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New electromagnetic tool for high-resolution logging: from theoretical substantiation to downhole testing

UDK: 550.834.05
DOI: 10.24887/0028-2448-2018-11-23-27
Key words: high-resolution logging, toroidal coils, electrical resistivity, electrical anisotropy, numerical simulation and inversion, oil saturation, complex reservoir
Authors: M.I. Epov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), V.N. Glinskikh (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), V.N. Eremin (SPE «Looch», RF, Novosibirsk), I.V. Mikhaylov (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), M.N. Nikitenko (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), S.V. Osipov (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow), A.N. Petrov (SPE «Looch», RF, Novosibirsk), I.V. Surodina (Trofimuk Institute of Petroleum Geology and Geophysics, Siberian Branch of RAS, RF, Novosibirsk), V.M. Yatsenko (Rosneft Oil Company, RF, Moscow)

At the request of Rosneft Oil Company, theoretical substantiation, design and development of an electromagnetic tool based on a new configuration of a measurement system is carried out. Multiplesonde multi-frequency electromagnetic well logging instrument with toroidal generator and receiver coils is targeted at studying the macro-anisotropic properties of complex oil and gas reservoirs. With the application of the measurement system with toroidal coils, an electromagnetic field is excited in the near-wellbore environment, depending on both the horizontal and vertical electrical resistivity. We have developed complexes of algorithms and programs for simulation, processing and inversion of signals of the electromagnetic tool in spatially inhomogeneous anisotropic media. On the basis of large-scale numerical simulation in realistic models of geological environment, we have studied the electromagnetic signals, concluded about the high spatial resolution of the tool, and substantiated its optimal configuration, which includes sonde spacings, operating frequencies, types of measured signals and operating modes. The electromagnetic tool has been extensively tested on laboratory stands and in real borehole conditions. We have conducted successful pilot tests in terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs of the Volga-Ural petroleum province. Moreover, we have accomplished the quantitative interpretation of logs of the electromagnetic tool at intervals of sandy-argillaceous reservoirs, and have shown that taking account of clay content according to its data leads to an increase in the oil saturation factor up to 10 % compared to traditional electrologging methods.

References

1. Rytov S.M., Electromagnetic properties of a thin layer medium (In Russ.), Zhurnal eksperimental'noy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1955, 29, no. 5, pp. 605–616.

2. Al'pin L.M., Determination of lateral resistivity of formations from measurements in wells (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 1978, no. 4, pp. 81–95.

3. Gomes R.M. et al., Using multicomponent induction log data to enhance formation evaluation in deepwater reservoirs from Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, Proceedings of SPWLA 43rd Annual Logging Symposium, 2-5 June 2002, Oiso, Japan.

4. Clavaud J. et al., Field example of enhanced hydrocarbon estimation in thinly laminated formation with a triaxial array induction tool: a laminated sand-shale analysis with anisotropic shale, Proceedings of SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, 26-29 June 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.

5. Karinskiy A.D., Solutions of forward problems for the toroidal antenna field in an anisotropic medium (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2003, no. 1, pp. 9–20.

6. Mogilatov V.S., Borisov G.A., Excitation of layered geoelectric media by a harmonic magnetic current (In Russ.), Sibirskiy zhurnal industrial'noy matematiki = Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics, 2003, V. 6, no. 1, pp. 77–87.

7. Bittar M.S., Hu G., The effects of rock anisotropy on LWD toroidal resistivity sensors, Proceedings of SPWLA 45th Annual Logging Symposium, 6–9 June 2004 Noordwijk, the Netherlands.

8. Gianzero S., The paradox of anisotropy revisited, The Log Analyst, 1999, V. 40, no. 6, pp. 485–491.

9. Hu G., Bittar M., Hou J., Evaluation of horizontal wells using LWD propagation resistivity and laterolog-type resistivity logs, SPE 103150-MS, 2006.

10. Patent no. 2528276 RF, Apparatus for measuring specific conductivity and electrical macroanisotropy of rocks, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Manshteyn A.K., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N.

11. Patent no. 2578774 RF, Device for detecting electromagnetic field characteristics using toroidal coils, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N., Surodina I.V., Kiselev V.V., Nikitenko M.N.

12. Patent no. 2583867 RF, Electromagnetic probe for logging in oil and gas wells, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N.

At the request of Rosneft Oil Company, theoretical substantiation, design and development of an electromagnetic tool based on a new configuration of a measurement system is carried out. Multiplesonde multi-frequency electromagnetic well logging instrument with toroidal generator and receiver coils is targeted at studying the macro-anisotropic properties of complex oil and gas reservoirs. With the application of the measurement system with toroidal coils, an electromagnetic field is excited in the near-wellbore environment, depending on both the horizontal and vertical electrical resistivity. We have developed complexes of algorithms and programs for simulation, processing and inversion of signals of the electromagnetic tool in spatially inhomogeneous anisotropic media. On the basis of large-scale numerical simulation in realistic models of geological environment, we have studied the electromagnetic signals, concluded about the high spatial resolution of the tool, and substantiated its optimal configuration, which includes sonde spacings, operating frequencies, types of measured signals and operating modes. The electromagnetic tool has been extensively tested on laboratory stands and in real borehole conditions. We have conducted successful pilot tests in terrigenous and carbonate reservoirs of the Volga-Ural petroleum province. Moreover, we have accomplished the quantitative interpretation of logs of the electromagnetic tool at intervals of sandy-argillaceous reservoirs, and have shown that taking account of clay content according to its data leads to an increase in the oil saturation factor up to 10 % compared to traditional electrologging methods.

References

1. Rytov S.M., Electromagnetic properties of a thin layer medium (In Russ.), Zhurnal eksperimental'noy i teoreticheskoy fiziki, 1955, 29, no. 5, pp. 605–616.

2. Al'pin L.M., Determination of lateral resistivity of formations from measurements in wells (In Russ.), Izvestiya vuzov. Geologiya i razvedka, 1978, no. 4, pp. 81–95.

3. Gomes R.M. et al., Using multicomponent induction log data to enhance formation evaluation in deepwater reservoirs from Campos Basin, offshore Brazil, Proceedings of SPWLA 43rd Annual Logging Symposium, 2-5 June 2002, Oiso, Japan.

4. Clavaud J. et al., Field example of enhanced hydrocarbon estimation in thinly laminated formation with a triaxial array induction tool: a laminated sand-shale analysis with anisotropic shale, Proceedings of SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, 26-29 June 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.

5. Karinskiy A.D., Solutions of forward problems for the toroidal antenna field in an anisotropic medium (In Russ.), Fizika Zemli = Izvestiya. Physics of the Solid Earth, 2003, no. 1, pp. 9–20.

6. Mogilatov V.S., Borisov G.A., Excitation of layered geoelectric media by a harmonic magnetic current (In Russ.), Sibirskiy zhurnal industrial'noy matematiki = Journal of Applied and Industrial Mathematics, 2003, V. 6, no. 1, pp. 77–87.

7. Bittar M.S., Hu G., The effects of rock anisotropy on LWD toroidal resistivity sensors, Proceedings of SPWLA 45th Annual Logging Symposium, 6–9 June 2004 Noordwijk, the Netherlands.

8. Gianzero S., The paradox of anisotropy revisited, The Log Analyst, 1999, V. 40, no. 6, pp. 485–491.

9. Hu G., Bittar M., Hou J., Evaluation of horizontal wells using LWD propagation resistivity and laterolog-type resistivity logs, SPE 103150-MS, 2006.

10. Patent no. 2528276 RF, Apparatus for measuring specific conductivity and electrical macroanisotropy of rocks, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Manshteyn A.K., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N.

11. Patent no. 2578774 RF, Device for detecting electromagnetic field characteristics using toroidal coils, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N., Surodina I.V., Kiselev V.V., Nikitenko M.N.

12. Patent no. 2583867 RF, Electromagnetic probe for logging in oil and gas wells, Inventors: Epov M.I., Eremin V.N., Petrov A.N., Glinskikh V.N.


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