Priority directions for the development of the oil and gas complex is a systematic approach to assessing the prospects for the oil and gas potential of the regions. Based on the classification of oil systems proposed by Chinese researchers, the article discusses the characteristic features of the reservoirs of various oil and gas basins. There are three main types of petroleum hydrocarbon accumulations, which are characterized by the quality of the reservoir itself and the morphology of the traps, in combination with the corresponding indicators of hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. In accordance with the designated types of reservoirs, oil systems with their features of hydrocarbon ontogenesis are considered: source-rock petroleum system (or source system) with continuous reservoirs; an oil and/or gas oil system in tight, low-permeability rocks with quasi-continuous reservoirs and a traditional (conventional) reservoir oil system with discontinuous (discrete) reservoirs. It seems that the three oil systems under consideration can contain both a common source and several sources of hydrocarbons and from the standpoint of their formation and distribution, be genetically related to each other, i.e. be present in each pool as part of a single whole. Effective search and exploration at all stages requires comprehensive studies and various strategies taking into account the adoption of the paradigm of the integrity of the oil and gas basin in terms of the ontogenesis of oil and gas accumulations, their commonality and differences (in terms of the original source suites, migration processes, formation of traps and destruction clusters). Some information about the sedimentary basins of Australia, the Permian basin of the USA and the West Siberian oil and gas basin of Russia is given (both poor and rich in reserves and resources are used as examples). In each of the considered basins, it is proposed to assess the prospects of the territories in a comprehensive and systematic way, taking into account the classification features of oil systems.
1. Dmitrievskiy A.N., Izbrannye trudy (Selected works), Part 1, Moscow: Nauka Publ., 2008, 454 p.
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14. Punanova S.A., Vinogradova T.L., Peculiarities of geological reserves distribution through gas-and-oil bearing complexes of northern regions of West Siberia (In Russ.), Geologiya nefti i gaza, 2008, no. 3, pp. 20–30.
15. Punanova S.A., Shuster V.L., Ngo L.T., Peculiarities of geological structures, and oil and gas efficiency in Pre-Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia and the basement of Vietnam (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2018, no. 10, pp. 16–19, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-10-16-19
16. Punanova S.A., Shuster V.L., A new approach to the prospects of the oil and gas bearing of deep-seated Jurassic deposits in the Western Siberia (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2018, no. 2 (20), pp. 58–65, https://doi.org/10.18599/grs.2018.2.67-80
17. Punanova S.A., On the classification diversity of oil and gas trappers and geochemical criteria for the productivity of shale formations (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2021, no. 2, pp. 1–15, http://dx.doi.org/10.5510/OGP2021SI200538.
18. Fomin M.A., Saitov R.M., Section types and oil prospects of the Bazhenov formation in the Nadym-Ob interfluve (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2020, no. 3 (22), pp. 2–11, DOI: 10.18599/grs.2020.3.2-11
19. Koveshnikov A.E., Oil and gas reservoirs in the pre-Jurassic formations of the West Siberian geosyneclise (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2011, V. 319, no. 1, pp. 147–151.20. Ostroukhov O.B., Pronin N.V., Plotnikova I.N., Khayrtdinov R.K., A new method of "geochemical logging" for studying Domanic deposits (In Russ.), Georesursy, 2020, no. 3 (22), pp. 28–37, DOI: 10.18599/grs.2020.3.28-37
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For a complete understanding of the oil and gas fields formation processes and correct choice of the direction of their search and exploration, facies-cyclical analysis is required. On the example of the Pirallahi adasy area, the possibility of using the logging facies technique for the facies-cyclic analysis of deposits of the productive series of the Early Pliocene is shown. The Pirallahi adasy field is located in the Absheron oil and gas region. The sandy horizons of the Kirmaky and Pre Kirmaky suites of the productive series are the main oil and gas bearing objects at the Pirallakhi adasy fiel. dGenetic studies of sandy reservoirs have been carried out. Alluvial deposits play an important role in the formation of oil and gas deposits. These deposits are developed within the coastal-marine conditions of sedimentation of sandy bodies, especially in the paleodelts. Non-anticlinal hydrocarbon traps are genetically related to the aforementioned sedimentation conditions. Prediction of changes in the main parameters of sand bodies-reservoirs as well as the choice of a rational system for the development of the field is possible only with accurate information on the origin of sand bodies. In this regard, the topic of the article devoted to the study of the conditions and environments of sedimentation of deposits of the productive series is very relevant. At present, well logging data are widely used to study the genesis of sedimentary rocks. The article shows the efficiency of using field geophysical data in the study of both lithological and facies variability of terrigenous deposits. In the process of research, data from electrical logging and X-ray logging were used, , on the basis of which the genesis of sandy reservoir bodies was determined.
1. Alikhanov E.N., Geologiya Kaspiyskogo morya (Geology of the Caspian Sea), Baku: Elm Publ., 1978, 190 p.
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5. Seidov V.M., Khalilova L.N., Examples of reconstruction of productive strata depositional environment in Azerbaijan on the base of well logging data (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 62–66, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-62-66, URL: https://doi.org/10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-62-66
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One of the basic units of the geological model of the field is a classification of rocks (lithotypes or petrotypes) determined by logging data. At the same time, in complex formations in case of a wide variety of classes, logging data not always can help to distinguish them by properties. In practice, some classes have fairly close physical properties despite differences in genesis, structure and texture. In this case, it is necessary to form an optimal set of classes for their further prediction and using in a geological modeling. Under this article an attempt of solving this problem for the acid Permian-Triassic igneous rocks of Western Siberia was made using a combination of random forest machine learning algorithm and hierarchical clustering. While hierarchical clustering, the basic matrix of features was built taking into account a volumetric model that was calculated using hybrid technology (simultaneous linear algebraic equations and genetic algorithm). As a result, the integration of technologies made it possible to solve the problem of reducing the class space for its further prediction using logging data. As a confirmation of the reliability of the applied approaches, a comprehensive analysis of the results was carried out. Thus, the results are approved by the petrographic analysis of the core data that shows the similar material composition and similar mechanism of formation of united classes. In the article conclusions about the possibility of using machine learning algorithms to solve similar problems are stated.
1. Rudenko V.Yu., Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Aplication of stochastic model and genetic algorithms for multimineral modeling based on principle of petrophysical inversion (In Russ.), Geofizika, 2020, no. 6, pp. 18–26.
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8. Rudenko V.J., Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Application of genetic algorithms for multimineral modeling based on the principle of petrophysical inversion, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers - Conference Proceedings, Data Science in Oil & Gas, 2020, V. 2020, pp. 1–6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202054015
9. Rudenko V.J. Babakov I.V., Priezzhev I.I., Application of hybrid combination technology genetic algorithm using well-log data for multimineral modeling with computing of changes in each mineral endpoint, European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers – Conference Proceedings, Geomodel, 2020, V. 2020, pp. 1–5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.3997/2214-4609.202050083
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This paper presents the results of comprehensive studies on the Achimov deposits and overlaying clay horizons of Luceyakhskoe field, Western Siberia, aimed at hydraulic fracturing design and optimization. Multidisciplinary investigations included: core testing, 1D/3D Geomechanical modeling and their calibration to earlier hydraulic fracturing results and drilling events, and multivariate calculations of hydraulic fracturing designs. During the study, specific thin bedding was revealed in the silt-clayey sediments of the seal and interlayers. This rock structure is the main reason of differences in rock properties for both: vertical and horizontal directions. The physical and mechanical properties anisotropy of the geological environment can lead to a change in the minimum horizontal stress’s values, which in turn, is one of the main factors that controls the hydraulic fracture geometry. The data correlation obtained within the framework of one project made possible to characterize the complex bedding barrier effect in the seal and interlayer deposits and to be accounted on hydraulic fracture design stage. It was shown that the complex bedding barrier effect has a significant impact on the fracture propagation during hydraulic fracturing. Ignoring this effect in the modeling leads to incorrect calculation of the fracture opening in hydraulic fracturing simulators. At the hydraulic fracturing design optimization, several scenarios were simulated for different combinations of the complex bedding interval’s location, tonnage and horizonal borehole’s depth. Additionally, the selection of the optimal buffer volume and injection rate was performed. As a result of the analysis of more than 1000 hydraulic fracturing design scenarios, 3 basic scenarios were selected for implementation at the Lutseyaskhskoe field, corresponding to different risk levels for an optimal decision making.
1. Punanova S.A., Hydrocarbon accumulations of Achimov sediments northern regions of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Ekcpozitsiya Neft' Gaz, 2020, no. 3, pp. 10–13.
2. Borodkin V.N., Kurchikov A.R., To the problem of refining the western and eastern boundaries of the Achimov clinoform complex (West Siberia) (In Russ.), Geologiya i geofizika, 2015, V. 56, no. 9, pp. 1630–1642.
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5. Fjar E., Holt R.M., Raaen A.M., Horsrud P., Petroleum related rock mechanics, International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 2009, V. 46, no. 8, pp. 1398–1399, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2009.04.012
6. Warpinski N., Fracture growth in layered and discontinuous media, Proceedings of the Technical Workshops for the Hydraulic Fracturing Study: Fate and Transport, Washington, DC: Environ. Prot. Agency, 2011.7. Ju W., Wu C., Sun W., Effects of mechanical layering on hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs based on numerical models, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 2018, no. 11(12), pp. 1–11, DOI: 10.1007/s12517-018-3693-1
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The author states that in order to solve the problem of behind-the-casing flows of liquids and gases, more information is needed on the plugging properties of cement slurries (PPCS) used in casing cementing. While waiting-on-cement time the hydrostatic pressure in the annular space decreases. This leads to the inflow of reservoir fluid into the well, the destruction of the still weak structure of the cement slurry and channeling formation. A list of PPCS criteria is proposed which are necessary and sufficient for assessing the intensity of filtration-suffusion flows and the state of integrity of the cement slurry structure. As a criterion of filtration properties, the so-called initial gradient is considered; it characterizes the conditions for the beginning of the pore fluid movement in the cement slurry. The second criterion is the characteristic of the beginning of the destruction of cement slurry solid skeleton by the filtration flow and the beginning of the channeling formation. Analysis of the methods for experimental evaluation of the indicated criteria has been carried out. It is shown that due to the instability of cement slurries properties it is fundamentally important to link the PPCS criteria to some characteristic time point. As such time point, the author proposes to use the end of repression on the formation - the beginning of the fluid inflow into the well. A description is given of several methods for determining the repression period. The most informative among these methods is the one that uses the dynamics of the pore pressure of cement slurries. A technique for obtaining pore pressure curves of cement slurries is recommended. This technique is suitable for use, including in industrial laboratories. A method for assessing the quality of reservoir isolation during the waiting-on-cement time and some methods for preventing behind-the-casing flows are presented.
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5. Grachev V.V., Leonov E.G., Malevanskiy V.D., Pronitsaemost' skeleta stolba tsementnogo rastvora v period OZTs (Permeability of the skeleton of the cement mortar column during the WOC period), Collected papers “Razrabotka i ekspluatatsiya gazovykh i gazokondensatnykh mestorozhdeniy” (Development and operation of gas and gas condensate fields), Publ. of VNIIEGazprom, 1970, no. 7, pp. 9–16.
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8. Dzhabarov K.A., Mathematical modeling the processes of behind-casing fluid movement in the wells during waiting on cement (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 5, pp. 67–71, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-5-67-71
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Solving the problems of rational development and operation of oil fields, enhanced (EOR) and improved oil recovery (IOR), including the recovery of unprofitable natural and production induced hard-to-recover reserves of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons will long-term a significant and relevant objective. Scientists and experts in petroleum production, not only in the oil and gas industry, show great interest in the problems that cause conflicts between the owner of the subsoil and subsoil users or investors, in order to choose the optimal option of tax preferences for the maximize the oil production from unprofitable hard-to-recover reserves.
The article provides a brief chronology of the development of the oil and gas industry in the context of the evolution of new production, EOR and IOR methods, as well as the gradual transition from the development of conventional “active” to hard-to-recover reserves. The authors discuss topical problems of the oil fields development with unprofitable natural and technogenic hard-to-recover reserves of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. A new definition is proposed for unprofitable natural and production induced hard-to-recovery reserves; a new solution is given for predicting water breakthrough under conditions of instability of the of oil displacement front. It points out the shortcomings of the current Tax Code provisions regarding the justified methodology of geological and technological parameters for selecting unprofitable man-made hard-to-recovery reserves, and suggests ways to improve the necessary solutions. It is noted that the dealing with negative consequences of the reservoir and injected water impact on the mobility of non-stationary waterflooding and the resulting oil immobility and also impact on the process of field development in general is noted. The expediency of creating of EOR/IOR innovative technologies for depleted fields and successful application at development sites is shown, which requires tax preferences for creators of scientific and technical products. Thus, it has been shown that the development of unprofitable natural and man-made unprofitable hard-to-recover reserves is an urgent, demanded and long-term task, the solution of which requires a systematic approach that ensures the harmonization of geological, technological, economic and regulatory parameters and indicators to justify the choice of objects falling under the benefits and assess the expected effect.
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2. Vilenskiy P.L., Livshits V.N., Smolyak S.A., Otsenka effektivnosti investitsionnykh proektov: Teoriya i praktika (Evaluation of the effectiveness of investment projects: Theory and practice), Moscow: Delo Publ., 2015, 1300 p.
3. Shpurov I.V., Tudvachev A.V., Justification of the boundary values of permeability reservoirs in their differentiation into classes with high and low filtration potential (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 9, pp. 73–77.
4. Vygon G., Inventory of reserves: from state expertise to national audit (In Russ.), Neftegazovaya vertikal', 2019, no. 18/19, pp. 19–24.
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8. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., System optimization of non-stationary floods for the purpose of increasing oil recovery (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 1, pp. 44–50, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-1-44-49
9. 9. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Sistemnaya optimizatsiya protsessa razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (System optimization of oil field development process), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2004, 452 p.
10. Mirzadzhanzade A.Kh., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Dinamicheskie protsessy v neftegazodobyche: sistemnyy analiz, diagnoz, prognoz (Dynamic processes in the oil and gas production: systems analysis, diagnosis, prognosis), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1997, 254 p.
11. Mandrik I.E., Panakhov G.M., Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Nauchno-metodicheskie i tekhnologicheskie osnovy optimizatsii protsessa povysheniya nefteotdachi plastov (Scientific and methodological and technological basis for EOR optimization), Moscow: Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Publ., 2010, 288 p.
12. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Once again about oil recovery factor (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2014, no. 1, pp. 44–48.
13. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Mandrik I.E., Aref'ev S.V., Alternative concept of monitoring and optimization water flooding of oil reservoirs in the conditions of instability of the displacement front (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2019, no. 12, pp. 118–123, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-2019-12-118-123
14. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Some conceptual aspects of systematic optimization of oil field development (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 2, pp. 58–63, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2017-2-58-63
15. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Aref'ev S.V., The concept of monitoring and optimization of oil reservoirs waterflooding under the conditions of displacement front instability (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2021, no. 11, pp. 104–109, DOI:10.24887/0028-2448-11-104-109
16. Shakhverdiev A.Kh., Shestopalov Yu.V., Qualitative analysis of quadratic polynomial dynamical systems associated with the modeling and monitoring of oil fields, Lobachevskii journal of mathematics, 2019, V. 40, no. 10, pp. 1695–1710, DOI:10.1134/S1995080219100226
17. Shestopalov Y. V., Shakhverdiev A. Kh., Qualitative theory of two-dimensional polynomial dynamical systems, MDPI, Symmetry, 2021, no. 13, V. 1884, pp. 1–19, https: // doi.org / 10.3390 /sym13101884.
18. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 356 of June 14, 2016 (as amended by order No. 638 of September 20, 2019) “Ob utverzhdenii pravil razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya” (On the approval of the rules for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420365257
19. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation dated May 18, 2016 No. 12-r “Ob utverzhdenii Vremennykh metodicheskikh rekomendatsiy po podgotovke tekhnicheskikh proektov po razrabotke mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya” (On approval of Temporary guidelines for the preparation of technical projects for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/420368869
20. Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation No. 639 dated 20.09.19 “Ob utverzhdenii pravil podgotovki tekhnicheskikh proektov razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnogo syr'ya” (On the approval of the rules for the preparation of technical projects for the development of hydrocarbon deposits), URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/56137250121. Mukhidinov Sh.V., Belyakov E.O., Determination of mobile water in reservoirs of Achimov thickness (In Russ.), Proneft'. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 4(18), pp. 34–47.
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As a part of a preparation for field application of polymer flooding with HPAM at 20 mPa·c viscosity, series of core flood tests were carried out to determine resistance modification, residual resistance factor and retention factor. Tests were performed with actual core samples taken from reservoir, which is a fine to medium sandstone. In terms of permeability, the reservoir is highly heterogeneous so the samples were divided in 3 groups – high, medium and low permeability. It was expected that values of measured parameters would be more or less dependent on permeability, however, some of the results obtained did not correspond to this trend. When mineral composition of core samples was analyzed it was noticed that some samples have carbonate content up to 70%, while having values of porosity and permeability in the same range as other sandstone samples with low carbonate content. General dependence of experimental results on permeability and carbonate content was established. Further, since carbonates have different wettability characteristic than silicates, a concept of combining Smart Water technology and polymer flooding was tested on samples with high carbonate content. Combined treatment resulted in additional 5% of oil recovery when compared with proper polymer flooding.
1. Ferreira V.H.S., Moreno R.B.Z.L., Rheology-based method for calculating polymer inaccessible pore volume in core flooding experiments, Proceedings of E3S Web Conf. Vol. 89 (The 2018 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts – SCA 2018), 2019, DOI:10.1051/e3sconf/20198904001
2. Thomas A., Essentials of polymer flooding technique, John Wiley and sons Ltd., 328 p.
3. Sameer A.H., Syed M.M., Hesham A., Saeed A., An overview on polymer retention in porous media, Energies, 2018, V. 11, no. 10, p. 2751, DOI: 10.3390/en11102751
4. Seright R., How much polymer should be injected during a polymer flood? Review of previous and current practices, Conference Proceedings. IOR 2017 – 19th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, April 2017, DOI:10.2118/179543-MS
5. Sorbie K.S., Polymer-improved oil recovery, Dordrecht (Netherlands): Springer, 1991, 359 p.
6. Austard T., Water-based EOR in carbonates and sandstones: New Chemical understanding of the EOR potential using “Smart Water”, Chapter 13 in book: Enhanced oil recovery field cases, edited by Sheng J., Houston (TX, USA): Gulf Professional Publishing, 2013, 712 r., DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-386545-8.00013-0
7. Ethington E.F., Interfacial contact angle measurements of water, mercury, and 20 organic liquids on quartz, calcite, biotite, and Ca-montmorillonite substrates, Golden (CO, USA): U.S. Geological Survey, 1990, 18 p.
8. Broseta D., Medjahed F., Lecourtier J., Robin M., Polymer adsorption/Retention in porous media: Effects of core wettability on residual oil, SPE 24149-PA, 1995, DOI:10.2118/24149-PA
9. Rezaei Gomari K.A., Hamouda A.A., Effect of fatty acids, water composition and pH on the wettability alteration of calcite surface, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 2006, V. 50, pp. 140–150.
10. Ahmadi S., Hosseini M., Tangestani E., Mousavi S.E., Niazi M., Wettability alteration and oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition of smart water and surfactants into carbonates, Petroleum Science, 2020, V. 17, pp. 712–721, DOI: 10.1007/s12182-019-00412-1
11. Evdokimov I.N., Nanozhidkosti i “umnye zhidkosti” v tekhnologiyakh razrabotki neftegazovykh mestorozhdeniy (Nanofluids and “smart fluids” in oil and gas field development technologies), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2016, 247 p.
12. Fathi S.J., Austad T., Strand S., Water-based enchanced oil recovery (EOR) by “smart water”: Optimal ionic composition for EOR in carbonates, Energy and Fuels, 2011, no. 25(11), pp. 5173–5179, DOI:10.1021/ef201019k
13. Antoniadi D.G., Savenok O.V., Bukov N.N. et al., The possibility of using low-salinity water for increasing oil fields in Krasnodar region (In Russ.), Gornyy informatsionno-analiticheskiy byulleten', 2014, no. 8, pp. 331–339.14. Shokoufeh A., Behzad R., An investigation of polymer adsorption in porous media using pore network modeling, Transport in Porous Media, 2016, V. 115, pp. 169–187, DOI:10.1007/s11242-016-0760-5
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A method is proposed for interpreting the results of gas condensate well test data in two steady-state regime in order to determine the initial value of the reservoir effective permeability and its change factor. The described technique was developed on the basis of a binary filtration model, where the hydrocarbon system is represented as consisting of two pseudo-components and two phases, between the phases there is a mass transfer of hydrocarbons. To apply the proposed methodology, well production data is required, measured at two different steady-state well conditions for two different reservoir pressures. The technique has been tested on the example of PVT production data for the horizon X of the Bulla-Deniz field (Azerbaijan) at different compacting factors of reservoir rocks. The high reliability of the described method has been established. At the initial stages of development, the deviation of the calculated values of the considered parameters from their actual values did not reach 1%. And at later periods, i.e. when the reservoir pressure falls below than 80%, the deviations of the calculated initial permeability and permeability change factor were 2.3 and 4.6%, respectively. Unlike similar methods, the proposed approach is based on the idea of linear approximation. This made it possible to minimize the input data (the number of measurements) and at the same time increased the reliability of interpretation by eliminating the subjectivity factor. The proposed method is simple and reliable, as evidenced by the test results. It is easy to use in a computer, which is not unimportant when automating the process of interpreting measurement results.
1. AbasovM.T., Orudjaliev F.G., Djamalbekov M.A., Scientific basis gas condensate reservoirs development in deformed reservoir rocks, Proceedings of the II Symposium on Mining Chemistry, Visegrad, 1986, 22–24 October, pp. 187–206.
2. Aliev F.A., Jamalbayov M.A., Hasanov I.R. et al., Mathematical modeling of the nonlinear filtration process of volatile oils to a well in a compacting formation, Proceedings of the 6th international conference on control and optimization with industrial applications, 2018, V. II, pp. 59–61.
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6. Angeles R., Torres-Verdin C., Lee H.-J. et al., Estimation of permeability and permeability anisotropy from straddle-packer formation-tester measurements based on the physics of two-phase immiscible flow and invasion, SPE-95897-PA, 2007.
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11. Hasanov I.R., Jamalbayov M.A., A stationary oil inflow to the wellbore taking into account the initial pressure gradient, Arab J Geosci., 2020, V. 13, no. 833, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-020-05868-9, https://rdcu.be/b6o5x
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The need for further development of digital technologies and the need for a wider application of these technologies for process control has already become obvious. Digital technologies are at the heart of projects for the development of autonomous assets implemented by Gazprom Neft. However, their widespread use is impossible without solving the problem of ensuring the uniformity of measurements. In the presented work, the issues of metrological support of digital technologies from the point of view of the current legislation of the Russian Federation are considered. The review considered the priorities of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, as well as the tasks facing Gazprom Neft to achieve its strategic goals and the already existing experience in the use of digital technologies. The process of artificial lift was chosen as the subject of research. Using this process as an example, the main barriers inherent in digital models and preventing their active dissemination are considered. During the study, it was found that digital models belong to management models and based on this, goals were determined to eliminate the identified barriers. The list of tasks necessary to achieve the set goals has been defined. To do this, an analysis of the current regulatory and technical documentation in the field of metrology was carried out and options for solving the problem of ensuring the uniformity of measurement for digital models were considered. The review considered the need to apply existing forms of state regulation in the field of ensuring the uniformity of measurements to minimize the need for amendments to the current legislation of the Russian Federation.
In the future, based on solutions developed within the framework of ongoing research on metrological support of digital models of technological operations, Gazprom Neft will develop a concept of metrological support of digital models, which will allow these solutions to be replicated in the perimeter of the Company, and the results obtained will serve as the basis for the formation of a unified state concept for ensuring the uniformity of measurement of digital models of various technological processes from metrological examination to determination of metrological characteristics of digital models.
1. Orlov S., Digital platform. Strategy for digital transformation of oil refining, transportation and marketing of petroleum products (In Russ.), Sibirskaya neft', 2018, no. 4, pp. 40–45.
2. Besekerskiy V.A., Teoriya sistem avtomaticheskogo upravleniya (Theory of automatic control systems), St. Petersburg: Professiya Publ., 2007, 752 ð.
3. Perkins T.K., Critical and subcritical flow of multiphase mixtures through chokes, SPE-20633-PA, 1993, DOI: https://doi.org/10.2118/20633-PA
4. Gerasimov R.V., Muzychuk P.S., Kuz'min M.I., Digital transformation of the mechanized oil production process at Gazprom Neft PJSC (In Russ.), Inzhenernaya praktika, 2021, no. 7, pp. 38–41.
5. Kir'yanov A.A., Aktual'nye tseli i zadachi metrologii v neftegazodobyvayushchey otrasli v epokhu tsifrovizatsii (Actual goals and objectives of metrology in the oil and gas industry in the era of digitalization), Proceedings of XXII All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference on Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics “Transformatsiya nerazrushayushchego kontrolya i tekhnicheskoy diagnostiki v epokhu tsifrovizatsii. Obespechenie bezopasnosti obshchestva v izmenyayushchemsya mire” (Transformation of non-destructive testing and technical diagnostics in the era of digitalization. Ensuring the safety of society in a changing world), Moscow, March, 3–5, 2020, Moscow: Spektr Publ., 2020, pp. 205–207.6. Kuz'min M.I., Kibirev E.A., Zatsepin A.Yu., Klinov E.V., Unmanned oil field: Present and the future (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2020, no. 1, pp. 64– 68, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2020-1-64-68
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The field experience with application of various methods of prevention and remediation of wax deposition in tubing has shown that none of the methods provides 100 % protection and each need to be duplicated by other methods with the exception of using electrical heating and scrapers. Among the prevention methods of wax deposition, the magnetic treatment of oil using magnetic devices of various designs is quite effective and simple in production and handling. Over the past decades, a great experience on using the magnetic treatment on production fluids has been gained. At the same time, not all observed phenomena and effects have a rigorous explanation. This paper discusses the effect of a magnetic field on the wax deposits; an analytical model has been developed to quantify the wax deposition rate on the tubing surface during magnetic treatment of the upstream. It has been established that the passage of the oil flow through a non-uniform magnetic field causes a high-intensity electric field for a sufficiently long period of time, the effect of which decreases the solubility of wax in oil, increases the intensity of wax crystallization in the volume of oil and reduces the wax deposition on the tubing surface. The model takes into account that the presence of wax deposits on the tubing surface is a highly efficient heat insulator that changes the temperature regime of the flow and the temperature of the tubing wall. A method for calculating the equilibrium concentration of wax and changing in the solubility of wax in oil as a result of the influence of a constant electric field has been developed. It has been shown that the effect of magnetic treatments rises with the increase in the concentration of asphaltenes in oil and water cut.
1. Cheremisin N.A., Issledovanie mekhanizma obrazovaniya parafinogidratnykh probok v neftyanykh skvazhinakh s tsel'yu sovershenstvovaniya metodov bor'by s nim (Study of the mechanism of formation of paraffin hydrate plugs in oil wells in order to improve methods of dealing with it): thesis of candidate of technical science, Tyumen, 1992.
2. Pivovarova N.A., Magnitnye tekhnologii dobychi i pererabotki uglevodorodnogo syr'ya. Obzornaya informatsiya (Magnetic technologies for extraction and processing of hydrocarbon raw materials. Overview information), Moscow: Publ. of Gazpromekspo, 2009, 120 p.
3. Shchekhovtseva E.V., Roman'ko V.V., Kim S.L., Relevance of application of magnetic inductors use when operating a complicated fund of wells (In Russ.), Neftepromyslovoe delo, 2020, no. 3, pp. 52–58.
4. Leont'ev A.Yu., Poletaeva O.V. et al., Magnetic field influence on the rheological properties of heavy highly viscous oils (In Russ.), Neftegazokhimiya, 2019, no. 3–4, pp. 18–22.
5. Zlobin A.A., The mechanism of magnetic activation of oil for well protection against asphaltene deposits (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 1, pp. 52–56.
6. Lesin V.I., Eremin N.A., The natural and synthesized nanoscale iron oxides - nanobots in the control processes of the production, the transportation, the preparation and the refining of oil by using the magnetic field (In Russ.), Neft'.Gaz.Novatsii, 2018, no. 1, pp. 18–22.
7. Patent RU 2 623 758 C1, Blast-hole magnetic complex for formation fluid processing in bottom-hole zone, Inventor: Soldatova I.P.
8. Fedorov E.E., Razrabotka metodov ponizheniya vyazkosti nefti i deparafinizatsii promyslovykh truboprovodov s ispol'zovaniem elektricheskogo polya (Development of methods for reducing the viscosity of oil and dewaxing field pipelines using an electric field): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ivano-Frankovsk, 1982.
9. Malyshev A.G., Cheremisin N.A., Shevchenko G.V., Choosing the best ways to control of paraffin-hydrate formations (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 1997, no. 9, pp. 62–69.
10. Apasov T.K., Apasov G.T., Sarancha A.V., Fighting with deposits AFS, salts and corrosion by the application of magnetic activators (In Russ.), Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2015, no. 2-2, pp. 66–66.
11. Loskutova Yu.V., Yudina N.V., Influence of a magnetic field on the structural-rheological properties of oils (In Russ.), Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta, 2006, V. 309, no. 4, pp. 104–109.
12. Patent US5024271A, Permanent-magnet wax-proof device, Inventor: Meihua W.
13. Gupalo Yu.P., Polyanin A.D., Ryazantsev Yu.S., Massoobmen reagiruyushchikh chastits s potokom (Mass transfer of reacting particles with the flow), Mocsow: Nauka Publ., 1985, 336 p.
14. Lifshits E.M., Pitaevskiy L.P., Fizicheskaya kinetika (Physical kinetics), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1979, 528 p.
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16. Frolov Yu.G., Kurs kolloidnoy khimii (Colloid chemistry course), M.: Khimiya, 1989. – 464 s.
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18. Tronov V.P., Mekhanizm obrazovaniya smolo-parafinovykh otlozheniy i bor'ba s nimi (Mechanism of formation of resin-paraffin deposits and its control), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1970, 192 p.
19. Chernov A.A., Trusov L.M., Electrostatic effects during the formation of nuclei on the surface (In Russ.), RNTS VNIIOENG, 1979, no. 5, pp. 3–5.
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22. Medvedev V.F., Sbor i podgotovka neustoychivykh emul'siĭ na promyslakh (Gathering and preparation of unstable emulsions in the fields), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 1987, 144 p.
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The article describes the marginal wells operation using electric submersible pumps ESP units. Various models of periodic operation based on telemetry are described. The study of periodic operation models enables quick choice of the operating mode of the ESP units. The following models are given as an example: that determine the need to transfer wells with a low-productivity ESP units to a periodic operation mode, periodic well operation model with an “active” leak of check valve (turbine rotation), long-term downtime well model operating in a periodic mode. The types of periodic operation and technical and economic indicators of marginal wells are presented. The features of short-term periodic well operation mode are considered. The geological and technological factors influencing the transfer of wells to the periodic operation mode are indicated. Mitigation measures for a periodic operation well model with active valve leak are described. These measures are aimed to reduce the effect of liquid draining from the tubing on the launch of an electric centrifugal pump. The geological and physical features of deposits with hard-to-recover reserves significantly affect the operation of wells with ESP units. An increase in the number of wells operated in a periodic mode requires much more time to evaluate the effectiveness of the equipment. Automation of the process of determining wells being in periodic operation together with the possibility of optimizing their work will increase oil production, reduce energy consumption and specific electricity consumption of the ESP units.
1. Tsivelev K.V., Operation of wells in the mode of periodic short-term switching on and development of recommendations for optimizing the operation of the electric centrifugal pump unit (In Russ.), Problemy razrabotki mestorozhdeniy uglevodorodnykh i rudnykh poleznykh iskopaemykh, 2015, no. 4, pp. 180–183.
2. Zeygman Yu.V., Kolonskikh A.V., Optimization of ESP operation to prevent complications (In Russ.), Neftegazovoe delo, 2005, no. 2, URL: http://ogbus.ru/authors/Zeigman/Zeigman_1.pdf.
3. Makeev A.A., Shchelokov D.V., Shay E.L., Complications during the operation of wells of high-temperature deposits in the Oktyabrsky region (Krasnolensky arch) (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 2, pp. 42-44, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-2-42-444. Kibirev E.A., Muzychuk P.S., Optimization of protection against emergency shutdown in the control station of submersible pumps at the fields of Gazprom Neft (In Russ.), PRONEFT''. Professional'no o nefti, 2018, no. 3(9), pp. 56–62, DOI: 10.24887/2587-7399-2018-3-56-62
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The methods based on wave processing by fields of different physical nature (magnetic field, electromagnetic field, ultrasonic vibrations, etc.) are gaining increasing importance for the destruction of stable water-in-oil emulsions. In the article the possibility of complete destruction of field water-in-oil emulsions formed during oil production by using magnetic and ultrasonic treatment is shown. The results of experimental studies of the influence of various parameters of wave treatment and of additives of various solvents and nanosized metal powders on the completeness of demulsification of stable field water-in-oil emulsions of various compositions, including those containing "gel", are presented. Original methods of destruction of field water-in-oil emulsions with a degree of water separation more than 99% and residual water content in the oil phase less than 1 wt. % are proposed. For water-in-oil emulsions of the inverse type, these results are achieved by using magnetic treatment in a flow mode, for gel-containing water-in-oil emulsions – by ultrasonic treatment in combination with a nanosized additive in a static or flow mode. As a nanosized additive, it is proposed to use a suspension of aluminum nitride nanopowder in acetone (6-8% of the emulsion volume, depending on the "gel" content), or a suspension of aluminum oxide nanopowder in acetonitrile (10% of the emulsion volume, regardless of the "gel" content). The advantage of aluminum nitride nanopowder is the possibility of its reuse with retention of activity up to 10 cycles. The prototype of a pilot unit of wave action with ultrasonic and magnetic blocks for processing emulsions to implement the proposed methods of demulsification in oil fields is presented.
1. Kosmacheva T.F., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Research of demulsifiers ability to formation of anomalously stable structures (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2004, no. 1, pp. 90–92.
2. Sakhabutdinov R.Z., Gubaydulin F.R., Ismagilov I.Kh., Kosmacheva T.F., Osobennosti formirovaniya i razrusheniya vodoneftyanykh emul'siy na pozdney stadii razrabotki neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Features of formation and destruction of oil-water emulsions at a late stage of oil field development), Moscow: Publ. of OAO “VNIIOENG”, 2005, 324 p.
3. Zolfaghari R., Fakhrul-Razi A., Abdullah L.C. et al., Demulsification techniques of water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions in petroleum industry, Separation and Purification Technology, 2016, V. 170, pp. 377–407, DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2016.06.026
4. Levchenko D.N., Bergshteyn N.V., Khudyakova A.D., Niko N.M., Emul'sii nefti s vodoy i metody ikh razrusheniya (Oil-water emulsion and methods for their destruction), Moscow: Khimiya Publ., 1967, 200 p.
5. Tarasov M.Yu., The main technological solutions used in the design of oil treatment facilities at the fields of Western Siberia (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2002, no. 7, pp. 26–30.
6. Romanova Yu.N., Musina N.S., Maryutina T.A., The impact of different types of wave action on the destruction of stable gel-containing water-oil emulsions (In Russ.), Zavodskaya laboratoriya. Diagnostika materialov, 2018, V. 84, no. 7, pp. 7–15, DOI: 10.26896/1028-6861-2018-84-7-7-15
7. Romanova Y.N., Maryutina T.A., Musina N.S. et al., Demulsification of water-in-oil emulsions by exposure to magnetic field, J. Pet. Sci. Eng., 2019, V. 179, pp. 600–605, DOI:10.1016/j.petrol.2019.05.002
8. Patent RU 2 712 589 C1, Method for destruction of highly stable water-oil emulsions, Inventors: Romanova Yu.N., Musina N.S., Maryutina T.A., Trofimov D.A.
9. Sofla M.J.D., Norouzi-Apourvari S., Schaffie M., The effect of magnetic field on stability of conventional and pickering water-in-crude oil emulsions stabilized with fumed silica and iron oxide nanoparticles, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 2020, V. 314, DOI: 10.1016/j.molliq.2020.113629
10. Hippmann S., Ahmed S.S., Frohlich P., Bertau M., Demulsification of water/crude oil emulsion using natural rock Alginite, Colloids Surf. A., 2018, V. 553, pp. 71–79, DOI: 10.1016/j.colsurfa.2018.05.03111. Patent RU 2 721 955 C1, Wave action device for oil stock preparation, Inventors: Musina N.S., Romanova Yu.N., Maryutina T.A., Trofimov D.A.
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The basic process of preparing fresh water using aluminum hydrochloride is considered. The negative effect of a coagulating reagent on dehydration and desalination during primary oil preparation is shown. It has been laboratory-confirmed that an increased content of suspended particles in suppressed fresh water for desalination naturally worsens the residual water content in oil. It was noted that the presence of the coagulant “hydroxyl chloride aluminum” increases the residual water content in the oil, however, the content of chloride salts decreases. It is assumed that the determination of chloride salts using the titrimetric method according to GOST 21534-76 (method A) is affected by the presence of aluminum ions. The formation of “heavy” aluminum-asphaltene complexes from the point of view of chemical structural interactions is raised. The aluminum ions included in the composition of asphaltene compounds are able to “capture” water molecules and concentrate on the oil-water interface, subsequently forming intermediate layers in technological devices and thereby impair the preparation of oil. During laboratory and field tests, it was found that in the spring flood period, in order to achieve standard indicators for the residual content of water and chloride salts in oil, it is necessary to change the water treatment technology. The use of fresh water after its additional static sludge in reinforced concrete tanks for 8 hours (an increase in sludge time due to available production facilities), as well as strict adherence to the coagulant dosage in the range of 50-60 ppm allow us to achieve standard oil performance in 1 quality group according to GOST R 51858-2002.
1. Tuzhilin A.S., Layner Yu.A., Surova L.M., Physicochemical properties of aluminum hydroxychlorides of various basicity (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Tsvetnaya metallurgiya, 2007, no. 2, pp. 18–23.
2. Muravlenko S.V., Artem'ev V.N., Khisamutdinov N.I. et al., Razrabotka neftyanykh mestorozhdeniy (Oil field development), Part 3, edited by Khisamutdinov N.I., Ibragimov G.Z., Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 1994, 49 p.
3. Wang J., Fan T., Buckley J.S., Creek J.L., Impact of water cut on asphaltene deposition tendency, Proceedings of Offshore Technology Conference, 2014, DOI: 10.4043/25411-MS4. Grijalva-Monteverde H., Arellano-Tanori O.V., Valdez M.A., Zeta potential and langmuir films of asphaltene polar fractions, Energy & Fuels, 2005, no. 19, pp. 2416–2422, DOI: 10.1021/ef050120y
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To ensure reliability of the main pipeline during operation it is necessary assessing the strength of the pipeline that is subjected by a complex of loads. The stress-strain state monitoring of the pipeline contributes to the solution of this problem since the values of stresses (strains) obtained during monitoring are the initial data for pipe strength calculations. Continuous assessment and monitoring of the stress-strain state is especially necessary for main pipelines laid in difficult geological and engineering conditions. Various methods are known either for assessing the pipeline stress-strain state that consist of determining the spatial position of the main pipeline and further calculating the stress-strain state components or in directly measuring stresses or strains by some physical method. It is important that the method provides continuous pipeline monitoring.
In this article, an inclinometric technology is proposed to determine the spatial position and curvature of the main pipeline. The technology was tested in laboratory conditions on the bench that is a pipe installed on two supports. The laboratory bench allows loading the pipe with a bending force in the vertical plane. In the experiments, a portable digital inclinometer was used, it measures inclination angles of the pipe during bending. Plots of the tangent of the inclination angle, deformation and curvature of the upper, lateral and lower pipe zones are obtained. Therefore, the inclinometric method is effective. The data of inclinometric measurements allow calculating the components of the pipeline stress-strain state according to known formulas. Guidance on implementation of inclinometric technology in practice for monitoring the pipeline stress-strain state including specifying the installation location of inclinometric sensors on the pipeline is given. Inclinometric sensors provide continuous monitoring of the main pipeline position and assessment of its stress-strain state.
1. Islamov R.R., Aginey R.V., Isupova E.V., Analysis of ways and methods of monitoring the stressed state of underground oil and gas pipelines, working in complicated engineering-geological conditions (In Russ.), Transport i khranenie nefteproduktov i uglevodorodnogo syr'ya, 2017, no. 6, pp. 31–40.
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4. Ignatik A.A., Stress-strain state characteristics of pipeline wall under the internal pressure, bending, and torsion (In Russ.), Gazovaya promyshlennost', 2020, no. 4, pp. 102–107.
5. Aginey R.V. et al., Development of the mathematical model for assessing the optimal measurement step when surveying the depth of the underground pipeline from the ground (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2020, V. 10, pp. 4, pp. 364–371, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2020-10-4-364-371
6. Kuz'bozhev A.S., Birillo I.N., Berdnik M.M., Investigation of the stress-strain state of the pipeline in the area of single dent and dent interacting with metal loss defect (In Russ.), SOCAR Proceedings, 2018, no. 4, pp. 43–49, DOI: 10.5510/OGP20180400369
7. Islamov R.R., Sovershenstvovanie sistemy monitoringa tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya protyazhennykh uchastkov magistral'nykh neftegazoprovodov primeneniem volokonno-opticheskikh sensorov deformatsii (Improving the monitoring system for the technical condition of long sections of oil and gas pipelines using fiber-optic strain sensors): thesis of candidate of technical science, Ukhta, 2018.
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Among the physical methods for removing and preventing the formation of solid salt (SSD) and asphalten-resin-paraffin (ARPD) deposits, a special place occupy technologies based on an electro-hydraulic blow, which occurs during electrical discharge in the liquid and initiates powerful acoustic shock waves - the electro-hydraulic effect. Despite the obvious energy benefits, this method has not found wide use due to a number of limitations. The article discusses the technology of the destruction of SSD and ARPD in an open pipeline of any configuration and length with the help of electro-hydraulic discharge, free of such limitations. When this technology is applied, the destruction of salt and paraffin sediments inside the pipe occurs as a result of the impact of the shock wave on its outer wall. The shock wave is created by the electro-hydraulic discharge outside the pipe in a special tube with water, which is placed on any section of the pipeline and promoted as it is purified. The technology can be used to eliminate any deposits (SSD, ARPD, hydrates, ice, cement stone, and soft sediments). It is shown that the technology allows you to remove the SSD, ARPD in any open pipelines with a diameter of 40-600 mm with an unlimited number of turns, vertical or horizontal position, the presence of couplings, valves, valves and other fittings of the pipeline; ensure the safety of the inner and outer surfaces of the pipes, including special coatings; remove SSD in polymer pipes without damaging them; clean pipes with any (even 100%) degree of overlapping by postponement of the pipeline cross-section, etc. Examples of technology application for cleaning various types of pipes are given.
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8. Application for invention no. 2021127727; filing date 09/21/2021.
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By its composition, the oil transported via main pipelines has heterogeneous composition including water, chlorides and mechanical impurities. To provide reliable taking of crude oil mass into account, home oil companies use crude oil custody transfer metering systems, which incorporate sampling equipment (SE). In this paper the authors throw light on the actual theme of studying SE structures, as well as evaluation of actual sample representativity taken from pipelines using SE. Similar studies have become possible owing to 10-year development of special measurement standards in the Russian Federation that permit to perform experimental studies in the area of liquid-gas mixture mass flow rates. Within the testing four SE with nominal diameter DN100 with one and five holes of various input areas were manufactured. The paper explains in detail the flow preparation and sampling procedure that is realized after flow stabilization at both completely and partially opened throttles; at that four liquid samples are taken successively. Water and oil simulator EXXSOL D100 were used as working liquids. The results of performed experimental studies demonstrated that SE versions with five holes of design input areas 98 and 129.035 mm2 are most preferable in comparison with the values specified at the National Primary Special Standard of mass flow rate unit of liquid-gas mixtures GET-195-2011. The obtained experimental results will be used for creating digital twins of both main equipment and CQCS as a whole. This project is currently implemented in The Pipeline Transport Institute LLC.
1. Aralov O.V., Buyanov I.V., Lisin Yu.V. et al., Sovremennoe sostoyanie vedeniya uchetnykh operatsiy s neft'yu i nefteproduktami s primeneniem izmeritel'nykh sistem v Rossii (The current state of accounting operations with oil and oil products using measuring systems in Russia), Moscow: Nedra Publ., 2019, 246 p.
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3. Yagudin I.R., Petrov V.N., Dresvyannikov A.F., A promising direction in the development of mobile calibration units for measuring crude oil (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2013, no. 4, pp. 203-208.
4. Aralov O.V., Korolenok A.M., Buyanov I.V. et al., Mathematical modeling of devices for sampling oil and oil products from pipelines (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2020, no. 12, pp. 128–130, DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2020-12-128-130
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6. Petrov V.N., Malyshev S.L., Mukhametshina G.F., On the issue of controlling the process of circulating mixing (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2016, no. 13, pp. 81–83.
7. Tukhvatullin A.R., Korneev R.A., Kolodnikov A.V. et al., Attestatsiya etalonov edinits massovogo i ob"emnogo raskhodov zhidkosti (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2012, no. 18, pp. 245–247.8. Kupkenov R.R. et al., Oil products purity monitoring in transportation through the main pipelines (In Russ.), Nauka i tehnologii truboprovodnogo transporta nefti i nefteproduktov = Science & Technologies: Oil and Oil Products Pipeline Transportation, 2019, V. 9, no. 3, pp. 342–352, DOI: 10.28999/2541-9595-2019-9-3-342-352.
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Pipeline fittings (elbows, adaptors, T-couplings, etc.) are more exposed to stress-corrosion fracture than straight sections of a pipeline. The research and tests were performed to enhance performance of oilfield pipeline systems. A test batch of steel 13HFÀ (high-grade steel containing 0.13% of carbon, chrome and vanadium) pipeline fittings was manufactured to be mounted on oil and gas line pipes featuring improved mechanical properties and extra-high resistance to corrosive oilfield media. Field (bypass) tests of the pipeline fittings (elbows, adaptors, T-couplings, etc.) test batch were run (for 19, 23 and for 42 months) in an operational in-field flow line and oil-gathering line of a West-Siberian oilfield with high contents of dissolved H2S and CO2 as well as with bacterial contamination. Changes in structural and mechanical performance and corrosion resistance were measured prior to and after the tests. General corrosion, local corrosion and bacterial corrosion rates were quantified in course of the tests. The structure, chemical and phase composition of corrosion products as well as their change versus the time of testing were identified. Specific features of stress-corrosion fracture and changes of general and local corrosion rates versus time in service are identified for each type of pipe fittings. High intensity of bacterial corrosion in pipeline fittings as compared with pipeline straight sections is pointed out. Heat treatment conditions are proposed that form the 13HFÀ structural condition which gives pipeline fittings persistent properties and corrosion resistance for continuous operation in oilfield media with contents of carbon dioxide.
1. Zav’yalov V.V., Problemy ekspluatatsionnoy nadezhnosti truboprovodov na pozdney stadia razrabotki mestorozhdeniy (Pipelines operating reliability problems in the late stages of field development), Moscow: Publ. of VNIIOENG, 2005, 332 p.
2. Vyboyshchik M.A., Ioffe A.V., Razrabotka stali, stoykoy k uglekislotnoy korrozii v neftedobyvaemykh sredakh (Development of steel resistant to carbon dioxide corrosion in oil-producing environments), In: Perspektivnye materialy (Promising Materials), Part 7, 2017, pp. 115–160.
3. Ioffe A.V., Tetyueva T.V., Revyakin V.A. et al., Stress-corrosion fracture of electric-welded pipes in the high-aggressiveness oilfield mediums (In Russ.), Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov, 2012, no. 10, pp. 22–28.
4. Vyboyshchik M.A., Ioffe A.V., Borisenkova E.A. et al., Corrosion damage of oil line pipes from chromium-molybdenum-containing steels under conditions of high aggressiveness of produced medium (In Russ.), Metallovedenie i termicheskaya obrabotka metallov, 2012, no. 10, pp. 29–33.
5. Vyboyshchik M.A., Zyryanov A.O., Gruzkov I.V., Fedotova A.V., Carbon dioxide corrosion of oilfield casing and tubular goods in media saturated with H2S and Cl (In Russ.), Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gos. Universiteta, 2019, no. 2(48), pp. 6–17.
6. Bosch C., Jansen J-P., Poepperling R.K., Influence of chromium contents of 0,5 to 1,0 % on the corrosion behavior of low alloy steels for large – diameter pipes in CO2 containing aqueous media, Corrosion, 2003, ðaper no. 03118, pp. 1–19.
7. Sun J., Sun C., Lin X. et al., Effect of chromium on corrosion behavior of P110 steels in CO2–H2S environment with high pressure and high temperature, Materials, 2016, V. 9, no. 3, 200 p., DOI: 10.3390/ma90302008. Ko M., Ingham B., Laycock N., Williams D.E., In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the effect of chromium additions to the steel and solution on CO2 corrosion of pipeline steels, Corrosion Science, 2014, V. 80, pp. 237–246, DOI:10.1016/j.corsci.2013.11.035
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In the process of hydrocarbon production, all components of natural media are exposed: atmospheric air, soil-vegetation cover, surface waters, including bottom deposits. Under the conditions of medium acquisition with its high wetlastivity and climbing, it is the greamp-lake ecosystems that are most vulnerable in the process of human activity. This fully applies to the territory of the Vostochno-Mytaiahinskoye oil field developed since 2009. In the landscaped structure of this field, the lake-marsh complexes occupy 77 % of the territory. In the process of oil and gas production, the impact is accompanied by a change in the appearance of landscapes and the initial geochemical environment. On some components of nature (soil and vegetable cover), the impact is limited by construction sites, on the other (water medium) it is somewhat larger due to the characteristics of the natural component. Therefore, careful attitude towards the environment is the basic principle of sustainable development of Surgutneftegas PJSC. In all areas of subsoil subsoil, research is conducted to determine the environmental impact through environmental monitoring. The research results include the definition of both the background and current state, which makes it possible to determine the degree and consequences of the effects of oil and gas production on the environment. The analysis of the current state of natural media of the territory of the Vostochno-Mytakhinskoye field made it possible to establish, the presence of biogenous substances, some heavy metals and other chemicals, the content of which in certain periods exceeds the established standards of maximum permissible concentrations. This is characteristic not only for this field, but also for other deposits in the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous district - Yugra and other regions of Russia, where hydrocarbon production is not conducted. This is due to the natural features of the terrain and processes flowing in the depths of the Earth.
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The article presents examples of the installation of overground crossings of oil and gas pipelines through water barriers using steels C345 / C355, C 390, C440. For crossings, as for objects with an increased level of responsibility, requirements are presented on the need to ensure resistance to progressive collapse. Compliance analysis of high-strength steels according to GOST 27772-2021 "Rolled products for building steel structures" to the requirements of SP 16.13330.2017 "Steel structures" in terms of chemical composition, carbon equivalent, impact strength. The requirements for steels for construction areas with operating temperatures from -45 to minus -55˚C are given. The issue of weldability of high-strength steels between themselves and with high-strength steels is considered. On the example of the crossing of an oil pipeline with a diameter of DN500 and a length of 90 m, an analysis was made of the feasibility of using high-strength steels. The use of C390 steel makes it possible to reduce the cost and metal consumption of solutions by more than 25% compared to C345 steels. In the future, when using C440 steels for shaped profiles, it will be possible to reduce the metal consumption of similar transitions by more than 40% due to an increase in the strength of the steel. The analysis of calculations for resistance to progressive collapse is carried out. The calculation prerequisites for solving problems of dynamic formulation in accordance with SP 385.1325800.2018, SP 296.1325800.2017 are presented. When calculating the transition to progressive collapse, design situations with the exclusion of the support brace and the exclusion of the element of the lower chord are taken into account. To improve the quality of solutions, calculations were performed in 3 different software products, which showed sufficient convergence of the results. The calculation in the software packages MicroFe-StaDiCon 2021, STARK ES 2021, LIRA 10.12 was performed in a nonlinear formulation by a static method. Calculations in SP LIRA 10.12 were additionally performed in the dynamic formulation of the problem.
1. Drobot D.Yu., Vozmozhnye tekhnologii rascheta na progressiruyushchee obrushenie (Possible technologies for calculating progressive collapse), Moscow: Izdatel'skie resheniya Publ., 2020, 264 p.
2. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2020618505 “Svaya-SAPR Pro”, Authors: Medyanik S.S., Kesiyan G.A, Dubrov A.D., Zenkov E.V., Zagumennikova A.V., Poverennyy Yu.S., Fedoseenko V.O., Gilev N.G.
3. Certificate of official registration of the computer program no. 2021616474 “TsMLO”, Authors: Dubrov A.D., Poverennyy Yu.S., Gilev N.G., Zenkov E.V., Yargunina A.O.
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Kononenko Tatyana Vitalyevna (1957–2022)
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