL: http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/abstracts/ pdf/2010/kiev/
5. Yudin G.T., Dankov P.S., Zhabreva P.S. et al., Neftegazonosnost' triasa Predkavkaz'ya (Oil and gas potential of the Triassic of Ciscaucasia): edited Eremenko N.A., Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1974, 87 p.
6. Bazhenova O.K., Fadeeva N.P., Petrichenko Yu.A. et al., Proceedings of IV International Conference “Krym-2002” ("Crimea 2002"): Geodynamics and hydrocarbon-bearing structure of the Black Sea - Caspian region (In Russ.), Simferopol', 2002, pp. 26-28
7. Borkov F.P., Golovachev E.M., Semenduev M.M., Shcherbakov V.V., Geology and petroleum potential of the Azov Sea (on geophysical data) (In Russ.), Moscow: Publ. of IGiRGI, 1994, 188 p.
8. Levitan L.F., Alekseev A.S., Badulina N.V. et al., Geochemistry of Cenomanian/ Turonian boundary sediments in the mountainous part of Crimea and the northwestern Caucasus (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, 2010, no. 6, pp. 570-591.
9. Afanasenkov A.P., Nikishin A.M., Obukhov A.N., Geologicheskoe stroenie i uglevodorodnyy potentsial Vostochno-Chernomorskogo regiona (Geological
structure and hydrocarbon potential of the Eastern Black Sea region), Moscow: Nauchnyy mir Publ., 2007, 172 p.
10. Distanova L.R., Proceedings of VIII International Conference “Novye idei v geologii i geokhimii nefti i gaza. Neftegazonosnye sistemy osadochnykh
basseynov” (New ideas in geology and geochemistry of oil and gas. Petroleum
systems of sedimentary basins), Moscow: GEOS Publ., 2005, pp. 131-133.
11. Bazhenova O.K., Fadeeva N.P., Sen-Zhermes M.L., Biomarkers of organic matter of rocks and oils of Maikop series of Scythian Caucasus region (In Russ.), Geokhimiya = Geochemistry International, 2002, no. 9, pp. 993-1008.
12. Nadezhkin D.V, Ivanov M.K., Comparative characteristics of oil biomarkers from subwater and land oil manifestations of the East Black Sea region (InRuss.), Geologiya nefti i gaza = The journal Oil and Gas Geology, 2011, no. 3, pp. 80-87 

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E.M. Turovskaya, Y.G. Eremin (Gasprom neft NTC LLC, RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Sedimentary model of terrigenous reservoir layers В13 and В10 of Chonsky group of fields

Key words: sedimentary modeling, litotips, facies, reservoir properties, secondary changes.

The article presents a view on the process of terrigenous sediments deposition within Chonskaya group of fields. The construction of the model was carried out with the involvement of all available geological and geophysical information. Integrated use of data obtained in the process of wells drilling and 3D seismic alloweded with greater confidence distinguish facial zones and forecast their development through areas with a low well density index.
References
1. Shemin G.G., Geologiya i perspektivy neftegazonosnosti venda i nizhnego
kembriya tsentral'nykh rayonov Sibirskoy platformy (Nepsko-Botuobinskaya,
Baykitskaya anteklizy i Katangskaya sedlovina) (Geology and oil and gas potential of the Vendian and Lower Cambrian of the central regions of the Siberian Platform (Nepa-Botuobinskaya, Baikitskaya anteclises and Katanga saddle)), Novosibirsk: Publ. of SB RAS, 2007, 467 p.
2. Reading H.G., Sedimentary environments, processes, facies, and stratigraphy,
Blackwell Scientific Publishing, Oxford, 1996.
3. Baraboshkin E.Yu., Prakticheskaya sedimentologiya (terrigennye kollektora) (Practical sedimentology (Terrigenous reservoir)), Tomsk: Publ. of Tsentr professional'noy podgotovki spetsialistov neftegazovogo dela TPU, 2007,
154 p.

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R.Kh. Sungatullin, G.M. Sungatullina, Yu.N. Osin, A.A. Trifonov (Kazan(Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan)
Cosmic matter in the oil sediments of the Middle Caspian

Keywords: cosmic dust, microsphere, magnetite, stratigraphy, oil bearing.

Paleogeography state and conditions are determined by the internal and external factors. Magnetic microspheres from cosmic matter can be used during the stratigraphic correlations. The paper presents the first data on the findings of the microspheres in oil Mesozoic (Jurassic and Cretaceous) sedimentary rocks in the Middle Caspian. It found nearly perfect spherical formations diameter 200-900 mm. Microspheres are confined to the Aptian, Hauterivian and Oxford tiers. In appearance, they are close to the spherules found in other regions. Studies of cosmic matter were performed using scanning electron microscopy with X-ray spectral microprobe analysis. Finding cosmogenic spherules in sediments may make a new tool for regional and global correlations, and to help in the search for hydrocarbon deposits.
References
1. Barash M.S., Okeanologiya – Oceanology, 2008, no. 4, pp. 583–599.
2. Osipov V.I., Geoekologiya. Inzhenernaya geologiya. Gidrogeologiya.
Geokriologiya – Environmental Geoscience, 2005, no. 1, pp. 3–10.
3. Barenbaum A.A., Gladenkov Yu.B., Yasamanov N.A., Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya
korrelyatsiya – Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation, 2002, V.
10, no. 2, pp. 3–14.
4. Korchagin O.A., Doklady Akademii nauk - Doklady Earth Sciences, 2010, V. 431, no. 6, pp. 783–787.
5. Korchagin O.A., Tsel'movich V.A., Pospelov I.I., Byan' Tsyan'tao, Doklady
Akademii nauk - Doklady Earth Sciences, 2010, V. 432, no. 2, pp. 232–238.
6. Grachev A.F., Korchagin O.A., Tsel'movich V.A., Kollmann Kh.A., Fizika Zemli – Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2008, no. 7, pp. 42–57.
7. Pecherskiy D.M., Nurgaliev D.K., Fomin V.A. et al., Fizika Zemli – Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2011, no. 5, pp. 12–34.
8. Adushkin V.V., Popel' S.I., Fizika Zemli - Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2012, no. 3, pp. 81–92.
9. Grachev A.F., Fizika Zemli - Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2010, no. 11, pp. 3–13.
10. Chesnokov B.V., Doklady Akademii nauk - Doklady Earth Sciences, 2000, V. 370, no. 4, pp. 514–515.
11. Finkelman R.B., Magnetic particles extracted from manganese nodules:
suggested origin from stony and iron meteorites, Science, 1970, V. 167,
pp. 982–984.
12. Pecherskiy D.M., Markov G.P., Tsel'movich V.A., Sharonova Z.V., Fizika
Zemli – Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2012, no. 7–8, pp. 103–120.
13. Karpov G.A., Mokhov A.V., Vulkanologiya i seysmologiya – Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 2009, no. 6, pp. 3–25.
14. Gladenkov Yu.B., Stratigrafiya. Geologicheskaya korrelyatsiya – Stratigraphym and Geological Correlation, 1995, V. 3, no. 4, pp. 3–15

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R.A. Shadchnev, A.P. Zorina, D.N. Sharapov, E.V. Ponomareva, (VolgogradNIPImorneft Branch of LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Volgograd), R.A. Kulagin (Institute of Mining, RF, Novosibirsk)
Initial data preparation for creating a geomechanical model of Yu. Korchagin field

Key words: construction, directional and horizontal well, mechanical core
testing, geomechanical model.
The article deals with one of the priority directions of drilling technologies development, i.e. directional and horizontal wells making in offshore fields. Mechanical core testing by dynamic and static methods has been performed for creating a geomechanical model of Yu. Korchagin field with elastic
and strength rock properties determination. The data obtained during
mechanical core testing were used for modelling borehole stability, for
choosing drilling regimes, types of rock destruction tools and developing
drilling liquids composition, and for high-grade tapping of productive beds,
well development and workover
References
1.Il'nitskaya E.I., Teder R.I., Vatolin E.S., Svoystva gornykh porod i metody ikh opredeleniya (Rock properties and methods of its determination), edited by Protod'yakonov M.M., Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1969, 392 p.
2. Petrakov Yu., Proceedings of Affiliate branch of LLC “LUKOIL-Engineering” “VolgogradNIPImorneft” in Volgograd, 2011, V. 70: Geologiya i razrabotka mestorozhdeniy Nizhnego Povolzh'ya i Severnogo Kaspiya (Geology and field development the Lower Volga and Northern Caspian), pp. 225-233.

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D.A. Berezovskiy (Kanevskoye Gas Production Department of Gazprom dobycha Krasnodar, RF, Krasnodar-city), A.V. Lavrentiev, O.V. Savenok, D.G. Antoniadi, A.T. Koshelev (Kuban State Technological University, RF, Krasnodar)
Development physic-chemical models and methods of the forecasting of the condition of the sorts-collector

Key words: compositional model of the sandstone, physic-chemical model of the sandstone, factor to permeability of the sort, probability of the coming the complications, nature of the condition of the sort.

The article presents physic-chemical model of the sandstone. In accordance with this model filtration interaction in sandstone runs in two stages: on the first stage exists the liberation an pore channel, their activation; on the second stage occurs wash-out ligaments (the clayey cement) from nodes of the spatial skeleton of the sort that leads to destruction of the sandstone. It is shown that at forecasting of the condition of the sorts necessary interaction miscellaneous factor: compactions of the sort favours its stable deformation-spatial condition; physic-chemical interactions on microstructure level is destabilizer.

References
1. Berezovskiy D.A., Lavrent'ev A.V., Savenok O.V., Premises and problems of modeling of the rock with standpoint of the determination of the conditions
of the approach factor complications of the mining (In Russ.), Nauka. Tekhnika. Tekhnologii (politekhnicheskiy vestnik), 2014, no. 2, pp. 27-33.
2. Troitskaya M.P., Posobie k laboratornym rabotam po mekhanike gruntov
(Handbook for laboratory work on soil mechanics), Moscow: Publ. of MSU,
1961, 306 p.
3. Lavrent'ev A.V., Antoniadi D.G., Berezovskiy D.A., Savenok O.V., Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya mekhanizmov gidrodinamicheskoy ustoychivosti peschanika (Experimental studies of the mechanisms of sandstone hydrodynamic
stability), Moscow: Gornaya kniga Publ., 2014, 28 p.
4. Berezovskiy D.A., Savenok O.V., Analysis of modern methods and technologies taken in the final stage of gas fields exploitation (In Russ.),
GeoInzhiniring, 2014, no. 2 (22).
5. Berezovskiy D.A., Savenok O.V., Development of a method of forecasting
the state of the reservoir rocks in the final stage of gas fields exploitation in
Krasnodar Region (In Russ.), Proceedings of International extramural scientific and practical conference “Fundamental'nye i prikladnye issledovaniya, razrabotka i primenenie vysokikh tekhnologiy v ekonomike, upravlenii proektami, pedagogike, prave, kul'turologii, yazykoznanii, prirodopol'zovanii, biologii,
zoologii, khimii, politologii, psikhologii, meditsine, filologii, filosofii, sotsiologii, matematike, tekhnike, fizike, informatike” (Fundamental and applied research, development and application of high technologies in the economy, project management, education, law, cultural studies, linguistics, resource management, biology, zoology, chemistry, political science, psychology, medicine, philology, philosophy, sociology, mathematics, engineering,physics, information science), January 30-31, 2014, St. Petersburg: Kul'tInform-Press Publ., 2014, pp. 41-44.
6. Berezovskiy D.A., Savenok O.V., Analysis of the complications at usages gasfields on terminating stage and development of the method of the forecastingof the condition of the sorts-collector on base of the methods interdisciplinarymodeling (In Russ.), Nauka. Tekhnika. Tekhnologii (politekhnicheskiyvestnik), 2014, no. 1, pp. 26-34.
7. Kashkina K.V., Berezovskiy D.A. Savenok O.V., Razrabotka effektivnoy
tekhnologii ekspluatatsii gazovykh mestorozhdeniy na zavershayushchey
stadii na primere mestorozhdeniy Krasnodarskogo kraya (Developing an effectivetechnology of gas fields exploitation in the final stage on the example
of Krasnodar Region), Proceedings of International forum-contest of
young scientists “Problemy nedropol'zovaniya” (Problems of subsoil use), April23-25, 2014, St. Petersburg: Publ. of University of Mines, 2014, p. 179.
8. Leont'ev N.E., Osnovy teorii fil'tratsii (Fundamentals of filtration theory),
Moscow: Publ. of Center for Applied Research at the Mechanics and MathematicsFaculty of Moscow State University, 2009, 88 p.
9. Terzaghi K., Theoretical soil mechanics, Wiley, 1943, 526 p.
10. Florin V.A., Osnovy mekhaniki gruntov (Fundamentals of soil mechanics),Part 2, Moscow: Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1961, 544 p.
11. Tsytovich N.A., Mekhanika gruntov (Soil mechanics), Moscow: Stroyizdat Publ., 1963. 

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Drilling of chinks


V.V. Kulchitskiy, A.V. Schebetov, V.V. Аjgunjan (Interregional Gubkin Scientific and Technical Society of Oil and Gas Experts, RF, Moscow)
The drilling of small diameter wells for the development of the Bazhenov Suite

Key words: stranded oil, Bazhenov Suite, shale oil, small diameter wells, the installation of electric centrifugal pumps, production casing.

The article deals with the optimization of the development of hard-to-recover oil reserves at the Bazhenov Suite by wells of small diameter. It is proven significant cost and environmental impact reduction while minimizing diameter wells. The technological basis of the possibility of drilling and operation MD by existing technologies are given.

References
1. Alekperov V.Yu., Grayfer V.I., Nikolaev N.M. et al., New Russian oil-recovery method for exploiting the Bazhenov formation’s deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2013, no. 12, pp. 100-105.
2. Kosilov A.F., Issledovanie i razrabotka kompleksa tekhnologicheskikh resheniy povysheniya kachestva zakanchivaniya skvazhin malogo diametra
(na primere mestorozhdeniy Zapadnoy Sibiri) (Research and development of
complex technology solutions to improve the quality of small diameter well
completions (for example, deposits of Western Siberia)): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Krasnodar, 2003. 

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Working out and operation of oil deposits


R.S. Khisamov (Tatneft OAO, RF, Almetyevsk), R.G. Kharisov, V.A, Ekimenko, Zh.K. Dobrovolskaya, T.K. Morkovskaya, R.R. Nagimov (TNG-Group LLC, RF, Bugulma)
New 4D seismic monitoring technologies applied during oilfield development

Key words: 4D seismic monitoring, geologic-hydrodynamic model (GHM), acoustic impedance.

The article contains results acquired during 4D CDP seismic test works accomplished in the Russian Federation onshore areas.
References
1. Ampilov Yu.P., Baturin D.G., 4D seismic state-of-the-art technologies for
monitoring of offshore oil and gas fields development (In Russ.), Tekhnologii
seysmorazvedki, 2013, no. 2, pp. 31-36.
2. Dobrovol'skaya Zh.K., Morkovskaya T.V., Nagimov R.R., Opytno-metodicheskie seysmorazvedochnye raboty MOGT 4D na Ballaevskoy strukture i Yuzhno-Elkhovskoy strukturnoy zone Novo-Elkhovskogo neftyanogo mestorozhdeniya OOO “TNG-Grupp” (Experimental methodology CDP 4D seismic workon the Ballaevskaya structure and South Elkhovskaya structural zone of Novo Elkhovskoye oil field of TNG Group), Bugul'ma, 2014. 

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I.G. Kazbulatov, A.V. Rubtsova (Weatherford, RF, Moscow), R.R. Unusov (LUKOIL-West Siberia LLC, RF, Kogalym), N.A. Veremko (LUKOIL-Engineering LLC, RF, Moscow), V.V. Volyanskaya (Rosneft Oil Company OJSC, RF, Moscow)
Multistage horizontal wells treatment in combination with microseismic monitoring and cross-dipole acoustic logging

Key words: microseismic, monitoring, acoustics, cross-dipole acoustics,
unconventionals, bazhen, fractures, hydrofracking
This paper considers problem of unconventional resources development in
Western Siberia region. Reviewed combination of methods - microseismic
treatment monitoring and cross-dipole acoustic logging to optimize development
and stimulation programs based on natural fractures parameters
and geomechanical properties.
References
1. Aki K., Richards P.G., Quantitative Seismology, New York: Freeman and
Company, 1980.
2. Britt L., Smith M., Cunningham L., Hellman T., Zinno R., Urbancic T., Fracture optimization and design via integration of hydraulic fracture imaging and fracture modeling, SPE 67205, 2001, pp. 1 - 11.
3. Economides M., Oligney R., Valko P., Unified fracture design, Alvin, Texas: Orsa Press, 2004, 194 p.
4. Fehler M., Jupe A., Asanuma H., More than cloud: New techniques for
characterizing reservoir structure using induces seismicity, The Leading Edge,
2001, V. 3, pp. 324 - 328.

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G.N. Chumako, V.I. Zotikov , I.Yu. Kolychev (Perm National Research Polytechnic University, RF, Perm) , S.V. Galkin (PrognozRNM MIP OOO, RF, Perm)
Analysis of the effectiveness of cyclic fluid injection application in various geological and technological conditions of oil fields development

Key words: cyclic injection, sweep efficiency, displacement characteristics, technological effect, the linear discriminant function, the statistical model .

The analysis of the development of operational facilities with cyclic fluid injection into the formation is analyzed for Perm Krai oil fields. The calculation of the technological efficiency of cyclic injection use according to M.I. Maximov's techniques for water displacement characteristics constructing and specific oil yield dependence on the cumulative oil production by V.D. Lysenko is carried out. The statistical analysis results revealed geological and technological indicators, which have the greatest influence on the efficiency of the implementation of cyclic fluid injection into the formation. The linear discriminant analysis is applied in order to determine the combined effect of informative indicators on the cyclic injection efficiency. Predictive models of the probabilities to gain the technological effect from the introduction of cyclic injection are obtained.

References
1. Surguchev M.L., Vtorichnye i tretichnye metody uvelicheniya nefteotdachi
plastov (Secondary and tertiary methods of enhanced oil recovery),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1985, 308 p.
2. Surguchev M.L., Shcharbatov I.N., Tsiklicheskoe vozdeystvie na neodnorodnye
neftyanye plasty (Cyclic stimulation on heterogeneous oil reservoirs),
Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1988, 121 p.
3. Smirnova T.S., Dolgova E.Yu., Merkitanov N.A., Tulegenov A.R., Hydrodynamic
enhanced oil recovery methods (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo
issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya.
Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 7, pp. 27–34.
4. Akhmetov N.Z., Povyshenie effektivnosti regulirovaniya vyrabotki ostatochnykh zapasov iz mnogoplastovogo ob"ekta tsiklicheskim zavodneniem (More effective regulation of development of residual stocks of multilayer objects by cyclic waterflooding): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Al'met'evsk, 2003.
5. Ilyushin P.Yu., Galkin S.V., Forecast water cut production wells Perm with the A-statistical methods (In Russ.), Vestnik Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo
politekhnicheskogo universiteta. Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i
gornoe delo, 2011, no. 1, pp. 76–84.
6. Galkin S.V., Efimov A.A., Zonal distribution of oil reservoir viscosity, permeability
and mobility coefficient for Bashkir deposits of Perm Krai (In Russ.), Vestnik
Permskogo natsional'nogo issledovatel'skogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta.
Geologiya. Neftegazovoe i gornoe delo, 2013, no. 6, pp. 43–53.
7. RD 153-39.0-110-01. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po geologo-promyslovomu
analizu razrabotki neftyanykh i gazoneftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Methodical
instructions on geological and field analysis of oil and gas fields development), Moscow: Publ. of Ministry of Energy RF, 2002, 59 p.
8. Lysenko V.D., Innovatsionnaya razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy
(The innovative development of oil fields), Moscow: Nedra-Biznestsentr Publ., 2000, 516 p. 

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E.O. Sazonov (Bashneft-Dobicha LLC, RF, Ufa)
Simulation of the interface motion between two immiscible liquids under flow diverter technologies conditions

Key words: diverter technologies, interphase boundary motion, conformance control, Lambert W-Function.

The present study considered the problem of the interface motion between two immiscible liquids. The solution of this problem for applications of flow diverter technology would be evaluation basis of the hydrodynamic medium properties changing over time, such as the fluid mobility, the saturation, pressure distribution, mean resistance and conductivity. The results were obtained for two types of filtration: radial and linear one. First case describes the physics for liquids flowing to well galleries, second - the process of contour contraction or a motion into the formation. Analytical solution for the radial case was derived for the first time. A method to assess the degree of injectivity profile smoothing after the flow diverter technologies.
References
1. Dake L.P., The Practice of reservoir engineering (Revised Edition), Elsevier
Science, 2001, 570 p.
2. Willhite G.P., Waterflooding, SPE Textbook Series, 1986.
3. Dubinov A.E., Dubinova I.D., Saykov S.K., W-funktsiya Lamberta i ee primenenie v matematicheskikh zadachakh fiziki (Lambert w function and its application in mathematical physics problems), Sarov: Publ. of RFYaTs-VNIIEF, 2006, 160 p.
4. Corless G.H., Gonnet R.M., Hare D.E.G. et al., On the lambert w function,
Advances in Computational Mathematics, 1996, V. 5, pp. 329–359.
5. Scott T.C., Fee G., Grotendorst J., Asymptotic series of generalized lambert
w function, IGSAM, ACM Special Interest Group in Symbolic and Algebraic
Manipulation, 2013, V. 47 (185), pp. 75–83.
6. Aziz K., Settari A., Petroleum reservoir simulation, Elsevier Applied Science
Publishers, 1986.
7. Dake L., Fundamentals of reservoir engineering, URL:
http://books.google.ru/books?id=grQAlQEACAAJ.
8. Chen Z., Reservoir simulation mathematical techniques in oil recovery,
Philadelphia: Society for industrial and applied mathematics, 2007, 250 r.
9. Craig F., Reservoir engineering aspects of waterflooding, H. L. Doherty
Memorial Fund of AIME, 1971, 164 p.
10. Muskat M., The flow of homogeneous fluids through porous media, Mc-
Graw-hill book company, Inc., 1937, 782 p.
11. Charnyy I.A., Podzemnaya gidrogazodinamika (Underground hydraulic
gas dynamics), Moscow – Leningrad: Gostoptekhizdat Publ., 1963, 396 p.
12. Leybenzon L.S., Dvizheniya prirodnykh zhidkostey i gazov v poristoy srede (Natural liquids and gases movement in a porous medium), Moscow –
Leningrad: OGIZ, Gosudarstvennoe tekhniko-teoreticheskoe izdatel'stvo
Publ., 1947, 244 p.

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R.Z. Sattarov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)
Geostochastic Modeling-Based Analysis of Sweep Efficiency Increase Resulting from Hydrofrac

Key words: computer-aided technologies, program module, computer-aided procedure, stochastic modeling, reservoir simulation, macroinhomogeneity, sweep efficiency increase, hydrofrac efficiency.

The paper presents the results of statistical regression analysis of hydraulic fracturing efficiency in discontinuous formations. Sweep efficiency was determined using stochastic lithological cubes built with the Irap RMS simulation package. It has been found that hydrofracturing is effective in discontinuous formations characterized by large number of permeable intervals in the section and small-sized sand lenses relative to distance between wells, i.e. hydrofrac efficiency increases with increase of macroinhomogeneity.
References
1. Abdulmazitov, R.G., Sattarov R.Z., Development of technologies of special
geological oilfield maps construction (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2008, no. 10, pp. 94–96.
2. Bad'yanov V.A., Metody komp'yuternogo modelirovaniya v zadachakh
neftepromyslovoy geologii (Methods of computer modeling in the petroleum
geology), Tyumen': Shadrinskiy Dom Pechati Publ., 2010, 135 p.
3. Usmanov T.S. et al., Impact analysis of hydraulic fracturing on oil recovery in the fields of "Yuganskneftegaz" (In Russ.), Tekhnologii TEK, 2005, no. 5 (24), pp. 48–55.
4. Zheltov Yu.P., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oilfield development), 2nd edition, Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1998, 365 p.
5. Nasybullin, A.V., Sattarov R.Z., Application of stochastic simulation to estimate the dependence of sweep efficiency on macroheterogeneity indicators
(In Russ.), Georesursy = International Journal of Sciences “Georesources”,
2014, no. 1 (56), pp. 51–53

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M.A. Myslyuk (Poltava Petroleum Company JV, Ukraine, Poltava), V.Ya. Petruniak (Ivano-Frankivsk National Technical University of Oil and Gas and, Ukraine, Ivano-Frankivsk)
About Statistical Interpretation of Pressure Buildup Curves

Key words: pay formation, pressure build-up curve, simulation model, statistical method, the Bourdet derivative method. It provides examples of the well test data processing for pay formations from some oil, gas and condensate fields in the southeast of the Dnieper Donets Depression. It shows that usage of the optimality criteria on the basis of properties of the covariance matrix of formation evaluation improves their accuracy quite significantly. It offers a review of the comparative results of pressure buildup curve processing with the proposed techniques and Method and PT4.0 software packages and specifies errors in evaluation of pay formation properties. The evaluations of statistical characteristics of pay formation filtration properties (hydroconductivity, permeability and skin) have been modeled for the likelihood function criteria and properties of the covariance matrix. The study shows that use of optimality criteria on the basis of properties of the covariance matrix improves the accuracy of formation evaluation essentially.
References
1. Shagiev R.G., Issledovanie skvazhin po KVD (Well survey using pressure
build-up), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1998, 304 p.
2. Bourdet D., Ayoub J.A., Pirard Y.M., Use of pressure derivative in well-test interpretation, SPE, 1989, June, pp. 293–302.
3. Chaudhry A., Oil well testing handbook, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2003, 525 p.
4. Myslyuk M.A., Karotazhnik, 2009, V. 7, pp. 112–120.
5. Myslyuk M.A., Petrunyak V.Ya., Naftova і gazova promislovіst', 2012, no. 5, pp. 37–40.
6. Method. Demo version. Software program for pressure buildup, URL:
http://www.oil-gas-toolbox.com/method.html
7. Ecrin. Demo version. Software program for pressure buildup, URL:
http://www.kappaeng.com/software/ecrin

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The oil-field equipment


V.F. Nazarov, V.K. Mukhutdinov (Bashkir State University, RF, Ufa), F.F. Azizov, K.R. Ahmetov (Surgutneftegas OJSC, RF, Surgut)
Influence of temperature sensor design on quality of wellbore measurements

Key words: temperature logging, temperature sensor, injection, well, tubing.

The paper presents the results of measurements of contemporary complex tools which contain temperature channel. It is shown that the design of the tool, in particular, the location of the temperature sensor is very inefficient. This leads to mixing of fluids in the wellbore and recording distorted temperature. As a result, the conclusion on the state of the wellbore and reservoir is wrong.
References
1. Valiullin R.A., Termicheskie metody diagnostiki neftyanykh plastov i skvazhin (Thermal methods of diagnostics of oil reservoirs and wells): Thesis of the doctor of technical science, Tver', 1996.
2. Nazarov V.F., Termometriya nagnetatel'nykh skvazhin (Thermometry of injection wells): Thesis of the doctor of technical science, Ufa, 2002.
3. Patent no. 2121571 RF, MKI3 E 21 47/00, 47/10, 47/06,Method of investigating injection wells (versions), Inventors: Nazarov V.F., Valiullin R.A., Azizov F.F. et al.

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B.Yu. Vasilyev (National Mineral Resources University (University of Mines), RF, Saint-Petersburg)
Energy efficiency and electromagnetic compatibility of the frequency converters of pumping units electric drives

Key words: pumping unit, electric driver, frequency converter, energy efficiency, electromagnetic compatibility.

The problem of electromagnetic compatibility and energy efficiency in electric drives of pumping units, used in oil pumping stations, is considered. The main advantages and disadvantages of synchronous and asynchronous drives are given. The main ways to improve electromagnetic compatibility and energy efficiency of asynchronous drives are analyzed.
References
1. Men'shov B.G., Ershov M.S., Yarizov A.D., Elektrotekhnicheskie ustanovki i kompleksy neftegazovoy promyshlennosti (Electrical installations and complexes
of oil and gas industry), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2000, 487 p.
2. Onishchenko G.B., Yun'kov M.G., Elektroprivod turbomekhanizmov (Electric drive of turbo-machinery), Moscow: Energiya Publ., 1972, 240 p.
3. Emel'yanov A.P., Vasil'ev B.Yu., Vestnik IGEU – Vestnik IGEU Journal,
2013, no. 1.
4. Vasil'ev B.Yu., Neftegazovoe delo – Oil and Gas Business, 2012, no. 4, pp.
5. Lyadov K.B., Zlobin A.G., Mordovchenko D.D. et al., Gazoturbinnye
tekhnologii, 2012, no. 4, pp.
6. Lazarev G.B., Silovaya elektronika, 2007, no. 3, pp.
7. Burdasov B.K., Nesterov S.A., Elektronika i informatsionnye tekhnologii,
2011, no. 1, http://fetmag.mrsu.ru/2011-1/pdf/Frequency_Converters.pdf.
8. Vasil'ev B.Yu., Alekseev V.V., Vershinin V.I., Zapiski Gornogo Instituta, 2012, no. 196, pp.

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R.N. Bakhtizin, K.R. Urazakov, S.V. Smolnikov, M.E. Politov (Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, RF, Ufa)
Experimental studies of fine filter bandwidth

Key words: filtration studies, filter elements, fine filter, material and granulometric composition, characteristics of filtering element, Severo-Komsomolskoye field

The paper presents the results of laboratory experiments for typical filtration through a pad of polymer-fiber material. Investigations were carried out on a special laboratory setup simulating filtering of wells with a high content of sand and clay fractions of the core Severo-Komsomolskoye field, through the fine filter, installed at the reception downhole pump. Experimental studies have shown the effectiveness of the fine filter. Received a parabolic dependence of the amount of suspended particles deposited on the filter element, the accumulated volume pumped downhole fluid model with high sand content.
References
1. Smol'nikov S.V., Topol'nikov A.S., Urazakov K.R., Bakhtizin R.N., Metody zashchity
nasosnogo oborudovaniya dlya dobychi nefti ot mekhanicheskikh
primesey (Methods of protection of oil pumping equipment from mechanical
impurities), Ufa: Neftegazovoe delo Publ., 2010, 41 p.
2. Patent no. 2471063 RF RU E21V 43/08, Bottom-hole fine filter, Inventors:
Urazakov K.R., Tyapov O.A., Maslennikov E.P. et al.
3. Patent no. 2355876 RF RU E21V 43/08, Well filter, Inventors: Urazakov K.R., Topol'nikov A.S., Agamalov G.B. et al.
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Ecological and industrial safety


E.V. Maksina, A.O. Gurianova, V.V. Ermakov, D.E. Bykov (Samara State Technic University, RF, Samara)
Experimental estimation of possibility of application of enzymatic dewatering waste drilling mud

Key words: drilling slurry, polysaccharides, utilization, biodegradation, enzyme.

The authors experimentally studied the possibility of enzymatic split of polymer-containing drilling muds. The depolimerization ability of polysaccharide solutions that are most often used for preparation of drilling fluids is estimated under the influence of enzymes that are released in the process of vital activity of microorganisms. It is also evaluated the effect of the solutions pH on the rate of depolymerization. The efficiency of decomposition of waste drilling muds served as the deposition rate of the mineral. As sources of enzymes we used microorganisms developing at the beer pellet and prepared enzyme product. The results of the experiment show a significant increase in the rate of biodegradation of polymeric structures in solutions of carboxymethyl cellulose, guar gum. The xanthan resin solution was also much more resistant to biodegradation. The increase in the rate of biodegradation of polysaccharide solutions allows to reduce time of deposition of mineral particles by reducing the viscosity of the solution. Reduction of time of division of drilling sludge intensifies the process of their utilization.
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