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Justification of normative standards concerning residual oil content in industrial soils in the Republic of Tatarstan after recultivation and soil remediation operations

UDK: 502.55:622.276 + 631.4
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2019-7-55-59
Key words: soils, industrial land, recultivation and soil remediation
Authors: P.N. Kubarev (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), I.A. Shaidullina (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), V.Z. Latypova (Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, RF, Kazan), N.A. Antonov (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), N.E. Belyaeva (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma), D.I. Sibgatova (TatNIPIneft, RF, Bugulma)

The paper presents justification for normative standards concerning permissible residual oil content and products of its transformation in industrial soils after recultivation and soil remediation operations. The test objects were samples of soils with background matter content and recultivated soils of nine types collected on the territories of Tatneft PJSC E&P activities, as well as model samples contaminated with the most toxic sulfur crude oil produced from the Carboniferous reservoirs. The model samples met the requirements concerning the content of dissolved solids of aqueous extracts of soils, chlorides, sulfates, and heavy metals. The experimental justification of normative standards was based on four basic nuisance values: migratory aqueous, migratory air, translocation, and general sanitary nuisance values, in compliance with the principles of regulation of industrial lands’ soils. General sanitary tests using oil-contaminated model soil samples included determination of population of main groups of soil micro-organisms: heterotrophs, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, spore-forming actinomycetes, micromycetes, nitrogen fixers, I phase nitrifiers; fermentation activity of soil microflora (urease and catalase); parameters of soil respiration (basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, content of carbon in bacterial biomass, coefficient of bacterial respiration); biotesting of aqueous extracts of model soils using monocotyledon seeds (spring wheat, Triticum vulgare L.); biotesting of aqueous extracts of model soils to determine presence of Ceriodaphnia affinis and Paramecium caudatum; determination of acute toxicity using monocotyledon seeds (Triticum vulgare L.) and chronic phytotoxicity using higher monocotyledon (Triticum vulgare L.) and dicotyledon (field pea, Pisum sativum L.) plants. As a target normative standard, the least content of oil products was selected out of the experimental data on the four nuisance values. When establishing normative standards concerning permissible residual concentration of oil products in soils, it was found that the migratory aqueous and the migratory air nuisance values are not limiting in the tested range of concentrations, while the general sanitary nuisance value is limiting. Based on the results of the surveys considering the limiting content of oil products in the model soil samples and taking into account the assumed error (25 %) for the methods to determine the mass fraction of oil products in soil for the purpose of the state ecological monitoring, we recommend the following normative standards concerning permissible concentration of oil products for Tatarstan soils: 10 g/kg for soddy-calcimorphic leached, light-gray forest soil; 11 g/kg for soddy-calcimorphic podzolized, sod-podzol, gray forest soil, dark-gray forest soil; 12 g/kg for typical black humus earth (chernozem), leached and podzolized.

References

1. Ibragimov N.G., Gareev R.M., Ismagilov I.F., Kubarev P.N., Shaydullina I.A., Regulatory support for reclamation of disturbed and oil-contaminated soils in Tatneft PJSC assets (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 74–77.

2. Malykhina L.V., Shaydullina I.A., Kolesnikova N.E., Antonov N.A., Working out of measures on recultivation of soils disturbed under the construction and operation of oil-field facilities (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2012, no. 10, pp. 10–13.

3. Shaydullina I.A., Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.D., Latypova V.Z., Gadieva E.Sh., Recultivation of oil-contaminated lands by example of leached black humus earth of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 102–105.

4. Ibatullin R.R., Mutin I.I., Iskhakova N.M., Shaydullina I.A., Sakhabutdinov K.G., Pavlyuk N.V., Development of a standard for the permissible residual oil content for leached chernozems of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Interval, 2006, no. 2, pp. 10–16.

5. Shaydullina I.A., Tipovoy proekt rekul'tivatsii narushennykh zemel' (kategorii “zemli promyshlennosti”) (Typical reclamation of disturbed land (category "industrial land")), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2013, 26 p.

6. Shaydullina I.A., Normirovanie i minimizatsiya obrazovaniya i opasnosti neftezagryaznennykh pochv dlya prirodnoy sredy (na primere OAO “Tatneft'”) (Normalization and minimization of the formation and danger of oil contaminated soils for the natural environment (by the example of Tatneft)): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Kazan', 2006.

7. Shoba S.A., Trofimov S.Ya., Avetov N.A. et al., Ekologicheskoe normirovanie soderzhaniya nefti v pochvakh taezhnoy zony Zapadnoy Sibiri (Ecological rationing of the oil content in the soils of the taiga zone of Western Siberia), Collected papers “Novye tekhnologii dlya ochistki neftezagryaznennykh vod, pochv, pererabotki i utilizatsii nefteshlamov” (New technologies for the purification of oil-polluted water, soil, processing and disposal of oil sludge) Proceedings of International Conference, Moscow, 10–11 December 2001, Moscow: Noosfera Publ., 2001, pp. 125–127.

8. Yakovlev A.S., Nikulina Yu.G., Evdokimova M.V., Printsipy ekologicheskogo normirovaniya pochv zemel' raznogo khozyaystvennogo naznacheniya (Principles of ecological rationing of soils in lands of various economic purposes), Collected papers “Fundamental'nye dostizheniya v pochvovedenii, ekologii, sel'skom khozyaystve na puti k innovatsiyam” (Fundamental achievements in soil science, ecology, agriculture on the way to innovations), Proceedings of I All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, 23–25 April 2008, Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2008, pp. 291–292.

9. Ekologicheskoe normirovanie i upravlenie kachestvom pochv i zemel' (Ecological rationing and soil and land quality management): edited by Shoba S.A., Yakovlev A.S., Rybal'skiy N.G., Moscow: NIA-Priroda Publ., 2013, 309 p.

10. Kovaleva E.I., Yakovlev A.S., Scientific approaches to rationing of petroleum contaminations of soils (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2016, V. 20, no. 10, pp. 50–57.

11. Shagidullin R.R., Latypova V.Z., Ivanov D.V. et al., The rationing of allowable residue of petroleum and its transformation products in soils (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2011, no. 5 (41), pp. 2–5.

12. Blagodatskaya E.V., Anan'eva N.D., Myakshina T.N., Characteristics of soil microbial community by the metabolic coefficient Ye (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie, 1995, no. 2, pp. 205–210.

13. Petrov A.M., Zaynulgabidinov E.R., Shagidullin R.R. et al., Development of standards for permissible residual content of oil and its transformation products in soils for the forest fund lands of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2013, V. 16, no. 20, pp. 265–270.

The paper presents justification for normative standards concerning permissible residual oil content and products of its transformation in industrial soils after recultivation and soil remediation operations. The test objects were samples of soils with background matter content and recultivated soils of nine types collected on the territories of Tatneft PJSC E&P activities, as well as model samples contaminated with the most toxic sulfur crude oil produced from the Carboniferous reservoirs. The model samples met the requirements concerning the content of dissolved solids of aqueous extracts of soils, chlorides, sulfates, and heavy metals. The experimental justification of normative standards was based on four basic nuisance values: migratory aqueous, migratory air, translocation, and general sanitary nuisance values, in compliance with the principles of regulation of industrial lands’ soils. General sanitary tests using oil-contaminated model soil samples included determination of population of main groups of soil micro-organisms: heterotrophs, hydrocarbon-oxidizing, spore-forming actinomycetes, micromycetes, nitrogen fixers, I phase nitrifiers; fermentation activity of soil microflora (urease and catalase); parameters of soil respiration (basal respiration, substrate-induced respiration, content of carbon in bacterial biomass, coefficient of bacterial respiration); biotesting of aqueous extracts of model soils using monocotyledon seeds (spring wheat, Triticum vulgare L.); biotesting of aqueous extracts of model soils to determine presence of Ceriodaphnia affinis and Paramecium caudatum; determination of acute toxicity using monocotyledon seeds (Triticum vulgare L.) and chronic phytotoxicity using higher monocotyledon (Triticum vulgare L.) and dicotyledon (field pea, Pisum sativum L.) plants. As a target normative standard, the least content of oil products was selected out of the experimental data on the four nuisance values. When establishing normative standards concerning permissible residual concentration of oil products in soils, it was found that the migratory aqueous and the migratory air nuisance values are not limiting in the tested range of concentrations, while the general sanitary nuisance value is limiting. Based on the results of the surveys considering the limiting content of oil products in the model soil samples and taking into account the assumed error (25 %) for the methods to determine the mass fraction of oil products in soil for the purpose of the state ecological monitoring, we recommend the following normative standards concerning permissible concentration of oil products for Tatarstan soils: 10 g/kg for soddy-calcimorphic leached, light-gray forest soil; 11 g/kg for soddy-calcimorphic podzolized, sod-podzol, gray forest soil, dark-gray forest soil; 12 g/kg for typical black humus earth (chernozem), leached and podzolized.

References

1. Ibragimov N.G., Gareev R.M., Ismagilov I.F., Kubarev P.N., Shaydullina I.A., Regulatory support for reclamation of disturbed and oil-contaminated soils in Tatneft PJSC assets (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2017, no. 5, pp. 74–77.

2. Malykhina L.V., Shaydullina I.A., Kolesnikova N.E., Antonov N.A., Working out of measures on recultivation of soils disturbed under the construction and operation of oil-field facilities (In Russ.), Zashchita okruzhayushchey sredy v neftegazovom komplekse, 2012, no. 10, pp. 10–13.

3. Shaydullina I.A., Yapparov A.Kh., Degtyareva I.D., Latypova V.Z., Gadieva E.Sh., Recultivation of oil-contaminated lands by example of leached black humus earth of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Neftyanoe khozyaystvo = Oil Industry, 2015, no. 3, pp. 102–105.

4. Ibatullin R.R., Mutin I.I., Iskhakova N.M., Shaydullina I.A., Sakhabutdinov K.G., Pavlyuk N.V., Development of a standard for the permissible residual oil content for leached chernozems of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Interval, 2006, no. 2, pp. 10–16.

5. Shaydullina I.A., Tipovoy proekt rekul'tivatsii narushennykh zemel' (kategorii “zemli promyshlennosti”) (Typical reclamation of disturbed land (category "industrial land")), Bugul'ma: Publ. of TatNIPIneft', 2013, 26 p.

6. Shaydullina I.A., Normirovanie i minimizatsiya obrazovaniya i opasnosti neftezagryaznennykh pochv dlya prirodnoy sredy (na primere OAO “Tatneft'”) (Normalization and minimization of the formation and danger of oil contaminated soils for the natural environment (by the example of Tatneft)): thesis of candidate of chemical science, Kazan', 2006.

7. Shoba S.A., Trofimov S.Ya., Avetov N.A. et al., Ekologicheskoe normirovanie soderzhaniya nefti v pochvakh taezhnoy zony Zapadnoy Sibiri (Ecological rationing of the oil content in the soils of the taiga zone of Western Siberia), Collected papers “Novye tekhnologii dlya ochistki neftezagryaznennykh vod, pochv, pererabotki i utilizatsii nefteshlamov” (New technologies for the purification of oil-polluted water, soil, processing and disposal of oil sludge) Proceedings of International Conference, Moscow, 10–11 December 2001, Moscow: Noosfera Publ., 2001, pp. 125–127.

8. Yakovlev A.S., Nikulina Yu.G., Evdokimova M.V., Printsipy ekologicheskogo normirovaniya pochv zemel' raznogo khozyaystvennogo naznacheniya (Principles of ecological rationing of soils in lands of various economic purposes), Collected papers “Fundamental'nye dostizheniya v pochvovedenii, ekologii, sel'skom khozyaystve na puti k innovatsiyam” (Fundamental achievements in soil science, ecology, agriculture on the way to innovations), Proceedings of I All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference, 23–25 April 2008, Moscow: MAKS Press Publ., 2008, pp. 291–292.

9. Ekologicheskoe normirovanie i upravlenie kachestvom pochv i zemel' (Ecological rationing and soil and land quality management): edited by Shoba S.A., Yakovlev A.S., Rybal'skiy N.G., Moscow: NIA-Priroda Publ., 2013, 309 p.

10. Kovaleva E.I., Yakovlev A.S., Scientific approaches to rationing of petroleum contaminations of soils (In Russ.), Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii, 2016, V. 20, no. 10, pp. 50–57.

11. Shagidullin R.R., Latypova V.Z., Ivanov D.V. et al., The rationing of allowable residue of petroleum and its transformation products in soils (In Russ.), Georesursy = Georesources, 2011, no. 5 (41), pp. 2–5.

12. Blagodatskaya E.V., Anan'eva N.D., Myakshina T.N., Characteristics of soil microbial community by the metabolic coefficient Ye (In Russ.), Pochvovedenie, 1995, no. 2, pp. 205–210.

13. Petrov A.M., Zaynulgabidinov E.R., Shagidullin R.R. et al., Development of standards for permissible residual content of oil and its transformation products in soils for the forest fund lands of the Republic of Tatarstan (In Russ.), Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta, 2013, V. 16, no. 20, pp. 265–270.


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