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Using gas hood for protection of oil-tanker terminals from the hydraulic shocks

Authors: N.S. Arbuzov, M.N. Fedoseyev (IMS Industries Ltd, RF, Moscow), M.V. Lurye (Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, RF, Moscow)

Key words: oil-tanker terminal, tank, oil-loading pipeline, pressure, hydraulic shock, pressure surge, gas hood, safety valve, the protection system, mathematical simulation, method of characteristics.

Protection of oil-loading pipelines of the tanker-terminals against hydraulic pressure surge by using devices called вАШgas hoodвАЩ is studied in this paper. The gas hood is a residential dampener tank are usually 5-20 m3 (in the simplest case it is short segment of a pipe closed at one end) partially filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen. This device is intended to protect the oil-loading pipeline against the leaks of oil or oil product to the sea water occurring as result of a hydraulic shock arising in the event of an emergency when valves are fast closed down. The hood has a gas trap for an emergency discharge of the oil into the tank in the event of hydraulic shock. The advantage of these devices to other systems for the same purpose is that they avoid the installation of cumbersome open containers for receiving liquids and pumps for pumping it back into the pipeline. The volume of the gas hood and the initial gas pressure therein to reduce pressure in the oil-loading pipeline to an acceptable value is determined in this article. In particular, it is shown that the combined protection system, consisting from two gas hoods (on the quay and on the coast) has a higher efficiency with a smaller volume tank, installed at the quay.
References
1. Rakhmatullin Sh.I., Gumerov A.G., Verushin A.Yu., Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov - Problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2009, V. 2 (76), pp. 76вАУ78.
2. Arbuzov N.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Ц Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 129Ц131.
3. Aronovich G.V., Kartvelishvili N.A., Lyubimtsev Ya.K., Gidravlicheskiy udar i uravnitel'nye rezervuary (Water hammer and surge tanks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, 248 p.
4. Streeter V.L., Wylie E.V., Hydraulic transients, NY: Ms Graw-Yill, 1967, 327 p.
5. Fox J.A., Hydraulic analysis of unsteady flow in pipe networks, The Macmillan Press, 1977, 234 p.
6. Polyanskaya L.V., Issledovanie nestatsionarnykh protsessov pri izmenenii
rezhima raboty nefteprovodov s tsentrobezhnymi nasosami (Study of unsteady
processes in oil pipeline has operational changes with centrifugal
pumps): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1965.
7. Lur'e M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of processes
of oil and gas pipeline transport), Publ. of RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2012, 456 p.

Key words: oil-tanker terminal, tank, oil-loading pipeline, pressure, hydraulic shock, pressure surge, gas hood, safety valve, the protection system, mathematical simulation, method of characteristics.

Protection of oil-loading pipelines of the tanker-terminals against hydraulic pressure surge by using devices called вАШgas hoodвАЩ is studied in this paper. The gas hood is a residential dampener tank are usually 5-20 m3 (in the simplest case it is short segment of a pipe closed at one end) partially filled with an inert gas such as nitrogen. This device is intended to protect the oil-loading pipeline against the leaks of oil or oil product to the sea water occurring as result of a hydraulic shock arising in the event of an emergency when valves are fast closed down. The hood has a gas trap for an emergency discharge of the oil into the tank in the event of hydraulic shock. The advantage of these devices to other systems for the same purpose is that they avoid the installation of cumbersome open containers for receiving liquids and pumps for pumping it back into the pipeline. The volume of the gas hood and the initial gas pressure therein to reduce pressure in the oil-loading pipeline to an acceptable value is determined in this article. In particular, it is shown that the combined protection system, consisting from two gas hoods (on the quay and on the coast) has a higher efficiency with a smaller volume tank, installed at the quay.
References
1. Rakhmatullin Sh.I., Gumerov A.G., Verushin A.Yu., Problemy sbora, podgotovki i transporta nefti i nefteproduktov - Problems of gathering, treatment and transportation of oil and oil products, 2009, V. 2 (76), pp. 76вАУ78.
2. Arbuzov N.S., Neftyanoe khozyaystvo Ц Oil Industry, 2011, no. 4, pp. 129Ц131.
3. Aronovich G.V., Kartvelishvili N.A., Lyubimtsev Ya.K., Gidravlicheskiy udar i uravnitel'nye rezervuary (Water hammer and surge tanks), Moscow: Nauka Publ., 1968, 248 p.
4. Streeter V.L., Wylie E.V., Hydraulic transients, NY: Ms Graw-Yill, 1967, 327 p.
5. Fox J.A., Hydraulic analysis of unsteady flow in pipe networks, The Macmillan Press, 1977, 234 p.
6. Polyanskaya L.V., Issledovanie nestatsionarnykh protsessov pri izmenenii
rezhima raboty nefteprovodov s tsentrobezhnymi nasosami (Study of unsteady
processes in oil pipeline has operational changes with centrifugal
pumps): Thesis of candidate of technical science, Moscow, 1965.
7. Lur'e M.V., Matematicheskoe modelirovanie protsessov truboprovodnogo
transporta nefti, nefteproduktov i gaza (Mathematical modeling of processes
of oil and gas pipeline transport), Publ. of RGU nefti i gaza imeni I.M. Gubkina, 2012, 456 p.


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